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A Pattern Language

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... Guidelines are formulated as normative statements for the design of playgrounds. They can be used to set requirements for a specific context and, when found relevant as well in other cities, can evolve to design patterns [79]. ...
... Both the topics of interest and the locations can vary in other cities, especially outside of the western European environment. In order to develop these guidelines into design patterns [79], which will allow designers to use this playground solution over and over again, without ever doing it the same way twice, it is necessary to study more playground initiatives (like Tegelweetjes) in other cities. The guidelines then become design patterns for playgrounds that foster information sharing and social interaction between citizens. ...
... However, future work is necessary to strengthen these guidelines with findings from other playground designs. Ultimately, these guidelines will develop into design patterns [79], which inform designers and researchers on how to create playgrounds in the city where residents will meet, interact, and collaborate on making the city a better place to live. ...
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Citizens' engagement in their neighbourhood community is pivotal for cities to effectively deal with future transitions. Knowing what is going on and having access to the neighbourhood network are important conditions for this. Although prior research has studied ways to foster information sharing between citizens, the underlying assumptions and design choices are often not made explicit. This research identifies design guidelines for playgrounds: physical and virtual spaces where citizens can exchange information about their neighbourhood. A focus group, a workshop and a case study of an existing playground design were performed in The Hague, NL, the context of this research. A set of eight guidelines was identified, covering how to select playground locations, which information to include, and how to design the interaction between citizens. These guidelines inform designers how to create urban playgrounds for citizens to meet, interact, and collaborate to create engaged communities.
... sayings), making these the guiding teachings and directions for all Muslims in most acts of their lives. 1 Frequently, verses in the Qur'an and the prophet's sayings alluded to specific issues concerning how people should respect one another and the environment (this concept is further developed by the author later in this section). As a result, it is no surprise that teachings from the Holy Qur'an, Hadith, and Sunnah (habitual practice) inform Muslims' built environments. ...
... Since each environment fosters mutual support and a strong sense of shared values, individuals can grow [1]. This encourages the entire urban mass to remain relatively constant, while smaller masses within the neighborhood and the components of the smaller masses, which comprise the majority of the neighborhood's huge mass, can change to provide the required flexibility (Fig. 5). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to explore and examine Saudi Arabian traditional architecture through the lens of broader Islamic principles, which through history have encouraged the establishment of several types of cities and towns, where each type is known by its functionality and by the way inhabitants planned each settlement. Local Saudi architecture exists in a range of styles, and it is well-known in various Saudi regions. Although there are differences in style, the study contends and discusses that similar generative principles influenced the built space of most Saudi regions. This study made use of the ethnographic approach and comparative case studies method to explore, elaborate, and synthesize the generative principles to analyze the architectural similarities across Saudi regions, even though the architecture appears, at first glance, different. The article suggests that contemporary architects should implement some of these ideas in modernization efforts to balance originality while also informing and enhancing local identity.
... But this is not just the issue of the scientists either, but the employers' and the space users' as well (cf. Alexander et al., 1977). We argue that participatory planning is crucial not only for primary territories (cf. ...
... Each design process therefore must be tailored to the actual environment-user transaction with the consideration its temporal, dynamic change (cf. Alexander et al., 1977). ...
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A well-designed office environment is often touted as a key motivator nowdays, although it is not entirely clear how to use it consciously. Our goal was to understand the role of the physical environment in new generation offices and whether it can be a motivator at all. We asked open-office employees to describe the three main criteria of an excellent work environment. We analyzed 509 participants' 1456 answers and classified them into 146 content codes. These content codes were further categorized based on whether they refer to the physical or/and the social environment, as well as along the eight needs Maslow described. 82.07 % of the answers referred to the physical environment, ambient stimuli dominated the sample with 324 mentions under 6 content codes (eg.: bright (128), quiet (69)). The majority (55.59 %) of the responses could be categorized under Maslow’s safety needs, but 14.15 % of them referred to one of Maslow’s growth needs (eg.: plants (26), decoration (21)). Using the intersection of Maslow's and Herzberg's theory, we argue that certain physical environmental aspects can be considered as a hygiene factor, some of them as a motivator. And some of them as both meaning some aspects can be considered on more level from an emotional-motivational perspective. Planning an office is not just an architectural question, but a psychological one as well. In order to design human-focused work places we need to understand the exact role and the layering of the physical environmental aspects.
... Relating the works of renowned scholars like Salingaros (Salingaros, 2000(Salingaros, , 2003(Salingaros, , 2005(Salingaros, , 2006, Mehaffy (Mehaffy, 2015), Christopher Alexander (Alexander, 1965(Alexander, , 1979(Alexander, , 2002Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977;Grabow, 1983) and Jane Jacobs (Jacobs, 1961) on the modernism approaches to urban planning, it is clear that the social fabric and liveability dimensions are not given priority by the modernist, which seem to favour car dependency and alienating architectural styles, which is now further explored through data-driven architecture as new software allows for new computing capabilities able to render more structurally complex forms. However, this supply is very much driven by a demand for this approach. ...
... According to him, modernist pursuits disrupts the identity of urban areas, and as was the view of Jacobs (1961), leading to increased seclusion and individualism if the social aspects are not emphasized. To ensure urban harmony, Salingaros (2003) explains that the modernist approaches need to incorporate the advice by Christopher Alexander (Alexander et al., 1977) who supports that cities should be planned such that, ultimately, they achieve 'wholeness' as well as 'complexity', which are attained when every aspect of the city is meticulously arranged to permeate humanism and other aspects of the city to prevail. Unless this is done, he argues that the social aspects would remain a fallacy as esthetics and complex architectural works without plight of the local considered only serve as traps meant to alienate and disjoin the habitat of such environments. ...
Chapter
While there have been a slow rural-urban transition which highlighted the role that cities are the centre for sustaining economies of regions, and even countries, it was the advent of the Internet that has drastically changed the way they are planned, operate and seen. A resulting rise in data, fuelled by a heavy technological revolution, showed that there are new ways of increasing urban efficiency and productivity. This has even reflected in reforms at governance levels and has proved how the digital layer can provide stronger networks. However, while this reinforces economies, it brings substantial changes in urban lifestyle that has for centuries and decades remained unchanged. This disruption in lifestyle is happening at faster speed and impacting not only on the social strata, but also reflecting in its physical form, the urban morphology. While the primary notion of increasing efficiency of cities is understood, the question remains of how to allow change while still catering for the liveability of cities.
... In people's ethics, it is a common idea to relate farming space to community 5) . Concerning community, social anthropologist like Cohen said that the common belonging existing within its boundary, despite its objectively apparent, could be perceived differently depending on the individual 6) . ...
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This study examines the aspect of variation of spatial qualities on the user’s experience in selected public rooftop gardens (RG) in Tokyo. Firstly, a combined method of fieldwork and simulation was used to describe the physical attributes in different environmental conditions to disclose the variation in RG settings. Secondly, these setting’s patterns are interpreted through parameters of experience to reveal the tendency of variation in each parameter. Finally, by connecting setting and experience, the quality factors of RG will emerge as a tangible and intangible relationship between Space Affordance with Usage and Image of Identity.
... Institusi yang baru diharapkan memperlihatkan bahwa edukasi tidak bisa diterima secara berbeda-beda oleh kalangan tertentu, melainkan lebih terbuka. (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) Di dalam bukunya, 'A Pattern Language' , menjelaskan bahwa edukasi kini mulai berubah menjadi lebih menyebar / tidak terpusat. Melakukan eksplorasi untuk belajar adalah hal yang bisa dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan lebih dibandingkan belajar di satu tempat saja, seperti workshop, jalan-jalan mengelilingi kota, pergi ke museum, seminar. ...
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Education in Indonesia is not ready to be used in the workplace because of the limited skills of today's graduates. Therefore, for the millennium as a graduate candidate, the change in the education system is one of the important things in the future. Architecturally, what we want to achieve is to create an educational space that suits the needs. Vocational schools are one of the solutions to overcome the workforce that is considered to not have sufficient skills. Specifically, the field that is the focus of this vocational school is Computer Science or Computer Science. The theory concludes that the relationship between typology, architecture, and millennial behavior in educational buildings is a space that has an effective collaboration and classroom system. The design method used is a stepwise analysis, namely on site, program activities, and design concepts, where the analysis produces a design. In conclusion, site selection does not affect the building of education, but rather the distribution of circulation. In the activity program, the building system architecturally is to share the capacity of the closed class, with open spaces such as collaborative space to study outside the classroom or mutual discussion. The program is to build a conducive educational atmosphere and support students to improve their abilities. And finally, open space has different peil floors to be one component in architectural values that can be used to guarantee the existence of connectivity between spaces. AbstrakPendidikan di Indonesia belum siap untuk dipakai dalam dunia kerja karena adanya keterbatasan kemampuan dari lulusan sarjana masa kini. Oleh karena itu, untuk generasi millenial sebagai calon lulusan sarjana, perubahan sistem pendidikan menjadi salah satu hal yang penting di masa depan. Secara arsitektural, hal yang ingin dicapai adalah menciptakan ruang edukasi yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Sekolah vokasi menjadi salah satu solusi untuk mengatasi angkatan kerja yang dianggap belum memiliki skill yang cukup. Secara spesifik, bidang yang menjadi fokus di dalam sekolah vokasi ini adalah Computer Science atau Ilmu Komputer. Teori menyimpulkan bahwa hubungan antara tipologi, arsitektur, dan perilaku millenial pada bangunan edukasi adalah ruang yang memiliki sistem kolaborasi dan ruang kelas yang efektif. Metode perancangan yang digunakan adalah analisa bertahap, yaitu pada tapak, program kegiatan, dan konsep perancangan, dimana analisa tersebut menghasilkan desain. Kesimpulannya, pemilihan tapak tidak mempengaruhi bangunan edukasi, melainkan lebih kepada pembagian sirkulasi. Pada program kegiatan, sistem bangunan secara arsitektural adalah membagi kapasitas kelas tertutup, dengan ruang terbuka seperti ruang kolaboratif untuk belajar di luar kelas ataupun saling diskusi. Program tersebut untuk membangun suasana pendidikan yang kondusif dan mendukung untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pada pelajar. Dan terakhir, ruang terbuka memiliki perbedaan peil lantai menjadi salah satu komponen dalam nilai arsitektur yang bisa digunakan untuk menjamin adanya konektivitas antar ruang.
... In an academic research into what can be learned from modernist and contemporary architectural designs built in the Gulf cities over the past half century a set of case studies was selected and analyzed according to their capacity to provide passive cooling in the hot climate of the region (Knebel, 2019). These findings are articulated in the form of patterns, a format that is seen as an appropriate way of communicating knowledge about "proven solutions for recurring problems" in architecture (Alexander, 1977). ...
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In Oman, like in all countries of the Gulf region, the building culture is in a crisis. The challenge to balance between a harsh outdoor climate and raised expectations for indoor comfort is not solved in a sustainable way, yet. Due to the availability of fossil fuel at very low costs, energy for cooling buildings is not used efficiently. This is not only wasteful, but also takes away the incentive to innovate. Consequently, the region’s building boom of the past decades was a growth without progress. Neither has significant new knowledge been generated locally, nor has external knowledge been transferred to build local capacity in the field of sustainable buildings. To break up this stagnation, The Research Council of the Sultanate of Oman (TRC) started in 2011tofundaprojectinwhichtheGermanUniversityofTechnologyinOman(GUtech) designed, planned, built, and currently operates and monitors a net-zero-energy residential building on its campus.ThispapershowsthatGUtech’sEcoHausisnotonly in a building as a product,but also a process of generating and transferring knowledge by combining teaching, research and practice within one university project.
... Estas fases correspondem, respectivamente, às fases de formulação, geração e avaliação e são embasadas por teorias próprias. A formulação ou pré-design faz uso da linguagem de padrões (pattern language) desenvolvida por Alexander et al. (2013) aliada aos padrões de programação desenvolvidos por Gamma et al. (1995) para a resolução de problemas (design patterns) com base nas teorias de Alexander. A fase de geração ou design faz uso de gramáticas discursivas (discursive grammars), conceito desenvolvido por Duarte (2005) baseado na combinação entre a gramática da forma (shape grammar) e a gramática descritiva (description grammar) desenvolvidas por Stiny (1980Stiny ( , 1981. ...
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Although it has at least a decade of discussions, the definition of what would be a City Information Modeling (CIM) still presents itself as a controversy field. Since the first unpretentious discussions on the emergence of such technology, many have been the authors who approach the question, under various approaches. The discussion about the use of technologies to deal with a large number of information, manage a large number of actors and model a complex process is something that has been faced for decades by the AECO industry, which makes the analogy between solutions Building Information Modeling (BIM), and those that address urban issues inevitable. However, civil construction and city, besides the difference of scales, have significant differences between the levels of systemic complexity, which makes the transposition of the concepts of BIM to CIM meet certain ontological problems. If we think of fomenting a discussion about a "city information model", it is useful to understand what paradigms such a model is based on, which begins by defining how a city can be represented, what information is useful for its representation, and who are the subjects that will deal with this information, performing what types of activity. These aspects directly involve issues related to the use of information technology in the urban planning process, which, in addition to contributing to the debate on requirements for the construction of a regional ontology, bring up broader issues partially addressed by a large number of current CIM discussions, such as those focused on management and participation. This framework builds the general understanding of the problem domain that a CIM must address, understanding its task of contributing to the construction of description and prediction processes, as well as support in the creation of prescription rules. This leads us to debate the theories that have been used as paradigms representation of the city and urban phenomena. In this way, a debate about the recent production of works that are used and discusses the concept of CIM is raised, realizing to what extent the proposals are able to formulate a regional ontology about the city, to articulate theories of representation and measurement of the urban phenomena and to establish a flow of information between the different actors of the planning process, be it from the theoretical point of view, or from the practical point of view. KEYWORDS: ontology; CIM; information modeling; City; urban planning.
... Our idea of interaction patterns draws from Christopher Alexander and his colleagues work in architecture wherein they developed 253 design patterns (Alexander et al., 1977;Alexander, 1979). According to Alexander, each pattern describes a solution to a problem wherein the solution can be enacted in an infinite number of ways, yet still be recognized as the same pattern. ...
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Human interaction with nature is vital for physical health and mental well-being, and positions a community to be resilient to urban stressors. Yet urban development continues to put pressures on natural areas within urban boundaries. As a case in point, Seattle's largest park, Discovery Park, of over 500 acres, is often under threat of some form of development. The central question of this study was whether the benefits to visitors of Discovery Park depend, in no small measure, on the park's very size and relative wild landscape. Toward addressing this question, 320 participants provided written narratives (through our web portal) about the meaningful ways in which they interacted with nature at Discovery Park. Each individual narrative was then analyzed and coded using an Interaction Pattern (IP) approach, which provides characterizations of human-nature interaction that have ontogenetic and phylogenetic significance. Results revealed 520 Interaction Patterns (IPs). The most frequently occurring IPs clustered under the keystone IPs of Encountering Wildlife (27%), Following Trails (14%), Walking to Destination Spots in Nature (8%), Gazing out at the Puget Sound or Mountains (6%), Walking Along Edges of Beach or Bluffs (5%), and Walking with Dogs (4%). Results also revealed that visitors' meaningful interactions with nature in Discovery Park depended on the park's relative wildness. For example, (a) 77% of participants' IPs depended on Discovery Park's relative wildness; (b) of the participants who specified an especially meaningful experience with nature, 95% of them had an interaction that depended on Discovery Park's relative wildness; and (c) of the participants whose IPs were linked to other aspects of the nature in the park or to their own positive mental states, 95 and 96%, respectively, had an interaction that depended on Discovery Park's relative wildness. Discussion focuses on how human interaction with large and relatively wild urban parks helps reverse the trend of environmental generational amnesia, and a domination worldview, and thus should be prioritized in urban planning.
... Thereby, the concept of patterns has played a major role in incorporating the different perspectives of the studies conducted around the various CE challenges. A pattern describes a problem that occurs over and over again in our environment [14]. Following this logic, we have defined circular economy challenge patterns (CECPs) as the core idea of recurring and similar CE challenges. ...
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This paper makes a new contribution to the understanding of challenges for the transition toward the circular economy (CE) by identifying the main CE challenge patterns (CECPs) and analyzing their relevance for the tourism sector. Our work is based on a previous systematic literature review of 42 articles on CE through open coding following grounded theory. This allowed us to identify 68 CECPs and classify them into three levels of abstraction: microenvironmental, macroenvironmental, and organizational. To make this general research relevant to the tourism industry we conducted semi-structured interviews with 33 experts in CE and tourism, ensuring that theoretical saturation was reached. The data was analyzed in two coding phases, identifying which general CECPs are applicable to the tourism industry and which of them need further specification. The result shows that 34 of the 68 CECPs are applicable to tourism, of which 41% need to be specified to be relevant to the sector. Especially at the microenvironmental level, 53% of the general CECPs needed to be specified for the case of tourism. The analysis allowed to identify the 10 most crucial CECPs for the tourism industry and which of them have been most affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
... Nous avons adopté la technique des patrons afin de présenter ces schémas permettant de gérer de manière dynamique le modèle proposé.3.4.1. L'approche« patrons»L'approche « patrons » en conception fut initiée par[Alexander et al., 1977] dans le domaine de l'architecture des bâtiments. Ce terme, issu de l'artisanat (un patron est le modèle sur lequel travaillent les artisans afin de fabriquer des objets) est la traduction du terme anglais « pattern » désignant un modèle schématique ou simplifié d'un modèle. ...
Thesis
Dans un contexte de performances de plus en plus exigeantes, les acteurs de la conception de produits mécaniques sont invités à collaborer de plus en plus étroitement afin de mener à bien leur projet. Ces exigences de plus en plus pointues dans des domaines précis conduisent à une augmentation globale du patrimoine de connaissances des acteurs. La mise en commun de connaissances très diverses lors des phases de collaboration a très vite mis en évidence la nécessité de structurer ce patrimoine de manière à pouvoir le réutiliser à bon escient tout au long du cycle de vie du produit, afin notamment de prévenir d'éventuels conflits. La multiplicité des expertises et points de vue des acteurs rassemblés autour du projet de conception est un facteur d'amplification de ceux-ci. Dans ce contexte, notre travail propose une solution à la gestion et la résolution de conflits apparaissant autour des problèmes de conception. Nous présentons dans ce mémoire un référentiel pour la conception collaborative de produits spécifiquement dédié à la gestion de conflits. Ce référentiel propose une véritable infrastructure pour permettre aux différents acteurs impliqués dans un conflit de structurer leurs échanges et de capitaliser les solutions évoquées à des fins de réutilisation dans d'autres projets. Nous implémentons ce référentiel dans l'application logicielle CO²MED (COllaborative COnflict Management in Engineering Design). Nous validons celui-ci sur un cas industriel issu de la conception d'un stator de moteur électrique chez Alstom Moteurs Nancy.
... Alguns exemplos são: 'múltiplo uso', 'recintos, pátios e pracetas', 'perspectiva grandiosa', 'ponto focal', 'articulação' etc. (Figura 2). Outro trabalho que buscou evidenciar e sistematizar os elementos constituintes da cidade é o de Alexander et al. (1977) que formulou uma metodologia de projeto inovadora baseada em uma linguagem de parâmetros de projeto , englobando três diferentes escalas: da cidade, do edifício e da construção, das quais somente a primeira será analisada. Cada padrão descreve um problema que ocorre repetidamente no ambiente, bem como um núcleo de soluções para este problema. ...
Thesis
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O objetivo geral da pesquisa é investigar as formas, tipologias e paisagens urbanas das áreas de expansão recente do município de Campinas e suas similaridades com as urbanizações recentes das cidades que compõem a Região Metropolitana de Campinas. O objetivo específico é evidenciar as tipologias e os padrões de forma e de paisagem que conformam essas novas aglomerações urbanas, formulando um vocabulário urbano capaz de descrever seus resultados formais. A hipótese do trabalho é que as expansões recentes dessas cidades são conformadas pelo mesmo conjunto de tipologias, formas e paisagens urbanas que já não podem mais ser entendidas através das abordagens e vocabulários tradicionais da disciplina. O método adotado é o estudo de caso de caráter exploratório e descritivo, baseado na observação técnica do autor das imagens aéreas e fotografias urbanas disponibilizadas pelos pacotes de ferramentas Google Earth e Google Street View e dos materiais levantados nas visitas técnicas. A urbanização de Campinas e das maiores cidades que compõem a sua região metropolitana ocorreu de forma periférica, fragmentada e potencializada pelos eixos rodoviários, conformando aglomerações urbanas que podem ser entendidas como mutações urbanas. Mutação urbana é um conceito forjado por Solà-Morales (2002) que auxilia o entendimento das dinâmicas de formação da cidade contemporânea, que vem se conformando através de formas e paisagens urbanas que são distintas das encontradas nos tecidos urbanos tradicionais do seu entorno. Os eixos rodoviários são a espinha dorsal para o funcionamento das mutações urbanas. Os shopping centers, seu elemento catalisador mais comum. O método proposto baseia-se numa abordagem que utiliza o conceito da mutação como chave para uma sintaxe de leitura espacial. A partir dela é possível enfatizar e delimitar as aglomerações urbanas contemporâneas que compartilham o mesmo conjunto de características morfológicas, possibilitando a demarcação das áreas de estudo. Os resultados apontam a formação de doze mutações urbanas em Campinas e mais doze mutações urbanas nas cidades de Valinhos, Vinhedo, Indaiatuba, Hortolândia, Sumaré e Paulínia, formando um eixo metropolitano onde prevalece esse tipo de urbanização. As mutações são conformadas por um conjunto de nove tipologias residenciais e quatro tipologias comerciais que se estruturam no território através de dezoito padrões de implantação e trinta e três padrões paisagísticos. No geral, as mutações são aglomerações peri-urbanas que se ligam às rodovias através de avenidas arteriais, formadas por tipologias residenciais e comerciais muradas e controladas, suportadas por grandes shopping centers e lojas de departamentos, e imersas em vazios urbanos. São áreas que contrastam com o restante da cidade, seja pelo espaço público mínimo voltado apenas para a locomoção dos automóveis, pela ausência de comércio e vida pública, ou pela paisagem genérica e de baixa expectativa. Palavras-chave: Mutação Urbana, Morfologia Urbana, Paisagem Urbana, Cidade Contemporânea, Região Metropolitana de Campinas.
... The notion of activity as the fundamental unit of human-centric design has an established tradition in architecture. For example, Alexander's (1977) A Pattern Language focuses on the interactions between the physical spaces and the way in which they inhibit or facilitate shared societal values and customs (Benyon, 2014, p. 33). Likewise, premised on three categories of activity namely: necessary, optional and social activities Gehl (1987) is concerned with the everyday activities of people and the impact of these activities on urban planning. ...
Conference Paper
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While much of the development of ‘smart’ technologies occurs in the Global North, the logical expectation is that in the near future ‘smart’ technologies will be implemented across the world. Technology is never value neutral and always carries particular cultural and political assumptions. Ensuring technology is meaningful to people implies that it should acknowledge and support their conceptions and desires. If the particular needs and contexts of local, urban African communities are not recognised, ‘smart’ technologies, when implemented in urban contexts such as Johannesburg, South Africa (also known as iGoli in isiZulu – the City of Gold), may be undertaken in an uncritical and perhaps even detrimental manner. This paper describes an interdisciplinary project involving fourth-year industrial and interaction design students working in collaborative teams to consider how the emerging ‘smart’ technologies of the 21st Century, can be implemented in a human-centric manner, particularly in the complex context of Johannesburg. The central conceptual framework that orientated the teams’ design thinking was a novel integration of McCullough’s Typology of Thirty Situations (TTS) with Engeström’s Activity System Model (ASM).
... Sınırlar ile oluşturulmuş özel alan kapalılık ve açıklık derecesine bağlı olarak kendi düzenini korumakta ve süreklilik sağlamaktadır. Alexander (1982), alt kültürlerde ortak yaşam şekli olan insan gruplarının, farklılıklarını dış müdahalelerden korumak üzere çevrelerinde bir sınıra ihtiyaç duyduklarını ileri sürmektedir. Bu durumda alt kültür sınırı, hücre duvarı gibi çalışmakta, alt kültür bireylerini korumakta ve dış işlevlerle etkileşimleri için alan yaratmaktadır. ...
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Sınırlar insan yaşamında çeşitli biçimlerde var olurlar. Doğada topoğrafya, su, bitki gibi öğelerle var olan sınırlar, insan tarafından oluşturulan çevrede güvenlik, mahremiyet vb.ihtiyaçlar nedeniyle yaratılmaktadır. Sınırlandırılmış mekân aslında mimarlığın ilk basamağıdır ve insanın evrensel boşluğu, kendi çevresinde özel bir yer ayırarak tanımlama isteğinden kaynaklanır. Bireylerin birbirleriyle ve kent ile kurdukları ilişkilerde karşılaşılan sınırlar toplumsal hayatta yaşamı biçimlendiren bir unsur olarak kullanılmakta ve kent yaşamını dönüştürmektedir. Çevremizde bazen katı ve geçilmez olarak oluşturulmuş sınırlar kamusal alanları kullanmamızı zorlaştırırken, bazen gerekli olmakta, çevremizde yaşanabilir alanlar yaratmaktadır. Bu makalede kentteki sınırların bireyin yaşamında nasıl yer aldığı incelenmekte, gündelik yaşamda karşılaşılan, görünen ya da görünmeyen sınır, sınırlama eylemlerinin nedenleri ve nasıllarına cevap aranırken, bu eylemlerin fiziksel mekânda oluşturdukları izdüşümleri sorgulanmaktadır. İstinye’de planlı ve plansız gelişen konut alanlarının yer aldığı bir bölgede gerçekleştirilen alan çalışmasında yaya olarak dolaşan araştırmacı doğal ve yatay pek çok sınırla karşılaşmış, bu sınırların kamusal alanı kullanan birey üzerinde yarattığı etkiyi saptamaya çalışmıştır. Kapalı konut bölgelerinde görülen sınırların parçalı bir yaşam oluşturduğu, bu durumun sınırların dışında kalan bireyin kenti kullanımını olumsuz etkilediği açıktır. Kentte giderek artan sınırların sosyal ve mekânsal ayrımı tetiklediği, fiziksel ve toplumsal açıdan dengesizlik oluşturduğu görülmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sınırlar, kent, konut, kapalı konut yerleşmeleri.
... As participatory processes are more and more supported by information technology, this enables both sides, users, and researches to understand and collect diverse knowledge, for example, opinions, ideas, objectives, statements, etc.; however, it increases the complexity and the handling of information when it comes to decision-making. Regarding user participation, the possibilities of digitalization should be regarded as an opportunity to accompany the social transformation toward a digital society in the information age of the twenty-first century [3]. A participatory process involves the side of the researcher or organizer and the side of the participants. ...
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Planning for resilience and enabling positive design outcomes require combinatory methods of working with data, in order to assist decision-makers to develop evidence-based methodologies and to communicate new knowledge. The staggering rise of technology and the integration of data-aided analysis tools in urban planning not only facilitates our understanding of socioeconomic flux but also attempts to actively involve users to participate in the creation of environments that are responsive and appropriate to their needs. This chapter aims to contribute to the discourse on user involvement in design-oriented fields, and specifically in urban planning, by analyzing two different approaches of user participatory design, those of indirect and direct participation.
... Der Begriff "pattern language" stammt ursprünglich aus dem Bereich der Architektur (vgl. Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977). Als "pattern" werden ausdrücklich keine dekorativen Elemente, sondern Gestaltungslösungen für grundlegende menschliche Bedürfnisse bezeichnet. ...
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Im Bereich Publishing 4.0 werden effiziente Verfahren zur crossmedialen Ausgabe flussorientierter Layouts benötigt. Dazu wird in dieser Arbeit das aus dem Single Source Publishing bekannte Prinzip der zentralen Speicherung und Wiederverwendung von Inhalten auch auf visuelle Eigenschaften übertragen. Diese können somit ebenfalls modular und weitgehend medienneutral in Stylesheets gespeichert werden, was Redundanzen vermeidet und die Wartbarkeit verbessert. Die medienspezifische Optimierung erfolgt erst im letzten Schritt des crossmedialen Publikationsprozesses. Da bestehende zur Modularisierung benötigte Informationsmodelle die zur Kohärenzsicherung erforderlichen Relationen unzureichend behandeln, wird der gesamte Publikationsprozess neu modelliert. Die Modellierung stützt sich dabei auf die Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) und die Sprechakttheorie als linguistische Grundlagen. In der Modellierung wird von einem Informationsraum IR ausgegangen, der die Gesamtheit an Informationen enthält. Diese werden anhand der Sprechakttheorie in Bausteine segmentiert, die jeweils dem Erreichen eines kommunikativen Handlungsziels dienen und durch ihre thematische Proposition sowie handlungsbeschreibende Illokution klassifiziert werden. Die Verknüpfungen der Bausteine werden mit Hilfe der kohärenzsichernden RST-Relationen beschrieben. Zur Publikation werden im nächsten Schritt Bausteine in den Publikationsraum PR und Navigationsraum NR selektiert. Das Publizieren dieser Selektion stellt dabei eine Abbildung eines mehrdimensionalen Raumes auf einer 2-dimensionalen Fläche dar. Das Single-Source-Prinzip erfordert eine Abbildungsvorschrift, die Struktur und visuelle Eigenschaften trennt. Die strukturelle Linearisierung transformiert die Bausteine in eine linear rezipierbare Abfolge. Die Klassifizierung der Bausteine anhand von Proposition, Illokution und Relation wird zum regelbasierten Zuweisen von visuellen Eigenschaften genutzt. Dies verhindert transformationsbedingte Informationsverluste und dient der Kohärenzsicherung. Im Formatierungsverfahren werden die visuellen Eigenschaften in Stylesheets organisiert. IR-spezifische Stylesheets bestehen aus medienneutralen Eigenschaften zur Visualisierung in einem normierten Referenzraster. PR bzw. NR-spezifische Stylesheets enthalten medienneutrale Eigenschaften zur Auszeichnung der Textstruktur durch relative Abweichung von der Referenz. Zur Anpassung der visuellen Eigenschaften an das Ausgabemedium wird ein Optimierungsverfahren entwickelt. Die optimierten Eigenschaften werden in medienspezifischen Stylesheets erfasst. Die Anwendbarkeit der Modellierung wird anhand eines Anwendungsbeispiels gezeigt. Als IR dient eine Sammlung von Kochrezepten, die segmentiert und klassifiziert werden. Anhand ihrer Proposition können die Rezept-Bausteine medienneutral in den PR selektiert werden. Zudem werden Bausteine zur Erschließung in den NR ausgewählt. Die Linearisierung erfolgt für alle Ausgabekanäle in HTML-Dateien, die mit CSS formatiert und als „responsive“ Website und druckfähiges PDF gerendert werden. Die Organisation der visuellen Eigenschaften in medienneutralen und medienspezifischen Stylesheets ermöglicht dabei eine effiziente und konsistente Formatierung crossmedialer Layouts. Somit kann gezeigt werden, dass das Single-Source-Prinzip auch auf visuelle Eigenschaften übertragbar ist. Das vorgestellte Publikationsverfahren verbessert zum einen den Formatierungsprozess. Zum anderen stellt die Integration von RST und Sprechakttheorie in die Informationsmodellierung eine linguistisch fundierte Methode zur Strukturierung vernetzter Informationen dar, die eine kohärente Zusammenstellung anhand kommunikativer Zielvorgaben ermöglicht. In dieser Hinsicht liefert die Arbeit eine Modellierungsgrundlage, die nicht nur zur Formatierung sondern auch zur Automatisierung von Kommunikation angewandt werden könnte.
... But, before the dust settles on this, it is worth noting that such trends of diversifying the experiences in a single city have been seen to negatively impact the cultural and innate identity of cities, as these can be found everywhere. This eventually leads to homogenous landscapes, which according to urbanists like Jane Jacobs (Jacobs, 1961), Nikos Salingaros (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) and Christopher Alexander (Alexander, 2002;Seamon, 2007) among many others, leads to the deterioration on the value of the city, especially in terms of liveability, inclusivity and sustainability (Alexander, 2002). When this happens, Hocaoğlu (2017) shares that the city then finds it hard to create a brand or image that would render uniqueness and attracteness, hence rendering it more difficult to increase its ability to appeal to the emerging market of cultural tourism. ...
Chapter
The role of technology becomes more pronounced and advances in various fields emerge and are made to impact on the lifestyle of people. One such notable impact has been on that of the transportation and tourism sector which are seen to witness an incre-mental rise due to the substantial rise in middle-income groups and through newly renovated and increasing access networks, hence moulding our interaction with cities. This gives new ways of mannerisms and interesting patterns, as seen through the youth and their intimate relationship with social media when travelling. However, as the implementation of technologically inclined solutions gain ground, we are made away of its risks that can reverberate on the urban form as well as on governance decisions and the innate identity of place.
... In the second step, recommendations from pattern language were analysed (Alexander et al., 1977). Alexander et al. claim that certain spatial situations support life, whereas others do not. ...
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Feng shui is a traditional Chinese art of creating a supportive living environment. Despite many research contributions on feng shui, very few verify (comparatively or experimentally) the actual effectiveness of feng shui recommendations. Even the architectural profession has never clearly denied its opinion on feng shui. This comparative analysis seeks to determine whether 118 selected feng shui school of form recommendations are consistent with the recommendations of Alexander et al.’s pattern language and with selected findings in environmental psychology. The results support this, showing that 34% of the recommendations (or forty recommendations out of 118 in total) are consistent with pattern language and that 45% (or fifty-three recommendations) are fully or partially consistent with the findings of environmental psychology. Altogether, more than half of the recommendations (57%, or sixty-seven recommendations) are consistent (indirectly confirmed) by one or the other knowledge system, which means that it is very likely that these recommendations will actually have the promised impact on users of physical space. Twenty-seven feng shui recommendations (or 23% out of the 118) are doubly consistent, of which most are related to the five-animals feng shui model, the importance of the presence of water and natural light in the living environment, and the importance of the main entrance. The bulk of the recommendations, which remain unaddressed, relate to the Chinese concept of living energy, or qi.
... Aşağıda puanlanan 5 meydan kendi başlıkları altında değerlendirilmiştir. (Carr, 1992). O yüzden kentsel mekânlar, değişen sosyo-ekonomik koşullara ve kentlerin kültürel dokusuna cevap verebilen "yaşayan organizmalar "olarak da kabul edilmektedir (Alexander, 1977). ...
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Bu araştırmada; Mersin Kent Merkezi’nde bulunan 5 adet meydanın kalite sınıflandırması açısından belirlenen 8 değerlendirme kriterine göre puanlanmış ve bu meydanların yer seçimi, donatıları vb. konuları açısından hangi sınıf meydan oldukları belirlenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda; Cumhuriyet Meydanı’nın iyi, Mersin İdman Yurdu, Fenerbahçe, BJK 100. Yıl, Galatasaray Meydanlarının çok iyi meydan sınıfına girdiği belirlenmiştir. Dolayısıyla değerlendirilen 5 meydanın yer seçiminde ve tasarımında doğru kararlar verildiği tespit edilmiştir.
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Morfologia Urbana é a ciência que estuda a forma física das cidades, bem como os principais atores e processos de transformação que moldam essa forma. Dada a complexidade do objeto de estudo, a Morfologia Urbana tem uma clara natureza multidisciplinar, recebendo contributos de diferentes disciplinas e de diferentes ‘abordagens’ dentro da mesma disciplina. Este livro é constituído por oito capítulos. Para além da introdução e das conclusões, o livro é composto por seis capítulos centrais, cada um deles dedicado a uma abordagem especifica, cada um deles assinado por um ou mais autores – alguns dos maiores especialistas, nestas seis abordagens, no contexto luso-brasileiro.
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Nature school settings provide opportunities for experiential learning across many developmental domains. This study focused on an afterschool nature program in Santa Cruz County, California, which serves kindergarten through fifth grade students. The study was designed as a pilot to both learn about the program’s effectiveness, and to test the feasibility and effectiveness of methods for sustained program evaluation. The study showed positive and statistically significant results for most developmental areas and that teachers considered most effective those lessons that engage multiple developmental domains. Future program assessments should examine the number of developmental domains lessons engage and should partner with a local university or expert for periodic in-depth evaluation.
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The psychological needs of the inhabitants are directly influenced by the spatial layouts; hence the spatial organization plays a major role in housing. This role becomes even more significant, when housing a community such as the urban poor who has strong social ties. The Government organizations in Sri Lanka often resettle the urban poor in high-rise housing. Such housing interventions often do not acknowledge the spatial relationships and organizations of such communities. The hypothesis of this research is that the spatial configuration (hierarchical order) in housing is influenced by behavioral patterns of its inhabitants and vice versa. Hence it influences the overall level of satisfaction of its inhabitants. Hence this paper explores this relationship. The data were collected from an ongoing community housing project in Colombo-Thotalanga which is named as "Muwadora Uyana". Space syntax and in-depth interviews were the data collection tools. The first objective of the study is to study the original arrangement of a case to examine the rooted spatial hierarchy patterns. The second objective was to examine the same in a case where rehousing has taken place and hence the rooted spatial arrangements have been changed. The impact of spatial configuration on social interactions and privacy was specially focused on. The study has established the significance of informal spaces when housing the urban poor.
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This book explores the emergence and development of data in cities. It exposes how Information Communication Technology (ICT) corporations seeking to capitalize on cities developing needs for urban technologies have contributed to many of the issues we are faced with today, including urbanization, centralization of wealth and climate change. Using several case studies, the book provides examples of the, in part, detrimental effects ICT driven ‘Smart City’ solutions have had and will have on the human characteristics that contribute to the identity and sense of belonging innate to many of our cities. The rise in Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, and technologies like social media, has changed how people interact with and in cities, and Allam discusses of how these changes require planners, engineers and other urban professionals to adjust their approach. The main question the book seeks to address is ‘how can we use emerging technologies to recalibrate our cities and ensure increased livability, whilst also effectively dealing with their associate challenges?’ This is an ongoing conversation, but one that requires extensive thought as it has extensive consequences. This book will be of interest to students, academics, professionals and policy makers across a broad range of subjects including urban studies, architecture and STS, geography and social policy.
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The Millennium Development Goals, agreed targets by United Nations, specifically Objective No. 7, which seeks to ensure environmental sustainability, establish priority guidelines for cities to be on focal point in the current global scenarios, given their significant role as important impacts on ecosystems, use of resources and waste. In developed countries, discussions are set on issues like patterns consumption and global resources access, while developing countries are still focused on urban and spatial structures efficiency, economic growth, inequity reduction, and poverty overcoming. It is very important to combine series of design criteria and adapt benchmarks towards these goals. Assessment and adaptation at the local level of the broad concept of urban sustainability is an urgent challenge today. The trends that our cities will follow in the coming years and the typologies of growth and implantation, with which they will develop and transform our neighbourhoods, will be decisive to face the challenge of urban sustainability in the future. We understand that still there is much more needs to be done in terms of designing our neighbourhoods, improving energy efficiency, and also giving better quality to the housing developments, with distributions and densities that could create complexity and diversity. It should be mentioned that both urbanization projects carried out for the traditional real estate market as well as with public contributions and subsidies, at any stage of the design, are actually in Chile considering issues of evaluation of the quality of the whole project.
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This is a qualitative analytical study into the phenomena of being able to dwell within in-patient hospice environments. What role does the architecture of hospices play in a dignified death? As the role of palliative care grows in England so has the demand on the bedrooms in dedicated in-patient hospices. As many look to rejuvenate outdated facilities - is it possible to encourage feelings of dignity when dying in an in-patient hospice unit? How might a multi-sensory and tactile approach form rich comforting environments for those at the end of their life? What lessons are there for future developments to avoid institutional and underwhelming environments? Three distinct qualitative case studies reveal subtleties of the subjective nature of the topic; moving through local, regional and national scales developing narratives exploring successes or failures to promote personal dignity through the built environment. Beginning with an auto-ethnographic account of my time in a local hospice where my Mum passed away; to primary data from a regional county hospice before concluding with an analysis of a new build hospice of national acclaim. Dwelling and the notion of ‘home’ are subjective realities experienced differently by all - however the feeling of dignity within an environment relies on a spatial hierarchy placing the dying person above all else. This study highlights a scale of architectural strategies, from urban design through to bespoke furniture, that mediates the details of domestic and hospital architecture by encouraging interactions of the dying person beyond the boundaries of their bedroom, both socially and sensorially to promote “…not a good death but a good life to the very end.” Reconnecting, not disconnecting the dying person to their life and world. Additionally the study draws attention to how the environment can improve the framework of care given by staff by rationalising medical circulation and infrastructure offering a sense of trust and personal rapport to the dying person at the end of their life.
Chapter
The development of the process of a ‘pattern language’ as a series of ‘rules of thumb’ emerged with a particular set of elements and set of rules for combining them. Alexander maintains that all living processes resulted due to sequences of transformations and differentiation that emerge from this wholeness. In nature, these ‘living centres’ are evident and evolve in a ‘smooth unfolding’ and continuous manner. Generally designers use a certain number of already known schemata as rules of thumb for realising built form. Such form language needs to support the unfolding of forms using elements, parts and transformations, which lead to the emergence of a whole. All of language and process implicitly reinforce the general Gestalt theory of how the degree of ‘unity’ of a whole is dependent on its structure.
Article
Participation processes first emerged in the twentieth century and are becoming more common in democratic urban planning processes. In resilient, inclusive urban regeneration, the inhabitants are involved in transforming cities. Today, these processes are evolving and new creative tools are emerging. The aim of this research is to understand facets of what is known as urban co-creation by analysing experiments and classifying into a taxonomy their tools, the type of urban space involved, the duration, and the purposes. The use of the taxonomy in case studies shows how participation can be synthesized using a relatively simple code of pattern combinations. Please find more here: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/AKKMCJEEKR3DPAIZWJTQ/full?target=10.1080/13574809.2022.2053283
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While previous chapters focused on urban forms, the sixth chapter focuses on those studying these forms. The chapter is in three parts. The first part addresses some classics in urban morphology and urban studies. The first of these books was written in the late 1950s, five books were prepared in the 1960s, two were written in the late 1970s, one was prepared in the early 1980s, and the last one in the early 1990s. The second part of this chapter presents the main morphological approaches that have been developed over the last decades, from the historico-geographical approach (promoted by the Conzenian School) to the process typological approach (promoted by the Muratorian School), from space syntax to the various forms of spatial analysis (including cellular automata, agent-based models, and fractals). This part is complemented by an overview of some emerging approaches. Finally, the last part of this chapter introduces a key topic—against a background of different theories, concepts, and methods—the need to develop comparative studies. The knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of each approach will certainly enable those who want to develop a morphological study, to select the most appropriate options given the specific nature of the object under analysis.
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Any built environment has to be considered from the perspective of the users’ experience, since it tends to condition human behaviour. Accordingly, design needs to take into account: the existing sociocultural and natural environment, humans’ homeostatic adaptation within the built environment and our perceptual experience as to how we engage with built form. Any built form has to be adapted in the most creative way to fit appropriately within its natural environment, and to create its own sense of place. In consideration of built form and its use, the ‘affordances’ concept has been found useful. It describes the properties that enable an object or space to be used in a particular way. The criteria for the design of ‘good’ form are several, that the built form should have a proper function, be fit for purpose, have intentional qualities of functionality or utility and be an appropriate expression of the purpose of the building with meaning.
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The starting point in any design is to select the ‘datum’ in each of the three planes, horizontal, vertical and longitudinal. Given the datum, axes and ordering principles, the scale of a scheme starts to be determined based upon the hierarchical structure that is chosen. Whilst rhythm and repetition and symmetry bring a sense of regularity to built form, in a rather different sense, transformation instils a sense of irregularity to design. Traditionally, design processes have evolved from consideration of both nature and science, using geometric techniques of performance and of context. Nature‐inspired forms have been derived from simulation of organic living organisms. Since the geometry of natural processes seldom follows standard mathematical models or shapes, Mandelbrot coined a name for this type of structure, the ‘fractal’, as a way to model nature's irregular structures. An exhibit presents a set of principles for the design of decorative patterns with geometrics and motifs.
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Urban settlements have evolved as a result of a number of different ‘form determinants’ that are essentially either: ‘natural’ features or 'man‐made' forces. In ancient times, tribes came to live together, which resulted in their living under a common rule in a self‐governing administrative entity. This chapter highlights some different types of urban forms in different regions and era: ideal city plans, Indian cosmic mandalas, Islamic urban areas, and modern visionary ideals. Dependent on the topography and prevailing natural features, urban areas have developed in different forms and stages; accordingly, different organic, centralised, linear or multi‐nucleus types of development are possible. The chapter also looks at some modern developments in North America, and outlines the elements of a good urban form: paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks. Their integration creates a ‘whole’ with a sense of unity, a legible image of a memorable area.
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Kata kunci: Corak penggunaan, pemerhatian tanpa turut serta, ruang pemulihan, taman hospital, teknik pemetaan tingkah laku.
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The long lots system, also known as the ribbons farming system, is a historical land use pattern, which can be encountered in some specific regions of the world, including in North America, both in the Nouvelle‐France, and in the New‐Mexico regions. In this paper, we show that, in the late 1990s, the first publications on Constructal Theory, which discussed topics such as urban street patterns or airport systems design, already contained the principles underlying the emergence of the man‐made long lots system, but had not yet been linked to land use patterns such as the ribbons farming system. We show that this farming pattern is driven by the Constructal Law. It leads to land use geometries similar, at a human scale, to computer cooling systems. In brief, like many natural designs, the long lots system emerges as a “urge to organize” under local and global constraints specific to the economy of agricultural products trade, and according to the Constructal Law of evolving flow systems. The design of long lots systems can thus be viewed as a historical precursor of the Constructal Design approach, an approach worth considering in the design of sustainable cities.
Article
Human nature, social values and structure of needs constitute the basis of the aesthetics therefore the integrated understanding of the individual and his vital activity is reflected in modern design. Relevance of this research lies in the development of an urban environment typology from the subjectivity point of view. This theme is considered in systemic integrity (human – society – humanity - biological species), which allows to identify the nature of the aesthetic measures. Subsequently, the following generalized types of environment are distinguished: naturecentric, anthropocentric, sociocentric and integrated. As a result, the research identifies the main tasks and key issues of reconstruction and humanization of the environment.
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The aim of this paper is to clarify the spatial characteristics of work‐units comprising advanced school buildings in Sweden based on the learning activities of pupils and students. The results of this study are as follows. • A work‐unit is composed of seven to nine types of rooms and two types of partitions. • Work‐units include four types of learning of the same content together, and three types of learning in small groups or by individuals. • The rooms in a work‐unit are separated by doors and removable partitions. This enables students to set the spaces for learning by themselves, by opening/closing the doors or rearranging the partitions. • In higher grades, students can be provided the opportunity to choose their own spaces and content for learning.
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Many governments and organizations recognize the potential of open innovation (OI) models to create value with large numbers of people beyond the organization. It can be challenging , however, to design an effective collaborative process for a massive group. Collaboration engineering (CE) is an approach for the design and deployment of repeatable collaborative work practices that can be executed by practitioners themselves without the ongoing support of external collaboration engineers. To manage the complexity of the design process, they use a modeling technique called facilitation process models (FPM) to capture high-level design decisions that serve different purposes, such as documenting and communicating a design, etc. FPM, however, was developed to support designs for groups of fewer than 100 people. It does not yet represent design elements that become important when designing for groups of hundreds or thousands of participants, which can be found in many OI settings. We use a design science approach to identify the limitations of the original FPM and derive requirements for extending FPM. This article contributes to the CE and to the OI literature by offering an FPM 2.0 that assists CE designers to design new OI processes, with a special focus on outside-in OI.
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Resumen En mayo de 1986, la revista inglesa Architectural Review, decidía dedicar un número monográfico a la arquitectura moderna española. El número, constituía la primera mención de estas características que aparecía en la publicación inglesa y sin duda era un signo de la relevancia e interés que la arquitectura española estaba alcanzado en el panorama internacional. El artífice de este número fue el arquitecto y crítico Peter Buchanan, que desempeñaba en ese momento el cargo de ‘deputy editor’ de la prestigiosa revista. Además de este fascículo monográfico, Buchanan publicó en Architectural Review, a lo largo de la década, varios artículos de interés sobre la arquitectura española, que contribuyeron a situarla en la palestra arquitectónica internacional. El presente texto se propone indagar en el origen del interés de Buchanan por España y en las claves que permiten comprender el relato que el crítico hace de la arquitectura moderna española. Abstract In May 1986 the British journal Architectural Review devoted a special issue to modern Spanish architecture, the first ever on that topic in the journal’s history, constituting a clear sign of its relevance and of the international interest that it was awakening. Responsible for that issue was the architect and critic Peter Buchanan, then deputy director of the prestigious journal. In addition to it, throughout the 1980s Buchanan published several other articles about Spanish architecture in Architectural Review, thereby contributing to position it in the international scene. This paper traces the origins of Buchanan’s interest in Spain and identifies the keys for understanding his critical reading of modern Spanish architecture.
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