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Marketing as Exchange

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Abstract

Traditionally, marketers have taken a relatively narrow view of exchange, limiting their inquiry to direct exchanges of tangible entities between two persons. Bagozzi suggests three broad extensions to the exchange model: expanding the notion of exchange, reevaluating the relationship between the media and meaning of exchange, and looking at social marketing in light of the broadened conception of exchange.

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... However, existing research didn't consider chatbots as a recovery provider that can deal with customer complaints, let alone explore the symbolic recovery performance of chatbots. To comfort the complaining customers, symbolic recovery such as apologizing is usually the first attempt offered by service providers (Bagozzi, 1975;You et al., 2020). This is often a good tactic as human employees' apologies have a positive effect on customer satisfaction following customer complaints (Manika et al., 2015;Min et al., 2020;Radu et al., 2019;Roschk and Kaiser, 2013;Wei et al., 2020;You et al., 2020). ...
... This is often a good tactic as human employees' apologies have a positive effect on customer satisfaction following customer complaints (Manika et al., 2015;Min et al., 2020;Radu et al., 2019;Roschk and Kaiser, 2013;Wei et al., 2020;You et al., 2020). Given the importance of symbolic recovery (Bagozzi, 1975;You et al., 2020), the focus of our research is to answer the following questions. First, when facing customer complaints, to what extent are customers satisfied with symbolic recovery from chatbots compared to symbolic recovery from human employees? ...
... When handling customer complaints, symbolic recovery is an essential and fundamental part of all recovery efforts (Bagozzi, 1975;You et al., 2020). Unlike utilitarian recovery, which refers to efforts involving material compensation like monetary refunds (You et al., 2020), symbolic recovery provides psychological or social resources. ...
Article
Although chatbots have been widely used in dealing with service complaints, knowledge about the recovery performance of chatbots is limited. Drawing upon lay belief and emotional competence theory, this research explores symbolic recovery performances of chatbots in two experimental studies. The results show that symbolic recovery from chatbots leads to lower customer satisfaction than symbolic recovery from human employees due to the lay belief that chatbots lack emotional competence. Perceived naturalness and perceived sincerity play a sequential mediating role. Customers perceive chatbots' symbolic recovery to be less natural than that of human employees. Less natural recovery is perceived to be less sincere, thus decreasing customer satisfaction with the recovery. Changing perceived diagnosticity of the lay belief can improve customer satisfaction with chatbots' symbolic recovery. This research enriches theoretical research on symbolic recovery and chatbots, providing information for how companies can effectively use chatbots to make an appropriate recovery.
... Human-being is a very complex-being that causes to unpredictability. Limiting his exchange behaviors as buying goods and services by paying a specific amount of money sounds underestimating the true potential of marketing because consumers are more inclined to buy experiences, symbols and various benefits other than only the physical product (Bagozzi, 1975). Therefore, Kotler and Levy (1969) claimed that everything is marketable in a broader perspective. ...
... However, building theories that actually does not explain realities in the world does not provide benefit to the science. Bagozzi (1975) criticizes "economic man" thought in economics. Proponents of this idea claim that humans act on rationality, maximize their utility/benefit, and assume that humans have full information about other available alternatives, and are free from external influences. ...
... In this context, consumers buy symbols embedded in the physical product to express, differentiate, and position themselves from others. Bagozzi (1975) proposes a "marketing man" who act both in the boundaries of rationality and irrationality, are prone to involve into utilitarian and symbolic exchanges, does his best in his exchange decisions facing with incomplete information, and does not mean to maximize his profit in all exchanges. The effort of Bagozzi was to offer a paradigm shift in the way how human beings were portrayed by economics. ...
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmanın amacı gemi geri dönüşümü alanında yapılmış olan bilimsel araştırmalarda hangi konuların ön planda olduğunu ve günümüzde birçok endüstride kullanım alanı olan dijital uygulamaların gemi geri dönüşümü endüstrisinde kullanımına ilişkin ne tür çalışmaların yapıldığını tespit etmektir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmada, yerli ve yabancı yazın taraması yapılmıştır. Çalışmaya 2003-2021 yılları arasında yayınlanmış 62 makale ve 7 bildiri dahil edilmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda, gemi geri dönüşümü alanında yapılan çalışmaların çoğunlukla gemi geri dönüşümünün insan sağlığı ve çevre üzerindeki etkileri (%26), gemi geri dönüşüm piyasası ülke incelemesi ve karşılaştırması (%12), gemi geri dönüşüm endüstrisinin ekonomi açısından incelenmesi (%10) konularına odaklandığı görülmüştür. Bununla birlikte bu çalışmalarda analiz yöntemi olarak çoğunlukla nitel analiz (%32), istatistiksel analiz (%29) ve matematiksel modelleme (%23) yöntemlerinin kullanıldığı tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca son beş yılda yapılan çalışma sayısının arttığı ve en çok çalışmanın 2017 ve 2020 yıllarında (10) yapıldığı görülmüştür. Diğer taraftan çalışma kapsamında, gemi geri dönüşümü alanında dijital dönüşüme ilişkin yapılmış bir bilimsel araştırmaya rastlanmamıştır. Bu nedenle çalışmanın sonunda bu alanda yapılabilecek araştırmalara öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Gemi Geri Dönüşümü, Dijital Dönüşüm, Yazın Taraması JEL Sınıflandırma Kodu: M10, Q53, L91
... Identifying truly free services in industrial markets is not as straightforward as it might seem at the first glance. Providing services to customer organizations and obtaining appropriate compensation in return reflects the idea of "economic exchange," one of the most fundamental concepts of marketing (Bagozzi 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer 1987). The exchange concept suggests that parties engage in transactions to obtain something desirable in return for providing something that the other party values (Bagozzi 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer 1987). ...
... Providing services to customer organizations and obtaining appropriate compensation in return reflects the idea of "economic exchange," one of the most fundamental concepts of marketing (Bagozzi 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer 1987). The exchange concept suggests that parties engage in transactions to obtain something desirable in return for providing something that the other party values (Bagozzi 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer 1987). In other words, to "get" something desired, each party must "give" something of value (Bagozzi 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer 1987). ...
... The exchange concept suggests that parties engage in transactions to obtain something desirable in return for providing something that the other party values (Bagozzi 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer 1987). In other words, to "get" something desired, each party must "give" something of value (Bagozzi 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer 1987). ...
Article
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Industrial firms venturing into services is a common phenomenon in B2B markets. However, companies are often unable to monetize many such services, thus incurring high costs of service provision without benefiting from revenue generation in return. To address this critical but little-studied problem, we investigate how industrial firms can transform existing free services into for-fee offerings. Employing a theories-in-use approach, we explore leading global firms via a cross-section of B2B industries, including automotive, maritime, material handling, medical equipment, mining and construction tools, and petrochemicals. Contingent on the empirics, we precisely characterize and define free industrial services. Based on the internal and external challenges that firms face in free-to-fee (F2F) transformations, we develop a typology classifying free services into four distinct categories: Front-runners, Tugs of War, In-house Shackles, and Dead Ends. For each category, we provide empirical illustrations and identify critical actions and activities that firms deploy to successfully implement F2F transformations along the dimensions of structures, processes, people, and rewards. Thus, we offer guidance on how to overcome both external and internal challenges. Our findings demonstrate that F2F transformations of industrial services are not isolated marketing, sales, or pricing activities but require a concerted effort among all organizational functions involved.
... Human-being is a very complex-being that causes to unpredictability. Limiting his exchange behaviors as buying goods and services by paying a specific amount of money sounds underestimating the true potential of marketing because consumers are more inclined to buy experiences, symbols and various benefits other than only the physical product (Bagozzi, 1975). Therefore, Kotler and Levy (1969) claimed that everything is marketable in a broader perspective. ...
... However, building theories that actually does not explain realities in the world does not provide benefit to the science. Bagozzi (1975) criticizes "economic man" thought in economics. Proponents of this idea claim that humans act on rationality, maximize their utility/benefit, and assume that humans have full information about other available alternatives, and are free from external influences. ...
... In this context, consumers buy symbols embedded in the physical product to express, differentiate, and position themselves from others. Bagozzi (1975) proposes a "marketing man" who act both in the boundaries of rationality and irrationality, are prone to involve into utilitarian and symbolic exchanges, does his best in his exchange decisions facing with incomplete information, and does not mean to maximize his profit in all exchanges. The effort of Bagozzi was to offer a paradigm shift in the way how human beings were portrayed by economics. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Marketing has gained importance during the last century although it dates as far back as the history and interactions of the first humans. As a young science, marketing requires more theoretical contribution from the scholars. The purpose of this study is to briefly evaluate the history of marketing science and based on the novel literature, make predictions on the future directions of marketing. Marketing has had a bright past in terms of its development as a science. It seems as if marketing will have a more promising future considering the distance that it has taken from past to present. As in the past, future of marketing will be developing around exchange relationships, symbols, value, and satisfaction by means of the digitalized world in which artificial intelligence, machine learning, virtual reality will be great forces to shape the market structure and consumer behaviors.
... As diferentes controvérsias sobre o marketing (Bagozzi, 1974(Bagozzi, , 1975Hunt, 2002a;Kotler & Levy, 1969;Lazer, 1969;Vargo & Lusch, 2004) estão centradas na discussão sobre seu foco. Por não haver uma definição universalmente aceita sobre a disciplina, muita coisa permanece em discussão. ...
... Em 1957 o livro "Marketing Behavior and Executive Analysis" lança o que viria a ser conhecido como "administração de marketing" e busca explicar as razões pelas quais as ações desta parte do marketing ocorrem e como elas poderiam ser executadas da maneira mais efetiva (Hunt, 2018). Richard Bagozzi também é muito relevante, à ele se deve a inclusão do conceito de trocas no marketing, elas são o fenômeno genérico a ser estudado, explicado e, até mesmo, regulado pelo marketing, são o foco central da matéria (Bagozzi, 1974(Bagozzi, , 1975. Shelby D. Hunt traz uma abordagem filosófica para fazer com que o marketing seja reconhecido pela comunidade científica em geral. ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO Para que serve o marketing? Acadêmicos e práticos precisam ter respostas, precisam conhecer as possibili-dades e complexidades inerentes à disciplina. O marketing foi transformado em algo operacional, focado no método, o que levou à quase eliminação de sua relevância prática. Parte significativa dos que com ele traba-lham, reduzem-no a ações empiricamente comprováveis no curto prazo. Práticos têm dificuldade para aplicar o conhecimento e retiram-no de seu horizonte de consciência e de suas decisões. O marketing perde o que o fez importante: a capacidade de ajudar na compreensão sobre mercados. O ensaio trata das origens e conse-quências deste problema. Busca-se fundamentar a ideia de que o tratamento positivista-empiricista só faz sen-tido num contexto de compreensão da matéria ligado ao marketing estratégico. Para readquirir relevância, a academia precisa apresentar soluções além daquelas ligadas à administração de marketing, deve dar atenção ao marketing estratégico. Sugere-se que tal movimento seja liderado globalmente pelos acadêmicos do Brasil. ABSTRACT What marketing is for? Practitioners and academics must recognize its possibilities and complexities. The transformation of this academic endeavor into something operational and method-related resulted in great reduction in its practical relevance. Most people see it as short-term, measurable and empirically testable. Practitioners are unable to use the developments in their practices, marketing loses its relevance because it disregards what made it important. The paper deals with the origins and consequences of empiricism in marketing and how this approach affects its ability of impacting organizations. It aims at supporting the idea that the positivistic-empi-ricist treatment must be subjected to a broader context, connected to strategic marketing. We conclude that, to regain its practical relevance, marketing must deal not only short-term, marketing management ideas, but must start from its long-term implications, expressed in the strategic marketing approach. The work suggests that Brazilian professors have what it takes to lead that global movement.
... Privacy calculus framework With the increased use of mobile devices it is not surprising that the issue of privacy and preservation of personal information has gained attention (Wottrich et al., 2019). The acceptance and use of apps and mobile devices, despite privacy implications, may stem from a calculated judgement where consumers perceive the benefits of usage to outweigh the privacy costs (Bagozzi, 1975). This judgement, in short, is the cornerstone of exchange theory (Bagozzi, 1975), a framework that has been frequently applied to understand privacy-related consumer decision (Culnan and Bies, 2003). ...
... The acceptance and use of apps and mobile devices, despite privacy implications, may stem from a calculated judgement where consumers perceive the benefits of usage to outweigh the privacy costs (Bagozzi, 1975). This judgement, in short, is the cornerstone of exchange theory (Bagozzi, 1975), a framework that has been frequently applied to understand privacy-related consumer decision (Culnan and Bies, 2003). The model inherent in this exchange framework practically involves a privacy calculus, i.e. a weighing mechanism, where perceived benefits are evaluated against perceived costs (Dinev and Hart, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose During 2020, governments around the world introduced contact-tracing apps to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. In order for contact-tracing apps to be efficient tools in combatting pandemics, a significant proportion of the population has to install it. However, in many countries, the success of apps introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic has been limited due to lack of public support. This paper aims to better understand why consumers seem unwilling to install and use a contact-tracing app. Design/methodology/approach In this study, the authors test a number of determinants hypothesized to influence acceptance of contact-tracing apps based on the theory of privacy calculus (Dinev and Hart, 2006). Both perceived privacy concerns, as well as perceived hedonic, utilitarian and pro-social benefits are included. The hypotheses are tested through SEM analysis on a representative sample of 1,007 Swedish citizens. Findings The results indicate significant privacy concerns with using contact-tracing apps. However, this is to some extent offset by perceived hedonic and pro-social positive consequences of using the app. This study further shows that a general positive attitude towards innovation increases acceptance of the app. Originality/value The study contributes to research on consumer privacy, both in general in its application of the calculus model but also specifically in the context of contact-tracing apps. Moreover, as the results highlight which aspects that are important for consumers to accept and install an app of this kind, they also represent an important contribution to policymakers in countries around the world.
... To address this call, we borrow from marketing scholarship (Bagozzi, 1975;Hunt, 1976;Slater and Narver, 1995;Lusch, 2008, 2011) to propose an exchange-based view (EBV) of the entrepreneurial value creation process. More specifically, we build on Vargo and Lusch's (2004 interpretations that the firm can only promisebut not independently delivervalue to its customers and that value is created when the firm and its customers establish an exchange relationshipi.e. when they both realize the value that the other party is promising. ...
... In sum, marketing scholarship enriches entrepreneurship research with meaningful insights about the very mechanism through which firms and customers co-create value, i.e. by realizing the value that the other party is promising. While such insights were originally developed to describe how value is co-created through the exchange relationship that links the firm to its customers (Bagozzi, 1975), we argue that entrepreneurs entertain a system of conceptually similar exchange relationships also with stakeholders who are not customers. In fact, entrepreneurs de facto establish similar valuepromising and value-realizing relationships with a plethora of other actors in the stakeholder market such as employees, investors, local governments, local communities, suppliers etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
Borrowing from the marketing literature we advance that entrepreneurs and stakeholders are tied by exchange relationships, through which they co-create value by reciprocally making and realizing promises of value. Propositions are developed and offered advancing the role of exchange in the entrepreneurial value creation process. We conceptualize the enterprise as a system of exchange relationships between entrepreneurs and their stakeholders, thus proposing an exchange-based view of entrepreneurship. Such an account of the role of entrepreneurs and of their relationship with the stakeholders has meaningful implications for our understanding of the entrepreneurial tasks of opportunity recognition and exploitation.
... Business literature influenced by economics saw value as related to return maximization of the firm either through calculating costs in contrast to revenue, or by the proprietary right to the use of rare resources (Arvidsson, 2011). This influence can be noticed also in early marketing literature which sees an economic or utilitarian value as a result of an exchange between firms and customers, thus value in exchange (Bagozzi, 1975). ...
... The exchange paradigm, defines the systems of value exchanges between diverse actors (individuals, firms, networks, etc.) (Bagozzi, 1975). That is evident especially on the supplier side as seen by who treats the pricing as key to the economic value which they want to capture (Bowman & Ambrosini, 2002), thus making price important at the special moment of exchange, ...
Thesis
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This thesis’s central aim is to advance, extend and deepen the understanding of value creation and evaluation. It explores the Value Phenomenon (VP) as initiated in Service Dominant Logic (SDL). In so doing, this study brings forward new theoretical concepts and supports them with an illustrative case. In the initial literature review, value conceptualization in marketing and Service Research SBL are explored and the concept of VP is defined by two constitutive parts, creation and evaluation. The four constitutive dimensions (actors, interaction, resources, and context) of experience and social practice are presented. The overall outcome, being the creation of the Strategic Value Innovation Service (SVIS) framework, that enables one to better understand value creation and evaluation, and the VP, within a SDL context. The literature review is further developed to provide a two-dimensional taxonomy that clarifies the relationship between Value Creation Types (VCT), and in addition advancing our understanding of VP. The rationale for choosing the Extended Case Method (ECM) as a research methodology and autobiographic – Subjective Personal Introspection (SPI), is then discussed. It allows the exploration of taxonomy, meta (interpretative) and macro (social construction) theories, within the context of a Personal Flight Journey (PFJ). It specifically explores the novel four-dimensional typology of Value Creating Practices (VCP) and extends the understanding of VP. Prior to concluding the illustrative case study of the PFJ, as a support for theoretical contribution, and for the Typology of VCP during the SPI, is presented. Using the SVIS Framework, Taxonomy of VCT and the Typology of the VCP, the understanding the multiple nature of VP in micro, mesa and macro context is achieved; and this provides new opportunities for innovation. Keywords: value phenomenon, value creation, value evaluation, service dominant logic, service logic, actors, interactions, resources, context, social context, experience, experience social practice, social ecosystems, extended case method, framework, taxonomy, typology, auto-ethnography.
... For Dibb et al (2006)., 'exchange' is the provision or transfer of goods, services and ideas in return for something of value. According to Bagozzi, the exchange paradigm has emerged as a framework useful for conceptualizing marketing behaviour, and indeed most of the contemporary definitions of marketing explicitly include exchange in the formulation of their definition (Bagozzi, 1975). As coined by van Waterschoot and Van den Bulte that "In addition, the framework's rationale is firmly vested in marketing theory, especially the exchange paradigm and the functional school of thought as it is in line with recent insight about behavior modification techniques in consumer behavior…" (van Waterscoot and Van den Bulte, 1992, p.91). ...
Article
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Marketing mix has been the cornerstone of the discipline and dominating marketing early thought. This concept has been the focal point in the development of conventional managerial paradigm with strong adherence to its normative pillars of ‘4 Ps’. History has shown that a new paradigm constantly shifting the status quo of such concept into more advance findings. The objective of this paper is to present the rationale of marketing mix in Islamic marketing. Despite the evolution of marketing mix paradigm over more than 40 years, it is undeniable that such classical marketing canon has its root from concept of exchange. By using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in the development of instruments has led to the development of the 5Cs model. It is aimed to proposed a more advance finding derived from an Islamic perspective towards the concept. In depth literature review and survey has found a distinct set of marketing mix variables catering to Muslim consumer that are in line with Islamic principles. 5Cs models of Commitment, Characteristics, Conformity, Conscience, Customer centric offers a new way of marketing to Muslim consumers governed by Islamic principles and injunctions. Therefore, 5Cs model can be applied in many areas, for instance in Halal industry. It is recommended that business and academia will apply and further develop the model as it will enrich the framework and as to remain relevant.
... Konsep pemasaran diartikulasikan sebagai pelanggan, Marketing Mix 4 P: Product, Price, Promotion, Place (berorientasi pada konsumen dan pelanggan), kemudian berkembang menjadi "hukum pertukaran", dan bersinergi dengan pertumbuhan populasi. Hubungan pelanggan dengan penjual kadang-kadang berbenturan dengan "dilemma sosial" di mana transaksi pasar selalu membawa dampak positif dan negatif (Bagozzi, 1986;Tao, et al., 2020). Konsep manajemen pemasaran sebagai relasional menyatakan perbuatan, tindakan, tingkah laku, aktivitas dalam mengurangi kesenjangan dan membangun nilai bersama, membangun kepercayaan dengan kemitraan jangka panjang yang saling menguntungkan, dan berbagi pengalaman dalam mengatasi kesulitan jangka panjang (Shayb & Muetescuescu, 2020). ...
Book
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Ekonomi dan Bisnis akan selalu beriringan dan membentuk satu mata rantai yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dalam suatu perekonomian, meski sejarah pemikiran dan proses ideologi penciptaannya berbeda, namun tujuan akhir keduanya memiliki kesamaan yaitu menjaga kestabilan keuangan dan meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi, baik di Indonesia maupun di dunia. Pentingnya buku ini bagi kalangan akademisi dan kalangan praktisi, sehingga buku ini dapat dijadikan referensi dalam penulisan karya ilmiah serta dapat dijadikan dasar dalam pengambilan keputusan dalam menetapkan kebijakan pada aktivitas ekonomi dan bisnis di mana saja berada.
... Os anos 80 ficaram marcados por uma evolução inesperada na teoria da fidelização do consumidor, dado que os elementos essenciais desta teoria não sofreram avanços emblemáticos (Oliver (1997)) mas a fidelização surge agora ligada ao Marketing de Relacionamento estreitamente relacionado com o paradigma da troca (Bagozzi (1974(Bagozzi ( ), (1975). ...
Thesis
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Longe vai o tempo em que os clientes eram tão devotos aos seus fornecedores que alguns chegavam mesmo a tatuar o nome ou o logótipo da sua marca, produto ou empresa no braço como acontece com muitos dos clientes da Harley Davidson. Assiste-se actualmente a uma crescente globalização dos mercados em que é visível a forte concorrência quer ao nível do número de concorrentes quer ao nível das diferentes e vastas opções de produtos e serviços disponibilizados aos clientes, os quais se revelam cada vez mais exigentes e informados e determinados em satisfazer cabalmente as suas necessidades, recebendo o maior valor possível. Estes aspectos, coadjuvados com a reduzida taxa de crescimento dos mercados e com os elevados custos de aquisição de novos clientes levaram a que as empresas passassem de uma ideologia assente na contínua conquista de novos clientes em que era suficiente uma única transacção para se centrarem na manutenção dos actuais clientes, por considerarem que estes estavam na base da maioria dos negócios da empresa, sendo de extrema importância para garantirem a sobrevivência e o sucesso da empresa. Assim, nesta dissertação propomo-nos clarificar o conceito de fidelização de clientes no mercado do business-to-consumer, observada quer a nível comportamental quer a nível atitudinal. Em seguida indicamos os antecedentes desta fidelização, por muitos investigadores reconhecidos como sendo a satisfação, valor percebido, qualidade percebida e preço percebido, imagem organizacional, barreiras à mudança de fornecedor, confiança e comprometimento. Posteriormente, apontamos o que alguns estudiosos indicam como sendo consequentes da fidelização dos clientes, ou seja, o elevado desempenho organizacional e a vantagem competitiva da empresa fornecedora. Em seguida apresentaremos um modelo integrado destes antecedentes e consequentes da fidelização dos clientes, do qual é retirado um conjunto de variáveis relativas aos antecedentes da fidelização para avaliar a percepção dos clientes jovens do sector das telecomunicações móveis sobre esses antecedentes através de uma pesquisa quantitativa de carácter descritivo-conclusivo. Palavras-chave: Fidelização, Imagem Organizacional, Barreiras à Mudança, Satisfação, Confiança, Comprometimento, Valor Percebido, Qualidade Percebida, Preço Percebido, Desempenho Organizacional, Vantagem Competitiva.
... Furthermore, the dyad view of business relationships often bases its reasoning in what Bagozzi (1975) denotes restricted exchange, leading to a basic assumption of maintaining equality and mutuality between the actors. This assumption can be questioned in the setting of IS outsourcing, where the exchange between the three actors bears a different character and could include less benevolent and even harmful effects. ...
Book
Book Description With the widespread transformation of information into digital form throughout society – firms and organisations are embracing this development to adopt multiple types of IT to increase internal efficiency and to achieve external visibility and effectiveness – we have now reached a position where there is data in abundance and the challenge is to manage and make use of it fully. This book addresses this new managerial situation, the post-digitalisation era, and offers novel perspectives on managing the digital landscape. The topics span how the post-digitalisation era has the potential to renew organisations, markets and society. The chapters of the book are structured in three topical sections but can also be read individually. The chapters are structured to offer insights into the developments that take place at the intersection of the management, information systems and computer science disciplines. It features more than 70 researchers and managers as collaborating authors in 23 thought-provoking chapters. Written for scholars, researchers, students and managers from the management, information systems and computer science disciplines, the book presents a comprehensive and thought-provoking contribution on the challenges of managing organisations and engaging in global markets when tools, systems and data are abundant. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table of Contents Preface Peter Ekman, Peter Dahlin and Christina Keller Foreword Fredrik Nilsson and Fredrik Tell 1. Perspectives on Management and Information Technology after Digital Transformation Peter Ekman, Peter Dahlin and Christina Keller 2. Digital Transformation: Towards a New Perspective for Large Established Organisations in a Digital Age Alan W. Brown Part 1 – The transformation of society and markets 3. Managing Digital Servitization: A Service Ecosystem Perspective David Sörhammar, Bård Tronvoll and Christian Kowalkowski 4. Caught on the platform or jumping onto the digital train: Challenges for industries lagging behind in digitalisation Peter Ekman, Magnus Berglind and Steven Thompson 5. Digitalisation for Sustainability: Conceptualisation, Implications and Future Research Directions Elena Anastasiadou, Linda Alkire and Jimmie Röndell 6. Reaching New Heights in the Cloud: The Digital Transformation of the Video Games Industry Kevin Walther and David Sörhammar 7. Hyper-Taylorism and Third-order Technologies: Making Sense of the Transformation of Work and Management in a Post-digital Era Christoffer Andersson, Lucia Crevani, Anette Hallin, Caroline Ingvarsson, Chris Ivory, Inti José Lammi, Eva Lindell, Irina Popova and Anna Uhlin 8. Why Space is Not Enough: Service innovation and service delivery in senior housing Petter Ahlström, Göran Lindahl, Markus Fellesson, Börje Bjelke and Fredrik Nilsson 9. Challenges in Implementing Digital Assistive Technology in Municipal Healthcare Ann Svensson, Linda Bergkvist, Charlotte Bäccman and Susanne Durst Part 2 – Managerial and organisational challenges 10. Modern project management: Challenges for the future Klas Sundberg, Birger Rapp and Christina Keller 11. Managing the Paradoxes of Digital Product Innovation Fredrik Svahn and Bendik Bygstad 12. When External Reporting Goes Social: New Conditions for Transparency and Accountability? Cecilia Gullberg 13. Robotic Process Automation and the Accounting Profession’s Extinction Prophecy Matthias Holmstedt, Fredrik Jeanson and Angelina Sundström 14. Managing Digital Employee-Driven Innovation: The Role of Middle-Level Managers and Ambidextrous Leadership Izabelle Bäckström and Peter Magnusson 15. Digital Gamification of Organisational Functions and Emergent Management Practices Edward Gillmore 16. Leveraging Digital Technologies in Enterprise Risk Management Jason Crawford and Jan Lindvall Section 3 – Framing digitalisation 17. The End of Business Intelligence and Business Analytics Matthias Holmstedt and Peter Dahlin 18. ‘Deleted User’: Signalling Digital Disenchantment in the Post-Digital Society Cristina Ghita, Claes Thorén and Martin Stojanov 19. The Role of Boundary-Spanners in the Post-Digitalised Multinational Corporation Henrik Dellestrand, Olof Lindahl and Jakob Westergren 20. The Effect of Digital Transformation on Subsidiary Influence in the Multinational Enterprise Noushan Memar, Ulf Andersson, Peter Dahlin and Peter Ekman 21. Understanding Information System Outsourcing in the Digital Transformation Era: The Business-relationship Triad View Cecilia Erixon and Peter Thilenius 22. Transforming the Management/Profession Divide: The Use of the Red–Green Matrix in Swedish Schools Anton Borell, Johan Klaassen, Roland Almqvist and Jan Löwstedt 23. Integrating research in master’s programmes: Developing students’ skills to embrace digitally transformed markets Todd Drennan, Cecilia Thilenius Lindh and Emilia Rovira Nordman Index ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Editor(s) Biography Peter Ekman is an associate professor of marketing at Mälardalen University and deputy dean of the Swedish Research School of Management and IT hosted by Uppsala University. His research focuses on firm digitalisation within business networks and service ecosystems, often in a global sustainability or globalizationn context. Peter Dahlin is an associate professor of business at Mälardalen University, Sweden, and honorary visiting scholar at the University of Exeter, UK, and is affiliated to the Business School. His research interests include applied analytics, network analysis and business performance. Christina Keller is the dean of the Swedish Research School of Management and IT at Uppsala University and professor in informatics at Lund University School of Economics and Management. Her main research interests include online learning, design science research and information systems in healthcare.
... The consumption patterns of individuals are subject to many psychometric measurements as learning, attitude, motivation, etc. and such societal references as social stratums, statues, roles, cultures and sub-cultures are taken into consideration within these measurements. While identifying consumption motivations, instead of economic man typology focused on rationality and maximisation of satisfaction, the marketing discipline analyses consumers from the point of marketing man typology that handles the decisiveness of socio-psychologic factors and the typology of economic man together (Levy, 1959;Bagozzi, 1975). The same intellection is valid for the marketing science, a synthesised branch of social sciences analysing behaviours not at the level of principles but at the level of exceptions, in which economic man and marketing man constitute the two edges of the normal distribution curve. ...
... In today's exponential development of complexity in the markets, characterized by networks and Internet-based structures of actors, development of trust relationships with the markets, through branding, is extremely critical (Castaldo, 2007).To secure trust, organizations like restaurants engage in marketing and a set of business activities that aim to affect the behaviors of actors in the markets and the industry (Bagozzi, 1975). Why trust is so fundamentally important? ...
Article
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Brand trust development phenomenon in a structured component-wise and layer manner is vital, which helps the restaurant service provider to systematically create and implement the needed strategies to establish brand trust. From a systems theory perspective, brand trust is a part of the overall brand management system, which would need antecedent structure and a clear consequence to indicate an effective brand trust. Thus, the research objective is to derive and validate an integrated model, which explains how brand trust – both cognitive and affective satisfaction aspect – is developed by incorporating the socio-psychological domains of influence in norm and attitude, and the reliability- ensured service operations performances, as stimuli, to impact significantly on the knowledge-based value perceptions, so that revisit intention and experiential sharing as a consequence of brand trust can be developed. That is, cognitive trust emerges as a result of customers forming value perceptions and knowledge of what the services can deliver. For testing the model, an upscale restaurant population in Chiang Rai is targeted, and the data collected were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis i.e. structural equation modeling (SEM) and hierarchical multiple regression method.
... Ketika Alderson (1958) memperluas pandangan ekonomi institusional bahwa pertukaran didorong oleh maksimisasi nilai dan efisiensi pasar, ia berpendapat bahwa karena orang terlibat, pemikiran pemasaran harus memasukkan faktor sosiologis dari "struktur kekuasaan" dan "dua -tukar cara komitmen, "serta faktor psikologis sosial dari" komunikasi "dan" reaksi emosional". Bagozzi (1975) lebih menyempurnakan fokus pemasaran dengan menerapkan "teori pertukaran" untuk apa yang dianggap sebagai dua pertanyaan kunci dari teori pemasaran: "(1) Mengapa orang dan organisasi terlibat dalam hubungan pertukaran? dan (2) Bagaimana pertukaran dibuat, diselesaikan, atau dihindari? ...
Book
Tujuan disusunnya buku ini adalah untuk memberikan nuansa baru ilmu pengetahuan membantu para pembaca dari berbagai kalangan, akademisi maupun praktisi pendidikan dapat memahami seluk beluk Manajemen Komunikasi Pemasaran yang dipengaruhi oleh kecanggihan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi. Buku ini berisi materi yang dapat digunakan baik oleh tenaga pengajar maupun mahasiswa, serta para pembaca umumnya untuk menambah wawasan berpikir dan ilmu yang berkenaan dengan bidang Manajemen Komunikasi Pemasaran. Buku ini dapat tersusun karena adanya suatu kolaborasi dari beberapa penulis yang berasal dari berbagai perguruan tinggi baik negeri maupun swasta sebagai pelaksanakan amanah Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi.
... It is necessary for people engaged in related industries to understand the trend of the market in order to face the opportunities and challenges. Marketing is a huge broad concept, "exchange is a central concept in marketing, and it may well serve as the foundation for that elusive 'general theory of marketing' [1]." The early market first went through a period of barter, and then the invention of equivalent exchange laid the foundation for the emergence of coins. ...
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Traditional types of industries undoubtedly occupy a large market in a long time, with convenient and direct benefits. Nowadays, with the advancement of technology and the improvement of people’s living standards, virtual products as new consumption hotspots appeared in the public. People began to pay attention to the service of the product and the emotional experience given by products, which also means that many people are willing to pay for the virtual data. A good example is the online gaming industry has sprung up in recent years. People only need to use their daily media such as mobile phones or computers to release emotional pressure in a short time of gaming. In addition, after the gaming industry gathers a large part of the consumer groups, it needs to constantly innovate to avoid the loss of customers. The paper is aimed to analyze the situation and profitability of online games in marketing and conduct in depth exploration of a type of innovation called asymmetric games. Whether this emerging game type has the ability to compete with the traditional symmetrical game model will be analyzed by using the review of literature and questionnaire interviews.
... Human exchange has long been positioned as the core of marketing discipline (Bagozzi, 1975). Further, transaction enables the division of labor and specialization which form fundamental basis of economic wealth. ...
... Konsep pemasaran diartikulasikan sebagai pelanggan, Marketing Mix 4 P: Product, Price, Promotion, Place (berorientasi pada konsumen dan pelanggan), kemudian berkembang menjadi "hukum pertukaran", dan bersinergi dengan pertumbuhan populasi. Hubungan pelanggan dengan penjual kadang-kadang berbenturan dengan "dilemma sosial" di mana transaksi pasar selalu membawa dampak positif dan negatif (Bagozzi, 1986;Tao, et al., 2020). Konsep manajemen pemasaran sebagai relasional menyatakan perbuatan, tindakan, tingkah laku, aktivitas dalam mengurangi kesenjangan dan membangun nilai bersama, membangun kepercayaan dengan kemitraan jangka panjang yang saling menguntungkan, dan berbagi pengalaman dalam mengatasi kesulitan jangka panjang (Shayb & Muetescuescu, 2020). ...
... In the latter, the subject of exchange primarily concerns intangible values (e.g. psychological, social) and the process itself plays a significant role (Bagozzi, 1975;Furtak, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
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The article proposes an interpretation of the meaning of experience marketing as a tool in the process of sacralisation of products, and in a broader context-the so-called secular religion accompanying some contemporary big tech organizations. The article is of theoretical nature and the authors have intended to explain how big tech corporations, in line with the concept of experience marketing (digital platforms, in particular), reinterpret their role in relations with users. The aim of the article is to inspire research on the experience marketing in the digital ecosystem in the context of the sacralisation of an organization, its goals, leaders, employees and products. The article has adopted hermeneutics as providing an appropriate theoretical framework for analysis.
... The benefit may be passed on to a third party before a compensatory benefit is returned to the original giver (Molm et al. 2007a, b). This indirect reciprocity is also reflected in Bagozzi's (1975) generalised exchange and Sahlins' (1965) generalised reciprocity. It refers to giving benefits to a third party, such as a collective, and thus allowing the individual to draw benefits from this community or group. ...
Article
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Service exchange among actors and the notion of reciprocity have gained momentum in service research. However, reciprocity’s underlying facets and nature have been neglected. Drawing on a tribal notion of dynamic reciprocity facilitates the understanding of contemporary service interactions in service ecosystems. We explore reciprocity’s tribal elements of repayment, retaliation and restorative justice. This tribal view of reciprocity is also linked to relational and regenerative wellbeing. We derive a conceptual framework for service ecosystems research and practice. An expanded view of reciprocity for service exchanges within and across system levels is required to facilitate regenerative service ecosystem wellbeing.
... Operational viewpoints ground understanding and provide definitional clarity. When exchange is viewed in its earliest definitional form (Bagozzi, 1974;Bagozzi, 1975) as two parties coming together to give and get something (e.g., purchase a product) understanding is focused on generating solutions that people value and will willingly purchase (e.g., making sure the product is available at a convenient time and place). In the absence of a focus on generating solutions that people want, reliance on governments and NGOs to fund social change will remain. ...
Article
Background This paper aims to extend the application of social marketing to social and environmentally beneficial behavior change providing a three-step process—Co-create-Build-Engage (CBE). The key strength social marketing brings to the social change space is the development of something of value that moves and motivates people to voluntarily change their behavior; in turn benefitting themselves, the planet and society at large. Method Using a case study method, this paper identifies how up to eight marketing principles, initially penned to distinguish social marketing from public health, are applied in the three step CBE process, using first time program development and implementation examples. First, programs are co-created (C) with people at the heart of the problem and built (B) to create and embed lasting solutions and finally communities are engaged (E) to partake in these programs. This linear process is applied in first time program development and stages blur following first time implementation as CBE steps become continuous when programs are embedded into communities. This paper outlines four cases demonstrating when and where key marketing activities were applied to co-create, build and implement social marketing programs that achieved behavioral change. Results Included is a roadmap of the activities that occurred in first time program development and implementation across each stage of the three step CBE process. During co-creation competition is assessed and groups are identified (segmentation). Formative research programs are theoretically underpinned and human centred (customer orientation) and solely aimed at identifying insights to guide program build and engagement. Elements of the marketing mix focus program build ensuring that a valued exchange offering is built. Engagement represents the initial implementation phase and encompasses the set of activities that focus on ensuring people are aware of and can adopt the program. Recommendations for Research or Practice Many of the foundational techniques that distinguish social marketing from other behavioral science approaches are not widely adopted. This paper offers a roadmap to demonstrate how and when core social marketing activities can be applied to effect voluntary behavior change. Volitional change avoids stigmatization, alienation, reactance and community divides, which occur when behaviors are mandated or when people are told what to do. The CBE process provides a process, outlining social marketing’s key principles and the set of activities that are applied to build more effective marketing programs.
... For example, understanding how we came to teach marketing from a predominantly management perspective in contrast to looking at marketing from a broader societal perspective provides opportunities for students to understand how particular ideas become dominant in a discipline, thus allowing them to question not only why such ideas come to the forefront but also that other schools of thought might offer important insights and approaches to marketing problems from both theoretical and applied perspectives (Tadajewski, 2006). Wooliscroft suggests that students read from seminal works such as Sheth et al. (1998) Marketing Theory: Evolution and Evaluation, Alderson's (1957) Marketing Behaviour and Executive Action in addition to works by Bagozzi (1975) on value creation, Hunt and Morgan (1996) on the resource advantage of the firm, Ehrenberg (1995) on marketing science, and Vargo and Lusch (2004) on value-in-use, to name just a few. His course begins with key organising questions such as "what is marketing?", ...
... Creating value comes down to the joint elaboration and development of new proposals. The values on which inter-organizational cooperation is based may take a tangible or intangible form (Bagozzi, 1975). The more the values essential to an organization underlie the exchange between them, the more they contribute to ensuring the durability of their relationship. ...
Article
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Inter-organizational cooperation is based on the development of relationships between partners who have attractive tangible or intangible values which may be the subject of exchange. In inter-organizatio-nal cooperation, at least two key stages of relationship development can be distinguished. The first con-cern is initiating ties between potential partners; the second, strengthening, expanding and deepening these ties. The authors attempted to identify the values that affect the relations between organizations cooperating on a joint project in the cultural sphere. The research process was based on the assump-tions of grounded theory. The incomplete induction method was used. In order to solve this research problem, the authors analysed a case study of a network project led by the Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowska Metropolis, entitled Metropolitan Theatres Night, and in addition, conducted qualitative research (in-dividual in-depth interviews and written surveys), amongst organizations cooperating on this project. The research proved that the assessment of key values to project partners at the stage of initiating and developing cooperation is varied. At the stage of initiating relations, the financial benefits of coopera-tion and the prestige associated with it are most important. In contrast, at the stage of cooperation development financial benefits come first, while other elements are of secondary importance. The rese-arch results show that the partnership does not use many opportunities resulting from the synergy of resources or joint learning during the long period of cooperation. In connection with the above, the authors defined recommendations that may serve to improve inter-organizational cooperation in this type of project and in other partnerships.
... In response to a service failure, irrespective of the attendance of utilitarian recovery (Smith et al., 1999) or its type that is tangible or intangible (Sinha and Lu, 2019), service providers nearly always have to first involve in some kind of verbal recovery (e.g. empathy or gratitude), to orally acknowledge the transgression and provide social and psychological compensation to consumers (Bagozzi, 1975). In this respect, verbal recovery is an initial and indispensable part of the recovery effort of companies (Roschk and Kaiser, 2013). ...
Article
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The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the different psychological impacts of two initial verbal recovery strategies (gratitude vs empathetic apology) on the consumers' loyalty after a service failure. The proposed theoretical model also appraises the mediating role of two emotional responses (consumer forgiveness, consumer anger) and consumer self-esteem and the moderating role of self-oriented perfectionism. Two studies (i.e. an experimental design and a field study) are considered for this investigation to assess the effectiveness of gratitude expression versus empathetic apology on post-recovery loyalty and test the effects of mediators and the moderator applied between the verbal recovery strategies and post-recovery loyalty. The results of Study 1 revealed the supremacy of gratitude to empathetic apology in maintaining consumers' loyalty after service failure recovery. The better impact of gratitude expressed in increasing post-recovery loyalty is mediated through the elevation of consumers' forgiveness, the reduction of consumers' anger and consumers' self-esteem. The findings of Study 2 indicated that gratitude increases more post-recovery loyalty in individuals with a high level of self-oriented perfectionism. Future research could examine other service failure situations, different types of service recovery, mediators or moderators, which contribute to the service marketing literature. After a service failure, using gratitude expressions to consumers often makes them feel better and more valuable. This work increases service providers' knowledge in using proper expressions after a service failure to help elevate consumers' positive reactions resulting in maintaining their loyalty.
... (Meghisan, Barbu, & Craciun, 2010, p. 83) Marketing oversees establishing a balanced exchange between the business and the customer, in which both sides try to proportionally optimize their benefits while minimizing their risks, in the hopes of achieving fulfilment. (Bagozzi, 1975). In the January 1969 issue of this journal, it was proposed that marketing is applicable to all organizations of consumer types. ...
... Since the early days of marketing thought, the notion of exchange has been considered as one of its cornerstones (Bagozzi 1975). However, especially in the last decade, a new form of exchange has gained momentum, and collaborative consumption has been introduced as an alternative to traditional ownershipbased consumption (Akbar 2019). ...
Article
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Understanding the potential factors and underlying mechanisms to engage in collaborative consumption practices has become a significant concern for academics and practitioners. However, collaborative consumption research is still considered in its early stage; thus, further research is needed. Based on this need, this study extends existing research by providing empirical support for the importance of value perceptions and empathy on female consumers’ attitudes and behavioral intentions to engage in collaborative consumption in the apparel industry. This study also shows a significant moderating effect for materialism and the need for uniqueness in the collaborative consumption of apparel. These findings are believed to be particularly valuable in contributing to the broader literature on collaborative consumption and guiding, especially practitioners, to develop strategic tactics for motivating consumers to engage in collaborative consumption practices.
... Other disciplines such as psychology and marketing have focused on value in use, an inherently subjective value determined by individuals. With transactions being the core concept of marketing, value in use became a key idea due to its power to explain why transactions were made voluntarily (Bagozzi, 1975). ...
Article
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The first goal of this paper is to develop a theoretical and practical framework which can help to measure the emotional value generated by organizations in quantitative terms. Its second goal is to use data obtained from the UCAN (Union of Food and Agriculture Cooperatives of Navarre) in Spain as a case study to illustrate the quantification of the emotional value generated, with a view to factoring that value into a social accounting system. Ever greater recognition of the social role of organizations in recent years has led to a need for a consistent definition of the concept of socio-emotional value, and for instruments that can be used to measure that value in terms of generic social accounting. Taking the current lack of standardization in such models and instruments, especially those that deal with emotional value as its starting point, the paper proposes a new instrument for measuring that value quantitatively in such a way as to overcome some of the limitations of earlier proposals. The underlying perspective is that the monetary values identified in market and non-market transactions do not accurately account for all the value generated for different stakeholders, and that adjustments are required through a correction factor applied to the value variables identified. The quantification of the socio-emotional value generated by an organization is seen as a more comprehensive indicator of its performance, given that it provides more information and takes into account the value generated for stakeholders as a whole in all dimensions.
... Müşteriler için olumlu bir hizmet deneyimi yaratmak, onlar için çekici bir ortam tasarlamak ve inşa etmekle başlar. Hizmetlerin deneyimlendiği ortamlar olarak tanımlanan hizmet atmosferi (Bitner, 1992), müşterilerin sosyal ve psikolojik ihtiyaçlarını karşıladıkları yerlerdir (Bagozzi, 1975;Meng ve Choi, 2017). Çevre psikolojisi üzerine yapılan araştırmalar (Mehrabian ve Russell, 1974), insanların çevrenin unsurlarına bütünsel olarak tepki verdiklerini ileri sürmektedir. ...
... Value creation can also be understood through different perspectives. The value-inexchange perspective, which is largely adopted within commercial marketing, focusses on creating value through a transactional exchange of costs and benefits for a product or service (Bagozzi, 1975;Houston and Gassenheimer, 1987;Anderson et al., 1999). Economic value can shape social marketing exchanges, for example, consumers consider the cost-benefit analysis in paying to join a gym to get fit and healthy. ...
Article
Purpose The emerging consumer-dominant logic of marketing captures consumers’ active and primary role in a range of mainstream marketing processes such as branding, product development and sales. However, consumers’ active role in driving pro-social behaviour change has not yet received close attention. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explore consumer dominance in social marketing. The authors propose a definition of consumer-dominant social marketing (CDSM) and explicate five key elements which underpin the phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach This conceptual study offers an analysis informed by exemplars with significant representations of consumer-dominant pro-social behaviours and projects. The methodological approach is characterised as “envisioning conceptualisation”, which is explained in terms of MacInnis’ (2011) framework for conceptual approaches in marketing. Findings As a phenomenon, CDSM operationalises the following elements: power, agency, resources, value and responsibility. The authors demonstrate how these elements are interconnected and define their meaning, significance and implications in the context of social marketing and pro-social behaviour change. The authors also identify this new form of social marketing as existing on a continuum depending on the level of involvement or dominance of the consumer and of social marketers; at one end of this continuum, exclusive CDSM is entirely consumer-driven and does not engage with businesses or organisations, while on the other end, inclusive CDSM encompasses partnership with external stakeholders to achieve pro-social behaviour change. Research limitations/implications The existence of inclusive and exclusive CDSM points towards an intricate power balance between consumers, mainstream social marketers and businesses. While this study identifies and explains this substantial distinction, it is an important task for future research to systematise the relationship and explore the optimal balance between consumer activism and involvement of formalised organisations such as charities and businesses in pro-social behaviour change projects. Practical implications The study provides social marketing professionals with an understanding of the benefits of harnessing consumer empowerment to enhance the impact of social marketing interventions. Originality/value The study makes a theoretical contribution by introducing, defining and explicating consumer dominance as a substantive area of social marketing.
Article
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This study explores the moderating role of religiosity on the relationship between service recovery dimensions namely distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice on recovery satisfaction. Data were collected through a survey of customers who experienced a service failure and recovery in the context of full-service restaurant. Results indicate that all three dimensions of service recovery affect recovery satisfaction. The results also confirmed the non-significant moderating role of religiosity on the relationship between service recovery and recovery satisfaction. Practical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also discussed in this paper.
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Целью статьи является изучение возможности применения концепции клиентоориентированности (КО) в контексте развивающейся российской экономики. Исследование основано на предложенном Нарвером и Слейтером [Narver, Slater, 1990] подходе к определению и измерению ориентации компании на клиента. Тестирование концепции клиентоориентированности на российском рынке проводится на основе двух волн сбора данных (2008 и 2010 гг.). Результаты исследования позволяют сделать вывод о возможности более глубокого и точного измерения КО в контексте российского рынка и ее дальнейшей адаптации и тестирования в контексте других развивающихся рынков. Вместо однофакторной модели Нарвера и Слейтера предлагается двухфакторное решение, основанное на ценностной и процессной составляющей клиентоориентированности.
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Z Diğer sosyal bilimler içerisinde genç bir oluşum olarak görülen pazarlama, sentez ve uygulamaya yönelik yapısıyla sosyal bilimler içerisinde göze çarpmaktadır. Her ne kadar sanat mı yoksa bilim mi tartışmaları alan yazında devam etmekte olsa da pazarlama, diğer sosyal bilimlerin öne sürdükleri teorileri kendi perspektifiyle ele almakta ve farklı çıkarımlar ortaya koymaktadır. Hem sosyal bilimler içerisinde özel bir yere sahip olan ve birçok farklı sosyal disiplinin ele aldığı hem de pazarlama disiplini için temel kavramlardan birisi haline gelen değişim (mübadele) kavramı ve değişim (mübadele) teorisi ile karşılaşılmaktadır. Çalışmanın temel amacı ise bu kavram ve teoriyi incelemektedir. Bu nedenle çalışmanın ilk bölümünde değişim (mübadele) kavramı ve teorisinin çerçevesi tarihsel süreç ile çizilecektir. Bir sonraki bölümde ise pazarlama ve değişim kavramı ve teorisinin ilişkisine değinilecektir. Son bölümde ise değişim teorisinin iktisadi bakış açısı dışındaki, sosyal değişim teorisi kısaca ele alınacaktır. ABSTRACT It stands out among the social sciences with its marketing, synthesis and application oriented structure, which is seen as a young formation among other social sciences. Although the debates on art or science continue in the literature, marketing addresses the theories proposed by other social sciences with their own perspective and reveals different implications. The concept of exchange (exchange), which has a special place in social sciences and which has been handled by many different social disciplines, and which has become one of the basic concepts for marketing discipline, is encountered. The main purpose of the study examines this concept and theory. Therefore, in the first part of the study, the framework of the concept of exchange (exchange) will be drawn by the historical process. In the next section, the relationship between the concept and theory of marketing and change will be discussed. In the last section, social change theory will be briefly discussed, except for the economic perspective of the theory of change.
Chapter
In the last years, companies have seen that the quality of the services they provided is becoming more and more and more important. They try to reach as many clients as possible and try to improve their services. New technologies (internet, computers, smartphones) are something that companies are taking advantage of, and there has been a huge change in the way services are provided. We have less physical contact between companies and clients and even less contact by phone (already being exceeded). Companies like Amazon, Netflix, or Uber are good examples of how the way companies provide services is changing, taking advantage of new technologies, making everyone’s life easier.
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Digitization of business has made it possible to provide customers with eServices on an everyday basis. The servitisation and digitization have also raised the importance of public mechanisms and made this as important as market mechanisms in the game industry. Thus, this work shows that the development of value-creating ecologies can be considered as the main factor for the customer acceptance of servitization in the creative industries. And regarding servitization, it is important to design services in a way that they can generate additional value even for those customers who do not consume such services. It is important to enabling the customer to become a cocreator having him involved as a partner in this process.
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The paper presents scientific views reflecting marketing management specifics which explains the timely character of the study. The argumentative logics has been used to verify the hypothesis about the impossibility to substantiate promising lines of marketing management research without identifying blanc spots in the scientific basis of respective area of expertise. Systemic chronological and retrospective analysis of the theoretical works was employed in order to achieve the results. The findings give a detailed explication of the scientific landscape which reflects the viewpoints of marketing management issues. The main conclusion is that the thesis of the «ideal marketing management» concept which allows for the requirements of all contemporary marketing systems participants to be fully met as of today, has a fragmentary character. The findings can be employed in further theoretical research in marketing and other fields of knowledge.
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Las relaciones comerciales son un elemento esencial del marketing relacional pues su adecuada gestión permite a las empresas obtener beneficios. Estas relaciones pueden verse afectadas por distintos factores, entre los cuales están los comportamientos del lado oscuro o conductas como el ocultamiento de información, el oportunismo, la intención de generar confusión, la venta de información, el engaño, el irrespeto a la privacidad y los cobros injustificados. El objetivo de este artículo fue identificar investigaciones cuyo enfoque fueran los comportamientos del lado oscuro y su relación con la satisfacción en las relaciones comerciales entre empresas. Para lograr este propósito, se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura de documentos redactados en el periodo 2010-2022. Se identificaron teorías, autores, metodologías.
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Purpose The main purpose of this paper is to identify and rank various barriers to pharmacovigilance (PV) in context of emerging economies and examine their interrelationships using the interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach. The result is a model that offers insights about how to achieve rational and safe use of medicines and ensure patient safety as realized through robust national PV systems. Design/methodology/approach The paper develops a model to analyze the interactions among PV barriers using the ISM approach. Based on input from clinical and medical product development experts, PV barriers in emerging economies were identified and reviewed. The hierarchical interrelationships among these PV barriers were analyzed in context of their driving/dependence powers. Findings Findings of the study identify key PV barriers—lack of resources/infrastructure, weak legislation, unfair burden of disease, lack of PV capacity, training, and enforcement authority—that drive, or strongly influence, other barriers and thwart implementation of robust national PV systems in emerging economies. Pharmaceutical industry factors were PV barriers that were identified as autonomous, implying their relative disconnection from other barriers, and patient PV practices barrier was strongly dependent on other barriers. Research limitations/implications The paper offers policy- and decision-makers alike with a framework to support further research into interdependencies among key PV barriers in emerging economies. It can serve as an impetus for further research with potential to broadening the understanding of how and why PV systems may be rendered ineffective. Future studies can be planned to apply the ISM approach to study PV barriers in the context of developed economies and draw lessons and implications for policy- and decision-makers by contrasting results from these studies. Practical implications This paper contributes to the understanding of the multifaceted nature of PV and its barriers. The proposed approach gives public health decision-makers a better comprehension of driver PV barriers that have most influence on others versus dependent PV barriers, which are most influenced by others. Also, knowledge, attitude and practices of patients and caregivers can also be critical PV barriers in emerging economies. This information can be instrumental for public health policymakers, government entities, and health/PV practitioners to identify the PV barriers that they should prioritize for improvement and how to manage trade-offs between these barriers. Social implications PV barriers in emerging economies, as compared to developed economies, are inherently different and need to be examined in their specific context. The hierarchical ISM model suggests that resources and regulation initiatives by governments in emerging economies lead to through informed/enabled pharmaceutical supply chain players and eventually drive PV-specific knowledge, attitude, and practice outcomes improvements across their populace. Originality/value This paper highlights the deployment of ISM approach as a health policy decision support tool in the identifying and ranking barriers to effective PV systems in emerging economies, in terms of their contextual relationships, to achieve a better understanding as to how these interrelationships can affect national PV system outcomes.
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Pazarlama disiplinin ortaya çıkışı Sanayi Devriminin dolayısıyla fiziksel ürünlerin seri üretiminin başladığı, ülkelere ve toplumlara “refah” getirdiği, dünyanın yeni bir yaşam biçimi ve üretim-tüketim ilişkisine girdiği yıllara rastlamaktadır. Yine bu yıllarda ekonomi biliminde de baskın anlayış fiziksel ürünlerin üretimi ve dağıtımı üzerine kurgulanmaya başlamıştır. Örneğin Adam Smith’in (1776) Ulusların Zenginliği adlı eseri, bir ulusun zenginliğinin fiziksel ürün üretme ve bu ürünleri ihraç edebilme yeteneğine bağlı olduğunu ileri sürmektedir. Doğal olarak fiziksel ürünlerin artan etkisi ile ekonomi bilimi de bu doğrultuda şekillenmeye başlamıştır (Vargo ve Lusch, 2004, 2014). Henüz genç sayılabilecek pazarlama disiplini de ekonomi biliminden miras aldığı kavramlardan etkilenmiştir. Vargo ve Lusch’un (2004) ürün baskın mantık olarak adlandırdığı bu yaklaşım ekonomik faaliyetleri çok büyük ölçüde fiziksel ürünler üzerine kurgulama eğilimdedir. Fiziksel ürünlerin üretimi dağıtımı ve ihracatı ile bir ulusun zenginleşebileceği önerisi, bugün bildiğimiz ekonomi biliminin temel varsayımlarından biri haline gelmiştir. Bu indirgemeci yaklaşım birçok ekonomi ve pazarlama kavramının da bu dar alana sıkışmasına sebep olmaktadır. “Hizmet” ve “hizmetler” kavramları da ürün odaklı yaklaşımdan etkilenerek fiziksel ürünler ne değil ise hizmetler onlardır şeklinde sınıflandırılmıştır (Vago ve Lusch, 2011, 2014, 2016). Oysa başka bir perspektiften bakıldığında hizmet kavramı bir mübadele ilişkisinin merkezinde yer almakta ve ürünler ancak hizmetlerin taşıyıcısı olarak işlev görmektedir (Vargo ve Lusch, 2004). Fakat Sanayi Devriminin iş ve ekonomi dünyası üzerindeki etkisi ile bazı kavramlar o zamanların ekonomik anlayışından etkilenerek günümüze kadar gelmiş ve ana akım pazarlama anlayışını şekillendirmiştir. Bu bölümde hizmet ve hizmetler kavramlarına farklı bir bakış açısı getirilerek “hizmet sektörü” ve “hizmetler” kavramları ana akım pazarlama bakış açısından farklı bir biçimde ele alınacaktır.
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The objective of this research is the design of an Employer Branding (EB) model as a tool that facilitates the attraction and retention of talent. To this end, the model configuration elements are identified from literature, based on the 4 Ps described by McCarthy [45], thus developing a new model, the EB Mix. From this, we establish what the Product offered by the company as an employer is, the Price to be paid by the employee to obtain it, how it is made accessible or distributed (Place), and how this product is promoted among its target audience. It is, therefore, to define the elements that the EB unites, in order to propose a model for the implementation of the EB strategy in organizations. The theoretical model developed has been validated from the inter-rater adjustment. The questionnaire was administered to 30 experts from the field of organizational management who assessed the relevance (from a 5-point Likert scale) and the order of importance of each of the 4 Ps components. An Aiken V > 0.6 and a 90% confidence interval were used as criteria. The order of importance of each dimension was established using the range analysis method. The results show a high level of agreement of the experts in the nominal definition of all the components, the “Product” is considered the most important to establish an EB policy in an organization.
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Guided by a ‘logic of the situation’ approach our research investigated a problematic situation in community to identify and critically reflect on how consumer marketplaces and self-sufficiency meet consumption needs. In doing so, we reflect on how a situational understanding allowed the researchers to form a more complete view of how consumption needs were met in community through enabler-led marketplaces, community-led marketplaces and self-sufficiency. We also re-conceptualised our thinking as a more broadly conceived hybrid consumer marketplace to reflect our more complete understanding. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our more broadly conceived hybrid consumer marketplace and provide a foundation for further research into consumer marketplaces and meeting consumption needs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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In recent years, marketers have placed increased reliance upon artificial intelligence (AI) and, subsequently, the use of virtual agents in customer service contexts is on the rise. Despite such service digitalization, service can still fail. While there is an increasing literature on the effect of virtual agents in service settings, questions remain as to how customers react to service failure that results from interactions with virtual service agents. To this end, we deconstruct the effect of virtual agent service failure across two studies: one involving a process service failure and another involving an outcome service failure. We specifically manipulate the type of service agent that causes the service failure (human vs. virtual agent) and the magnitude of the failure (small vs. large). Results show that firms can leverage virtual service agents to mitigate or buffer the negative effects of service failure. From a managerial perspective, our findings suggest that firms could engage virtual service agents in situations where there may be a risk of outcome service failure—particularly in settings where relatively large magnitude failures may be experienced. In such a setting, we find that virtual service agents can mitigate the negative effects of service failure, more so than when the failure results from an interaction with a human service agent.
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Ticaret, sosyal hayat, eğitim, sağlık gibi gündelik yaşamın hemen hemen bütün alanlarında siyaset toplumun ilgisini çeken ve etkilendiği bir konudur. Her ülkede toplumun siyasete karşı olan ilgisi ve siyasetin toplum üzerindeki etkisi zamana göre farklılık göstermektedir. Türkiye gibi aşırı politize olmuş veya edilmiş toplumlarda siyasetin etkisi hayatın her alanında yoğun olarak hissedilmektedir. Toplum kendilerini yönetecek olan siyasi aktörlerin çok farklı yönlerini incelemekte ve kimi seçeceğine karar vermeden önce çeşitli araştırmalar yapmaktadır. Bu yüzden siyasi aktörlerin toplumla olan ilişkilerinin önemi her geçen gün daha da artmaktadır. Seçimler, demokratik ülkelerde siyasilerin iktidar olmaları için katılmak zorunda oldukları bir yarıştır. Bu yarışlar doğal olarak siyasilerin birbirleriyle rekabet etmelerini gerektirmektedir. Siyasi aktörler bu yarışta birinci olmak için çok fazla emek, zaman ve kaynak harcamak zorundadırlar. Pazarlama faaliyetleri işletmelerin bulundukları pazarlarda rakiplerinden üstün olmaları için kullanılırken, siyasal alanda da partilerin diğer partilerin önüne geçmesine yardımcı olmaktadır. Seçimlerin sonunda birinci olan siyasi aktörler iktidar olma yolunda önemli bir zafer kazanmışlardır.
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Examines the two traditions of Social Exchange Theory against the background of French and British orientations in Sociology and in the context of the works of Claude Levi-Strauss, George Homans, Peter Blau and others.
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Marketing in business is the task of finding and stimulating buyers for a firms's output. Product development, pricing, distribution, and communication are the mainstays of marketing, while progressive firms also develop new products and chart the trends and changes in people's needs and desires. Marketing can either apply its knowledge to social problems and organizations or remain in a narrowly defined business activity. Every organization has basically the same functions: personnel management, production, income, and promotion, which are using modern marketing skills in commercial sectors. Suppliers and consumers are needed by all organizations. In Canada a group wished to promote an antismoking campaign but they had little money compared to the tobacco companies. This group used modern marketing techniques to combat their lack of funds and found many ways, e.g., books, articles. A business firm uses a multitude of marketing tools to sell its product. Nonbusiness organizations frequently do not integrate their programs the way the businesses place all activities under one marketing vice president and department. Astute marketing depends on continuous feedback from consumers and suppliers. They are dependent upon up-to-the-minute research that tells them about changes in the environment and moves of competitors. Nonbusiness organizations are often casual about the research upon which they base their vital decisions.
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This article cites and compares some sharply divergent concepts of the nature of social marketing. Some of the difficulties underlying these recent communications about social marketing are traced to worsening confusion about the basic scope and identity of marketing itself. Luck feels this may be critically hampering marketing's role in society and calls for a major clarification effort.
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This article analyzes the exchange model and modifies and extends it to include a theoretical scheme for interpreting marketing behavior. For analysis, an exchange system is proposed that consists of a set of social actors, their relationships to each other, and the endogenous and exogenous variables affecting the behavior of the social actors in those relationships.
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A simple theory of power relations is developed in an effort to resolve some of the ambiguities surrounding "power," "authority," "legitimacy," and power "structures," through bringing them together in a coherent scheme. After defining a reciprocal power-dependence relation, attention is focused upon properties of balance and "balancing operations" in such relations. The theory dictates exactly four generic types of balancing process, and discussion of these leads directly into processes of group formation, including the emergence of group norms, role structure and status hierarchy, all presented as the outcome of balancing tendencies in power relations. Within the framework of this theory, authority appears quite naturally to be legitimized power, vested in roles, and "legitimation" is seen as a special case of the coalition process through which norms and role-prescriptions are formed. Finally, through treating both persons and groups as actors in a power-network (two or more connected power-dependence relations) the door is opened for meaningful analysis of complex power structures. Brief reference is made to findings from two experiments pertaining to hypotheses advanced in this theory.
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Thomas S. Kuhn's classic book is now available with a new index. "A landmark in intellectual history which has attracted attention far beyond its own immediate field. . . . It is written with a combination of depth and clarity that make it an almost unbroken series of aphorisms. . . . Kuhn does not permit truth to be a criterion of scientific theories, he would presumably not claim his own theory to be true. But if causing a revolution is the hallmark of a superior paradigm, [this book] has been a resounding success." —Nicholas Wade, Science "Perhaps the best explanation of [the] process of discovery." —William Erwin Thompson, New York Times Book Review "Occasionally there emerges a book which has an influence far beyond its originally intended audience. . . . Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . . . has clearly emerged as just such a work." —Ron Johnston, Times Higher Education Supplement "Among the most influential academic books in this century." —Choice One of "The Hundred Most Influential Books Since the Second World War," Times Literary Supplement
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Many of the fundamental ideas underlying studies of the effect of communications, persuasion, the shaping of attitudes, and the formation of voting intentions can be generalized in terms of a common idea: the concept of influence. The development of effective concepts of wide applicability, like establishing a formal garden in the wilderness, necessarily involves a great struggle to bring order out of obscurity and chaos, and a great deal of systematic planting and cultivation after the initial clearing and pruning have been done. This article is not light reading and some readers will find it easier at least to skim the comments by James Coleman and Ray Bauer before they proceed very far into the main article. Talcott Parsons is Professor of Sociology and formerly Chairman of the Department of Social Relations at Harvard University. He has long been a foremost leader in development of sociological theory. Many of the outstanding social researchers today were at one time his students. Raymond A. Bauer is Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. James S. Coleman is Professor of Sociology and Chairman of the Department of Social Relations at The Johns Hopkins University. This article and the comments on it are based upon a paper presented at the meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research at Lake George, New York, on May 19, 1962, and the invited discussion of that paper.
A Statement of Marketing Philosophy
  • See
See, for example, Marketing Staff of The Ohio State University, "A Statement of Marketing Philosophy," JOUR-NAL OF MARKETING, Vol. 29 (January 1965), pp. 43-44; E. Jerome McCarthy, Basic Marketing, 5th ed. (Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1975);
Marketing Manage-ment
  • Philip Kotler
Philip Kotler, Marketing Manage-ment, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972), p.
Marketing Principles (Pacific Palisades, Calif
  • Ben M Enis
and Ben M. Enis, Marketing Principles (Pacific Palisades, Calif.: Goodyear Publishing Co., 1974), p. 21.
37-62; and Par-sonsOn the Concept of Political Power
  • Parsons Talcott
  • See
  • Richard Emerson Also
Talcott Parsons, "On the Concept of Influence," Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 27 (Spring 1963), pp. 37-62; and Par-sons, "On the Concept of Political Power," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 107 (June 1963), pp. 232-262. See also, Richard Emerson, "Power Dependence Relations," American Sociological Review, Vol. 27 (February 1962), pp. 31-40.
Power in Distribution Channels Cranfield Research Papers in Marketing and Logistics, Session 1973-1974 (Cranfield School of Management
  • Ian Wilkinson
Ian Wilkinson, "Power in Distribution Channels," Cranfield Research Papers in Marketing and Logistics, Session 1973-1974 (Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Bed-fordshire, England);