Choosing adolescent smokers as friends: The role of parenting and parental smoking

Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Electronic address: .
Journal of Adolescence (Impact Factor: 2.05). 01/2013; 36(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.004
Source: PubMed


The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2 years) during spring 2006. Follow-up was conducted 12 months later. Data was analyzed conducting longitudinal social network analyses. Results showed adolescents perceiving high parental psychological control had a significant higher tendency to select smoking friends. Perceived behavioral control and perceived parental support did not affect the selection of smoking friends. Furthermore, maternal smoking behavior affected the selection of smoking friends, although no effect of paternal smoking behavior on the selection of smoking friends was found. Adolescent smoking prevention efforts should focus on the influence of parents through their smoking behavior and their psychological control to decrease adolescents' tendency to select smoking friends resulting in fewer opportunities for negative peer influences to occur.

    • "The most important of them was the smoking status of parents, friends, and classmates (Conrad et al., 1992; Tyas and Pederson, 1998; Kremers et al., 2001). It is well documented that parents have a principal role in modeling and promoting the development of their children's behavior (Mercken et al., 2013), including smoking (Harakeh et al., 2005; Peterson et al., 2006; Bricker et al., 2007). Adolescents who regularly see their parents smoking develop the perception that smoking is a normal and are more likely to start smoking (Bricker et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of discussion within family about the harmful effects of smoking on intention to initiate smoking in the long term among nonsmoking adolescents. Methods: Data from Global Youth Tobacco Survey for 25 European countries were used. The outcomes of interest were, therefore, the intention to initiate smoking 1 and 5 years after the survey. Discussion within family about harmful effect of smoking was the main predictor with age, sex, and smoking status of parents, friends, and classmates as covariates. The association between predictors and outcomes was assessed through multiple regression analysis. Results: A total of 118,703 nonsmoking adolescents were included. Within-family discussion significantly reduced the odds of intention to initiate smoking 1 and 5 years later. Intention to initiate smoking also was significantly associated with the smoking status of friends, classmates, and parents, except for father's smoking status, which was not associated with intention to initiate 1 year later. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that within-family discussion about the harmful effects of smoking may contribute to reduce the intention to start smoking among adolescents in the long term. Such a discussion was associated with reduced intention to smoke even when adjusting for parent/friend and classmate smoking.
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    • "Given the significant influence parents exert on the behavior and attitudes of their children, it is worth considering family-based interventions for the prevention of doping. Numerous research studies exist establishing the role of parental influence in modulating behavior and attitudes with respect to preventing high-risk sexual and smoking behaviors (Harris et al., 2013;Mercken et al., 2013). We propose that parents may also have the potential to influence their children when it comes to doping behaviors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (ntotal = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the connectedness of adolescents' smoking status, history of alcohol and cannabis use, and parental and peers' smoking, dimensions only rarely explored concurrently. Multinomial regression models that compared the smoking status of adolescents were estimated based on a representative sample of 3,560 adolescents aged 14-15 from Switzerland. While 49.0% of respondents had never smoked, 9.0% smoked on a daily basis and 12.0% occasionally; 32.6% had never drank alcohol and 74.7% had never used cannabis. Overall, parental and peers' smoking and other substance use factors are significantly associated with smoking status. Yet, history of substance use revealed less consistent associations with smoking status among current smokers (daily versus occasional smoking). The findings highlight the connectedness of adolescents' and other substance use behaviors and support the relevance of concurrent prevention initiatives targeting adolescents with specific substance use profiles and/or growing up in prosmoking social milieus.
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