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    • "It travels a total length of 1,376 km and has a drainage system of 366,233 km 2 (about 42% of the Ganga river basin and about 11% of India's total land area). Yamuna river basin covers 80 districts of seven states, partly covering Uttrakahand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan and covers the entire state of Delhi [19]. In the upper segment flowing through Poanta Sahib Yamuna River reaches Hathnikund/Tajewala in Yamunanagar district of Haryana state, where the river water is again diverted into Western Yamuna Canal and Eastern Yamuna Canal for irrigation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem worldwide because of the long standing toxicity and bioaccumulation of these metals. The risk of heavy metal contamination is pronounced in the environment adjacent to large industrial complexes, and cities historically located along rivers, because the rivers provide transportation and have traditionally been a convenient place to discharge waste. In this study the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni) contamination of surface water in vicinity of industries (sugar mill, paper mill, thermal power plant) and along Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) in Yamunanagar were determined in summer and winter seasons. The concentration of Cr and Cd were found higher in summer whereas Mn, Ni and Cu concentrations were found higher in winter season. In the water samples of industrial vicinity, the average concentration of Cd and Ni in summer and winter season respectively were higher than desirable limit. From the analysis it is inferred that the concentration of heavy metals in water samples from vicinity of sugar mill industry were higher than the paper mill and thermal power plant. Along WYC the metal concentrations in water samples were found to decrease with increasing distance from the industrial area. Mn concentration was within permissible limit in all sampling sites of WYC, whereas Ni concentration was very high in the second year of samplings. In WYC and industrial vicinity water samples, all the heavy metals show positive correlation among themselves suggesting that a common mechanism regulates their abundance. Total mean concentration of heavy metals in WYC and around industrial water samples was found to decrease in the order of Ni > Cu = Cr > Mn > Cd and Mn > Ni Cu = Cr > Cd respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    • "The high rate of siltation is also destroying deep-water habitats preferred by diving ducks. It was observed that most of the wetland had shallow water, with the depth ranging from 1 to 2 m (Manral et al. 2012). Increased turbidity due to siltation decreases the amount of light reaching submerged macrophytes beyond their compensation point, resulting in death of the plants. "

    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2014