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Abstract

The authors review more than 250 journal articles and books to establish what is and should be known about how advertising affects the consumer-how it works. They first deduce a taxonomy of models, discuss the theoretical principles of each class of models, and summarize their empirical findings. They then synthesize five generalizations about how advertising works and propose directions for further research. Advertising effects are classified into intermediate effects, for example, on consumer beliefs and attitudes, and behavioral effects, which relate to purchasing behavior, for example, on brand choice. The generalizations suggest that there is little support for any hierarchy, in the sense of temporal sequence, of effects. The authors propose that advertising effects should be studied in a space, with affect, cognition, and experience as the three dimensions. Advertising's positioning in this space should be determined by context, which reflects advertising's goal diversity, product category, competition, other aspects of mix, stage of product life cycle, and target market.
... This thesis was derived from marketing theories, which state that exposure to advertisements may cause feelings of familiarity and evoke positive emotions and attitudes towards the advertisement or product. [29] Moreover, visible placement of tobacco products implies the message that tobacco is a normal retail product. [30] We found that associations tended to be stronger with exposure to outlets with internal visibility than with exposures to outlets without visibility, or outlets with both internal and external visibility. ...
... [33] As theories of marketing argue, there may be a certain exposure threshold for advertisements to affect consumers. [29] A main aim may be to reduce the number of tobacco outlets and tobacco advertising below such a threshold. [18] ...
Article
Background and aims: Exposure to tobacco products and advertising at the point of sale may be associated with pro-smoking cognitions. However, previous studies on this topic measured exposure based on self-reports, and did not include European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the association between objectively measured exposure to tobacco outlets and non-smoking adolescents' smoking attitudes, beliefs and norms. Design: This cross-sectional study combined survey data with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) data using Geographic Information System (GIS). Setting: Four Dutch cities: Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Haarlem, and Zwolle. Participants: We retrieved data of 308 13-17-year-old non-smoking adolescents, of which mainly girls (61%), adolescents attending pre-university secondary education (71%), and without smoking friends (58%). Measurements: Exposure was measured with a smartphone app registering for two weeks how often participants were within 10m of a tobacco outlet. We distinguished between outlets without visible tobacco promotion (i.e., supermarkets), with only internal visibility, and with both internal and external visibility. Participants' reported smoking cognitions were dichotomised into pro-smoking or anti-smoking. We applied multi-level logistic regression analyses, and adjusted for age, sex, educational level, and smoking friends. Findings: On average, adolescents were exposed to 1.18 (SD:1.23) tobacco outlets per day. Higher exposure to tobacco outlets was associated with higher odds of pro-smoking injunctive norm (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.75). Associations with attitude (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.91-1.38), social beliefs (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.93-1.43), health beliefs (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.97-1.44), and descriptive norm (OR: 1.15, 95% CI:0.91-1.44) were also positive, but non-significant. Overall, associations were strongest for outlets with internal visibility, for instance for injunctive norm (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.81). Conclusions: Global Positioning Systems (GPS)-measured exposure to tobacco outlets was associated with pro-smoking cognitions among non-smoking adolescents in the Netherlands.
... 7 8 10 13 For newly introduced products such as nicotine pouches, advertising is fundamental to their success, 14 as the first exposure is the most influential for short-term sales or gains. 15 The impacts of tobacco advertising on youth and adults are widely documented, [16][17][18] with recent research documenting the impacts of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing on harm perceptions and use intentions in youth and young adults. 19 20 Marketing campaigns are based on market research, which may segment populations based ...
... Quantitative data were analysed using Stata V. 15 Table 2 shows that, of the 286 unique ads, 80 first occurred in 2019, 92 first occurred in 2020 and 114 first occurred in 2021. Common headline themes included 'freedom' (eg, 'experience freedom', 'now you can', etc; 25.9%), 'brand' (eg, 'America's #1 brand', 'Choose [brand]'; 18.2%), 'flavour' (eg, 'burst of flavor', specific flavours promoted; 11.2%), 'health claims' (eg, 'no tobacco'; 9.8%), 'promotions' (eg, 'get 25% off ', 'enter to win'; Take' (table 1). ...
Article
Introduction Nicotine pouches are gaining popularity, yet their marketing is understudied. Methods Using Numerator advertising data from January 2019 to September 2021 regarding three popular brands of nicotine pouch in the USA—Zyn (by Swedish Match, introduced in the USA in July 2016), On! (Altria, August 2016) and Velo (RJ Reynolds, July 2019)—we examined (1) general advertising characteristics (eg, media type, year); (2) ad content (ie, headlines and imagery themes); (3) prominent media channels (ie, specific websites, magazines, etc); and (4) ad expenditures. Results There were 286 unique ads (Zyn: 44.4%; On!: 2.8%; Velo: 52.8%), 119 143 occurrences (Zyn: 3.5%; On!: 0.5%; Velo: 96.0%) and $24 774 650 total expenditures (Zyn: 4.7%; On!: 0.6%; Velo: 94.7%). The greatest proportion of ad occurrences and expenditures were accounted for by radio (75.9% and 28.2%, respectively) and television (16.2% and 56.5%), followed by mobile (0.5% and 7.2%) and online display (6.7% and 3.6%). Across ad occurrences and expenditures, prominent headline themes included ‘freedom’ (26.0% and 17.1%, respectively), ‘brand’ (9.6% and 18.6%) and ‘flavour’ (16.4% and 7.6%); images mainly featured the product alone (61.4% and 56.1%), text (16.2% and 24.6%) or men (8.7% and 8.6%); and prominent channel themes were entertainment (34.7% and 37.3%), news/weather (14.3% and 21.7%), business/finance (12.9% and 9.0%) and sports (9.5% and 1.0%). Zyn and On! prioritised online display and print; Velo prioritised radio and television. Zyn’s and Velo’s headlines focused on ‘freedom’, with Zyn also emphasising ‘brand’ and Velo ‘innovation’; On!’s headlines emphasised ‘flavour’. Conclusions Regulatory efforts must be informed by surveillance of nicotine pouch marketing and impacts on consumer subgroups (eg, young people).
... consumer demand. Arguably, from this perspective, supply does effect demand, as demand is manufactured through the promotion of marketed want, projected obsolescence, and appearance of satisfying an unmet need (Nelson, 1974;Vakratsas & Ambler, 1999;Wernick, 1991). All three of these phenomena are focused on gratification but do not necessarily include an understanding of the supply chain related to a product, and responsibility for exercising the power of demand any further than self-satiation. ...
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Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter offer both unique and overlapping opportunities to connect with people. The use of images and visual content reduces language barriers, while ease of access to these media applications increases routine engagement. This chapter provides a brief historical overview of social media, specifically addressing how social media has been used for advertising and information dissemination. We then look at two specific social media campaigns that originated to promote understanding of needed action and social change: #PayUp and #HashtagRevolt, where both are related to the fashion industry. We provide outcomes of these campaigns, including campaign accomplishments, learnings, and implications. In concluding, we acknowledge limitations related to using social media for social change, highlight the ambiguities, and a rationale for ongoing regulatory oversight.
... Since the 1960s, researchers have focused intensively on finding answers to identify and quantify success factors and explain incremental sales volumes through model-based (or model-dependent) approaches (Borden 1964;Sethi 1977;McCarthy 1978;Tellis 1988). Despite the consensus on the general theoretical dynamics expected from the primary factors driving sales-marketing effectiveness (Vakratsas and Ambler 1999;Tellis 2006), these dynamics are often ignored in the studies. Moreover, there is no agreement on how best to address this problem in practical terms, as little or no effort has been put into testing its usefulness beyond the model's in-sample fitting and incredibly neglecting the predictive capacity. ...
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For many decades, considerable research has been conducted on Market Response models. Mostly without any attempts to validate the results in strictly predictive tasks and often ignoring if the methods comply with the underlying assumptions and conditions, like the method’s ability to outline the broadly accepted effects of advertising actions. This work presents an enhanced method for market response models consistent with the underlying assumptions of such. Our method is based on Distributed Lag Models with the novelty of introducing regularization in its estimation, a cross-validation framework, and hold-out testing, next to present an empirical manner of extracting its effects. This approach allows the construction of models in an exploratory and simple manner, unlocking the possibility of extracting the underlying effects and being suitable for large samples and many variables. Last, we conduct a practical example using real-world data, accompanied by an unprecedented set of empirical explainability assessments next to a high level of predictive capability in similar circumstances to how it would be used for decision-making in a corporate setup.
... [1][2][3][4] Advertising can lead to behavior change through direct and indirect pathways, which leads to harm through unhealthy behaviors. 5 The hierarchy of effects model suggests that advertising creates awareness of and interest in a brand or product, which leads to heightened preference and then to a decision to purchase and consume. 6 Much of the advertising children are exposed to is for potentially harmful products (eg, HFSS food, alcohol) which may increase unhealthy behaviors that are associated with a number of detrimental and harmful effects. ...
Article
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Young people are exposed to an abundance of advertising for unhealthy products (eg, unhealthy foods, tobacco, alcohol). Because of their developing cognition, children may not be able to understand the intent of advertising. However, advertising restrictions often assume that adolescents have critical reasoning capacity and can resist the effects of advertising. This review seeks to assess whether the evidence supports this assumption. METHODS Ten databases were searched in December 2020. Inclusion criteria were participants aged 6 to 17 years, any advertising exposure, objectively measured understanding or attitudinal outcome, a comparison, control, and between-group comparison. This study included all languages and excluded studies published pre-2010. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. RESULTS Thirty-eight articles were included. Meta-analysis of 9 studies with attitudinal outcomes indicated that unhealthy product advertising generated more positive brand or product attitudes compared with neutral or no advertising control in all ages. There were significant effects for digital and nondigital advertising formats. We found greater understanding did not protect against the impact of advertising on brand or product attitudes. Limitations include the inability to meta-analyze the impact of advertising on understanding or the influence of age. CONCLUSIONS Evidence shows that the attitudes of young people were influenced by advertising. Critical reasoning abilities did not appear to be fully developed during adolescence and not found to be protective against the impact of advertising. Policymakers should ensure regulations to restrict marketing of unhealthy commodities protects adolescents as well as younger children.
... In video advertising, eliciting favourable emotional responses is considered a powerful method of engaging customers (Hamby & Jones, 2021;Feng, Xie, & Lou, 2019). The possibility of achieving desirable downstream communication outcomes increases when viewers are emotionally engaged (Hamby & Jones, 2021;Vakratsas & Ambler, 1999;Feng, Xie, & Lou, 2019). Psychology has made significant progress in understanding the consequences of unpleasant emotions similar to fear and anxiety on attention (Escalas & Stern, 2003;Hadinejad et al., 2019;Small & Verrochi, 2009). ...
Thesis
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In the modern era, marketers focus more on digital channels, although online marketing efforts are considered a popular topic (Lynch, 2015). The 360-degree video technology is not a completely new nor a completely old concept as it recently has gained attention (in year 2017) by joining the list of standard video formats (Feng, 2018; Feng, Xie, & Lou, 2019). In 2017, around 86% of businesses had used 360-degree videos as part of their respective marketing campaigns (Feng, Xie, & Lou, 2019). The purpose of this study is to investigate the differential effects of 360-degree and standard video advertisements on consumer visual memory under single and multiple viewing conditions. This study addresses two main research questions, “How do the effects of 360-degree video advertisements on visual memory differ from the effects of standard video advertisements?” and “How do the effects of 360-degree video advertisements on visual memory differ from the effects ofstandard video advertisements, after repeated viewing?” using two studies. Study 1 addresses the first research question and study 2 addresses the second research question. The data were collected using experimental surveys and interviews with 40 participants and were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach via NVivo QSR software. This study explores consumer visual memory using the theoretical constructs of a theory of social information processing by Wyer (2003)—a social psychology theory that focuses on several aspects in the social cognition stages (Wyer, 2003). The four theoretical constructs of the ‘workspace’ unit were used, which are comprehender, encoder, inference maker and response selector to explore consumer visual memory. In the single viewing condition, a total of 10 main themes are identified under the four categories of visual comprehension, encoding, inference making and response selection. These are colour detection, facial expressions, visuals on locations, visuals on objects, visuals on people, visuals on actions, multi-cultural symbols, behavioural engagement, visuals on product details and visuals on brand details. In the repeated viewing condition, a total of 11 main themes are identified under the four categories of visual comprehension, encoding, inference making and response selection. These are colour detection, facial expressions, plot or storytelling, visuals on locations, visuals on objects, visuals on people, visuals on actions, emotional engagement, behavioural engagement, visuals on product details and product benefits. The findings of this study are as follows. From a theoretical perspective, the application of a social psychology theory for the advertising sector enables us to gather more insights about the social cognition stages of the human mindset, such as information retrieval, judgement, decision making, goal stimulation, and short- and long-term memory (Wyer, 2003). This study not only explores consumer visual memory of 360-degree video advertisements and standard video advertisements, but also contributes to the theory of social information processing byWyer (2003) by being among the first few comparative study. From a practical perspective, findings of this study provide a solid foundation for advertising firms or agencies, marketers, and salespeople on how to arrange visuals in standard and 360-degree video advertisements in a way that appeals to consumer visual memory, by considering the four categories of comprehender, encoder, inference maker and response selector in visual working memory. Keywords: 360-degree videos, standard videos, qualitative thematic analysis, visual memory, social information processing, social psychology, advertising
Thesis
This thesis reviewed scholarship in the field of media and cultural studies with specific focus on audience studies. Literature review was focused on key themes such as data practices and experiences, data privacy, advertising surveillance and issues around informed consent by users of digital platforms. The review identified a gap in research about user understanding of data exchange with digital platforms and experiences with personalised advertising in India. A mix of qualitative research methods were used to evaluate contemporary experiences of participants engaging with their personal data. This research explored the process of converting digital data trail into customised advertising for smartphone owners and their incentives to participate in this exchange of data for access to app-based services. Industry Experts working in media agencies and marketing function of advertisers were interviewed to understand various sources of digital data that are used for creating affinity audiences. Owners of smartphones in Mumbai and Delhi reflected on their awareness of automated data collection, trust threshold for sharing sensitive data and understanding of advertising technology. Participants discussed the affirmative nature of digital platforms and described services that were critical to their day-to-day functioning. Participants had a gradation of trust and all the apps needed to clear thresholds to be considered reliable. Most of the popular digital platforms were highly trusted on data safety. Digital platforms that scored high on trust quotient were also believed to obfuscate relevant information about the usage and storage of their data in lengthy terms and conditions. Four main reasons stated for not investing time to understand the use of software as service contracts were, There Is No Control (TINC), Fear of Missing (FOMO) on popular apps, there is no time (TINT) to read the lengthy terms and conditions and there is no option (TINO) as there was no alternative to the apps. Participants outlined multiple instances where they saw advertising about topics that they had recently discussed in the vicinity of their smartphones. This led to a widespread belief that smartphone apps such as Facebook and Instagram were listening to their conversations. Industry participants were able to describe an extensive array of practices that were used to identify the right target audience for their campaign, using algorithms running on large databases built on behavioural and transactional data. These processes created highly accurate predictive abilities that enabled highly accurate profiling of Internet users. Some Everyday Users were aware of these processes and the analysis identified them as algorithm-aware. Others were not equipped or motivated to discover information to understand advertising technology. In the absence of this information, participants used heuristics to understand the ability of digital platforms to deliver advertising that is so relevant to their current personal situation. This common-sense explanation for personalised advertising (Ads are listening to me) is named Folk Theory of Customised Advertising. The research highlights the enabling nature of digital technologies in India and outlines a requirement for an easy-to-use toolkit for everyday smartphone users to become algorithm-aware and privacy conscious.
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Youth have been the focus of electronic vapor product (EVP) prevention efforts though young adults had similar increases in current EVP use from 2015–2019. This study tested messages to reduce EVP use in young adults. Eight messages on vaping related harms and addictiveness combined with themes on social use and flavors were selected for inclusion in an online randomized controlled trial. Vermont young adults aged 18–24 (n = 569) were randomized to view the eight vaping prevention messages (n = 295) or eight messages on sun safety (n = 274). After completing baseline measures, participants viewed study messages and completed measures on message perceptions and perceived message effectiveness (PME), EVP-related beliefs, and EVP-related harm perceptions. Participants completed EVP-related beliefs and harm perception measures again at 1-month follow-up, as well as measures on tobacco and EVP-related behavioral intentions and behavior (ever and past 30-day use). Intervention participants reported positive impacts on vaping-related message responses. However, findings suggested no effect of vaping prevention messages on EVP-related beliefs, harm perceptions, or behaviors in the full sample. Exploratory analyses in the intervention condition showed that greater PME was associated with lower odds to intent to try cigarettes in the next year at follow-up.
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In today’s marketplace, social media advertising, such as Facebook ads, are an especially valuable tool for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which are often financially volatile due to their limited access to resources, as well as political, economic, and social factors. The purpose of this article is to help SMEs better understand how to develop an advertising strategy on Facebook that is mindful of their time and resources. The findings of this article suggest that social media ad frequency, specifically on Facebook, leads to website visits, and social media engagement metrics (i.e., post shares and comments) can strengthen this relationship. Website visits, in turn, are suggested to increase the likelihood of purchases made during visits, and longer durations of visits can strengthen this relationship. This research contributes to our knowledge of Facebook advertising effects by examining behavioral trace data generated by consumers engaging with SMEs. By examining real-time consumption patterns, this research provides immediate managerial implications that can be employed by SMEs as they develop Facebook marketing plans for the future.
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The literature on advertising effects is massively loaded in its assumption that advertising does things to people. This paper asks what is known about what people do with advertising and, more significantly, how could we learn more? A review of 15 years' published research into advertising effects located 619 conceptual or empirical studies. Of these, just over 30 considered the integration of advertising into everyday life. Five thematic questions were found to account for the entire literature. First, what do people do during television commercial breaks? Second, what is the social context of advertising reception? Third, how does advertising find expression in interpersonal communication? Fourth, how do intra-family relationships and processes mediate the effects of advertising on children? Fifth, how are advertisements used by family members in their social interactions? The evidence, though somewhat insubstantial, points to an active audience which manages its relationship with advertising and integ...
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This article reviews the conventional view of advertising—the Strong Theory—which is all but universally believed in the United States and which sees advertising as a dynamic force operating as an engine for brand innovation and other types of change in the market-place. In contrast, there is the theory developed over the years with increasing persuasiveness by Andrew Ehrenberg of the London Business School, that sees advertising as a weak force, one that cannot act as a prime mover in the capitalist system, but which is used defensively by most advertisers as a means of protecting the status quo. This essay argues that a good deal of mischief has been caused by an uncritical belief that the Strong Theory operates in all circumstances. As a result, advertising has been associated too much with over-promise and under-delivery. The article's focus is then directed to education for advertising as it is carried out in American universities. It is argued that much of the research carried out in these universit...