Article

SQLJ Part 0, now known as SQL/OLB (Object-Language Bindings)

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Abstract

this article is being written, the editor has just submitted his resolution of comments for the U.S. public review that just took place. It is expected that SQL/OLB will be formally approved by the end of 1998. When it is approved, it will be available for purchase from ANSI as ANSI X3.135.10:1998.

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... How the market will respond to JDO technology is still an open question. 7/3/05 (Eisenberg and Melton, 1998) describe the SQLJ standard and illustrate how it can be used to embed SQL code directly into Java code. SQLJ is a wrapper around JDBC and is similar to other embedded SQL systems. ...
... SQLJ is designed to allow static SQL statements to be inserted directly into Java code. If dynamic SQL is needed, then direct JDBC is preferred (Eisenberg and Melton, 1998). ...
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... Since then a number of query language bindings and embeddings in general purpose programming languages have been proposed and implemented. Examples include SQLJ [13] and more recent LINQ [23] and Ferry [16] middle-ware. Compared with SQL command string interface to database servers, these database binding frameworks certainly increase flexibility and ease of use in accessing databases from programming languages. ...
... The conventional and still widely used approach to database programming is to construct SQL command strings directly and send them to a database server using low-level database server interfaces such as SQL/CLI and JDBC. Embedded SQL such as ECPG of PostgreSQL and SQLJ [13] supports a form of macro SQL statements that are expanded by a preprocessor to those lowlevel database library calls. Both of them are unsatisfactory in many ways; type-checking is far from adequate, and the interaction with the host language construct is rather limited. ...
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Integrating a database query language into a programming language is becoming increasingly important in recently emerging high-level cloud computing and other applications, where efficient and sophisticated data manipulation is required during computation. This paper reports on seamless integration of SQL into SML# - an extension of Standard ML. In the integrated language, the type system always infers a principal type for any type consistent SQL expression. This makes SQL queries first-class citizens, which can be freely combined with any other language constructs definable in Standard ML. For a program involving SQL queries, the compiler separates SQL queries and delegates their evaluation to a database server, e.g. PostgreSQL or MySQL in the currently implemented version. The type system of our language is largely based on Machiavelli, which demonstrates that ML with record polymorphism can represent type structure of SQL. In order to develop a practical language, however, a number of technical challenges have to be overcome, including static enforcement of server connection consistency, proper treatment of overloaded SQL primitives, query compilation, and runtime connection management. This paper describes the necessary extensions to the type system and compilation, and reports on the details of its implementation.
... By the time you read these words, work will be complete on Part 10, SQL/OLB (Object Language Bindings). SQL/OLB corresponds to SQLJ Part 0, about which we wrote in late 1998 (Reference [7]). A version of this specification aligned with SQL-92 was adopted as a new incremental part of the ANSI SQL standard (Reference [8]) in late 1998. ...
... That FDIS ballot should complete in June or July of this year, with the resulting new Part being published as ISO/IEC 9075-10:2000. Reference [7] detailed the technical content of the specification that became the ANSI SQL/OLB standard. The principle technical differences between that document and the ISO OLB:2000 standard derive entirely from new SQL: 1999 capabilities and JDBC2.0 features. ...
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... return toReturn; Figure 2.1: A sample SQL query written using JDBC int rent = 900; #sql iterator Addresses(String address); Addresses a = null; #sql a = {select address into from Apartments where rent < :rent }; Vector<String> toReturn = new Vector<String>(); while (a.next()) toReturn.add(a.address()); return toReturn; Figure 2.2: A sample SQL query written using embedded SQL in Java SQL for Java is often known as SQLJ [EM98], and it allows SQL statements to be intermixed directly with Java code. The SQL code can access Java variables for parameters and results can be stored directly into Java data structures without explicit marshaling. ...
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... One solution to these problems is to create hybrid programming languages that mix other languages with Java. For example, SQLJ [1] is a hybrid of Java and SQL. In SQLJ code, SQL queries can be intermixed with Java, and the queries can make reference to Java variables. ...
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