Molecular-based surveillance of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand - From source attribution to genomic epidemiology

Epi-interactive, Miramar, Wellington, New Zealand.
Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (Impact Factor: 5.72). 01/2013; 18(3).
Source: PubMed


Molecular-based surveillance of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand contributed to the implementation of interventions that led to a 50% reduction in notified and hospitalised cases of the country's most important zoonosis. From a pre-intervention high of 384 per 100,000 population in 2006, incidence dropped by 50% in 2008; a reduction that has been sustained since. This article illustrates many aspects of the successful use of molecular-based surveillance, including the distinction between control-focused and strategyfocused surveillance and advances in source attribution. We discuss how microbial genetic data can enhance the understanding of epidemiological explanatory and response variables and thereby enrich the epidemiological analysis. Sequence data can be fitted to evolutionary and epidemiological models to gain new insights into pathogen evolution, the nature of associations between strains of pathogens and host species, and aspects of between-host transmission. With the advent of newer sequencing technologies and the availability of rapid, high-coverage genome sequence data, such techniques may be extended and refined within the emerging discipline of genomic epidemiology. The aim of this article is to summarise the experience gained in New Zealand with molecular- based surveillance of campylobacteriosis and to discuss how this experience could be used to further advance the use of molecular tools in surveillance.

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Available from: Nigel P French, Jan 05, 2014
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    • "Molecular or phenotypic markers selected for epidemiological investigation should provide enough differentiation to separate, for instance, outbreak and non-outbreak isolates. Source tracking initiatives have also found it useful to group larger populations into clones or lineages that are specific for particular animals or environmental niches (Muellner et al., 2013; Sheppard et al., 2010). For many pathogens, molecular typing is performed in the context of outbreak investigation and the rapidity of the response becomes the most important consideration to minimize the ultimate impact of an emerging outbreak (Boxrud et al., 2010; Hedberg et al., 2008). "
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