Isoflavone consumption and risk of breast cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies
Research Center for Nutrition and Food Safety, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Safety, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038, China. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
(Impact Factor: 1.7).
01/2013; 22(1):118-27. DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.1.16
Epidemiologic studies that examine whether isoflavone consumption protects against breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. The controversy focuses on the effects of the menopausal status and exposure dose of isoflavone. We aim to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk by comprehensively assessing isoflavone exposure in the targeted populations. We searched PUBMED and EMBASE databases for case-control and cohort studies that assess the association between isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk. We extracted relative risks (RR) and odds ratios (OR) of different reported categories of isoflavone intake from each study. Fixed- or random-effects models were used to summarize dose-response data. Twenty-two studies were selected for the meta-analysis. Overall, the results showed that isoflavone reduced the breast cancer risk (a combined RR/OR of 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89) in Asian populations rather than Western populations (a combined RR/OR of 0.98, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.11) for the high-dose category. Further analysis showed that the intake of isoflavone in postmenopausal Asian women 0.46 (95% CI: 0.28-0.78) was better than premenopausal 0.63 (95% CI: 0.50-0.80) but similar in postmenopausal Western women 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.02) and premenopausal 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87-1.12). Exposure to high isoflavone may be associated with a reduced breast cancer risk in Asian populations, especially in postmenopausal women. However, no significant difference in the studies of Western populations may be due to the low intake of isoflavone levels.
Available from: Beate C Litzenburger
- "Although there is a strong interest in using more than one-hundred natural compounds  for cancer prevention, none of these dietary agents has been shown to consistently prevent breast cancer. Some of the most promising compounds include catechins (e.g., epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), green tea extract) , curcumin , luteolin , carotenoids , omega-3-fatty acids , resveratrol [112–114], soy isoflavones [115, 116], and vitamin D [117, 118]. For example, green tea intake has been associated with reduced incidence of breast cancer, and a recent phase IB dose-escalation trial using 400–800 mg EGCG among women with a history of stage I to III hormone receptor-negative breast cancer demonstrated that this natural compound is well tolerated  (Table 2). "
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ABSTRACT: Preventing breast cancer is an effective strategy for reducing breast cancer deaths. The purpose of chemoprevention (also termed preventive therapy) is to reduce cancer incidence by use of natural, synthetic, or biological agents. The efficacy of tamoxifen, raloxifene, and exemestane as preventive therapy against estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer is well established for women at increased risk for breast cancer. However, because breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, distinct preventive approaches may be required for effective prevention of each subtype. Current research is, therefore, focused on identifying alternative mechanisms by which biologically active compounds can reduce the risk of all breast cancer subtypes including ER-negative breast cancer. Promising agents are currently being developed for prevention of HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and include inhibitors of the ErbB family receptors, COX-2 inhibitors, metformin, retinoids, statins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, and natural compounds. This review focuses on recent progress in research to develop more effective preventive agents, in particular for prevention of ER-negative breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Soy isoflavones are compounds found in soybean and soybean products. They have been reported to possess numerous physiological properties, such as antitumor, anti-menopausal (female) osteoporosis and anti-aging. They have also been reported to improve learning and memory skills in menopausal women and aid in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, diabetes and Kawasaki disease (KD). In this review, the effects of soy isoflavones on various diseases were analyzed. Based on the analysis, it was hypothesized that the function of soybean isoflavones in the prevention and treatment of various diseases results from their phytoestrogen and antioxidant properties. However, due to their phytoestrogen properties, it is recommended that the risks of soy isoflavone intake as food and/or medical treatment be further evaluated.
Available from: PubMed Central
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ABSTRACT: Conclusions drawn from meta-analyses on the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre- and post-menopausal women are not fully consistent. These meta-analyses did not explore the influence of different study designs on the pooled results on the basis of distinguishing between pre- and post-menopausal women.
We performed a meta-analysis of 35 studies which reported results of association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre- and/or post-menopausal women, calculated pooled odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of pre- and post-menopausal women respectively, and further explored soy isoflavone-breast cancer association on the basis of considering different study regions and designs. Summary results suggested that soy isoflavone intake has a protective effect against breast cancer for both pre- and post-menopausal women. However, they are influenced by study design and region. Pooled ORs of studies carried out in Asian countries suggested that soy isoflavone's protective effect exist in both pre- and post-menopausal women (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.48-0.69 for premenopausal women; OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.44-0.74 for postmenopausal women). However, there are some differences between the results pooled from different study designs for women in Asian countries (test for consistency, P = 0.04). Pooled OR of studies on postmenopausal women in Western countries suggested that soy isoflavone intake has a marginally significant protective effect (OR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.83∼1.00), but further analyses stratifying by study design found no statistically significant association.
We meta-analyzed more and newer research results, and separated women according to menopausal status to explore soy isoflavone-breast cancer association. We founded that soy isoflavone intake could lower the risk of breast cancer for both pre- and post-menopausal women in Asian countries. However, for women in Western countries, pre- or post-menopausal, there is no evidence to suggest an association between intake of soy isoflavone and breast cancer.
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