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Conformity, Obedience, Disobedience: The Power of the Situation

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... Legitimate power can create dissatisfaction, resistance, and frustration among employees which leads to negative effects on creativity (Lunenburg, 2012). Obedience deals with following the commands given by authorities in the organization (Bocchiaro and Zamperini 2012). It is well-known fact that when the act of violence are ordered or permitted by legitimate authority, people readiness to commit is enhanced (Kelmanand Hamilton, 1989). ...
... The standard statistical recommendation is to have a minimum sample size of 100 for a correlation design (Keel, 2007). Earlier, a sample of 149 has been used by Bocchiaro and Zamperini (2012) to determine the dynamics of disobedience and whistle-blowing. Hence our sample size is consistent with prior research. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of power on followers' willingness to commit a crime of obedience‖ by complying with a leader's unethical request in organizations of Pakistan. Both variables were of considerable importance in the literature of Management. The research framework consists of five hypotheses. Data were collected with a survey from 150 employees of the Education Department of Pakistan. Multiple Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the proposed model. The results indicate that power is an important component in obedience to authority. Findings suggest that all five French-Raven bases of power are positively related to an intention to commit a crime of obedience. Results are discussed in relation to research on obedience to authority. When power is used by authority, individuals may obey in ways that are destructive and against their personal, moral values. The study has a wide scope for its implementation. On the basis of research findings, the government can modify its policies to get rid of the crime of obedience in the educational sector of Pakistan.
... Legitimate power can create dissatisfaction, resistance, and frustration among employees which leads to negative effects on creativity (Lunenburg, 2012). Obedience deals with following the commands given by authorities in the organization (Bocchiaro and Zamperini 2012). It is well-known fact that when the act of violence are ordered or permitted by legitimate authority, people readiness to commit is enhanced (Kelmanand Hamilton, 1989). ...
... The standard statistical recommendation is to have a minimum sample size of 100 for a correlation design (Keel, 2007). Earlier, a sample of 149 has been used by Bocchiaro and Zamperini (2012) to determine the dynamics of disobedience and whistle-blowing. Hence our sample size is consistent with prior research. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of power on a follower’s willingness to commit a crime of obedience by complying with a leader’s unethical request in organizations of Pakistan. Both variables were of considerable importance in the literature of Management. The Research framework consists of five hypotheses. Data was collected with a survey from 150 employees of Education Department of Pakistan. Multiple Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the proposed model. The results indicate that power is an important component in obedience to authority. Findings suggest that all five FrenchRaven bases of power are positively related with an intention to commit a crime of obedience. Results are discussed in relation to research on obedience to authority. When power is used by authority, individuals may obey in ways which are destructive and against their personal, moral values. The study has the wide scope for its implementation. On the basis of research findings, the government can modify their policies to get rid of the crime of obedience in the educational sector of Pakistan.
... To deal with the concept of authority and to have a better comprehension of its nature within psychological sciences, its intrinsic complexity was reduced, but not solved, by coherently referring to it in terms of obedience and disobedience phenomena (Blass, 2012;Bocchiaro & Zamperini, 2012;Milgram, 1965;Passini & Morselli, 2009). ...
... Relatedly, it is important to notice the presence of the noun parents in the nucleus -and it is a behaviour gratified by the authority and soon becomes an implicit operative norm (Miller, Collins, & Brief, 1995). Furthermore, adjustment to social and formal norms -construed as legal rulesis fundamental for survival of social system and for the maintenance of social order (Bocchiaro & Zamperini, 2012). ...
... There is a growing research evidence that decreases in self-regulation is correlated to the motivational priorities with intrinsic motivation as maintaining or mitigation the drop in self-control (Inzlicht et al. 2014, Kelly et al. 2017. With heteronomous motivation soldiers are no longer an independent actor making choices on the basis of their own values and needs, but embedded in group prototypicality and introjected with external beliefs of cohesive units, they serve for the better good of the in-group at the cost of the out-groups well-being (Bocchiaro and Zamperini 2012, Baumeister and Monroe 2014, Arvanitis 2017. ...
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The current combat motivation model based on primary group thesis assumes that the main force behind motivation is peer-bonding or otherwise known as unit cohesion. Cohesion is perceived as an all-encompassing factor that leads to satisfactory (or unsatisfactory in lack thereof) military effectiveness and performance in conflict environments. However, the article identifies three main problems with this perspective: 1. mono-dimensional view of motivation; 2. motivation based on heteronomy, and 3. self-reporting bias. The current model does not consider motivation as a separate entity from cohesion; it does not place motivation as fundamental human value; lastly, it takes motivation as granted by-product of socialization. The article proposes a new combat motivation model based on The Self-Determination Theory. The theory maintains that human motivation requires satisfaction of three psychological needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The degree of satisfaction of those three needs leads to different types of regulated motivations – a continuum from intrinsic to extrinsic – each of which has specifiable consequences for learning, performance, and well-being of an individual.
... Norma sosial yang dianut dalam suatu kelompok teman sebaya akan ditaati oleh semua anggotanya meskipun norma tersebut bertentangan dengan ajaran agama. 49 Kelompok teman sebaya terbentuk karena adanya minat yang sama antar anggotanya. Remaja yang taat dalam menjalankan ajaran agama cenderung akan memilih teman-teman yang juga taat dalam menjalankan ajaran agama. ...
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The study of the factors that shape the religiosity of Muslim youth is important given the many cases of deviant behavior reported both through mass media and research results involving Muslim youth. This is because religiosity has an important role in human self-control because it can affect attitudes, perceptions, emotions and even on their behavior. This paper is an analytical study of various related literature sources on factors that can shape the religiosity of Muslim youth. The discussion begins with a study of the definition and dimensions of Muslim religiosity, the development of the religious psyche in humans, the factors that shape adolescent religiosity. The results of the discussion show that the dominant factors of shaping the religiosity of Muslim adolescents are the religious behavior of parents, Islamic religious education in school, and peer conformity. ملخص: تعتبر دراسة العوامل عن تديّن الشباب المسلم مهمة بالنظر إلى كثرة السلوك المنحرف الذي يظهر من خلال وسائل الإعلام ونتائج الأبحاث التي يشارك فيها الشباب المسلم. هذا لأن التدين له دور مهم في ضبط النفس البشري لأنه يمكن أن يؤثر عليهم في المواقف والتصورات والعواطف والسلوكيات. هذه الورقة هي دراسة تحليلية للمصادر والمراجع المختلفة ذات الصلة للعوامل التي يمكن أن تكوِّن تديّن الشباب المسلم. تبدأ المناقشة بدراسة عن تعريف وأبعاد تدين المسلم، وتطور النفس الدينية لدى البش، والعوامل التي تكوِّن تدين المراهقين. وتظهر نتائج المناقشة أن العوامل المؤثرة في تكوين تدين شباب المسلمين هي السلوك الديني للآباء، والتربية الدينية الإسلامية في المدرسة، ومطابقة الزملاء.
... Discussing among students Shor's (Leogrande, 2014) conclusion that students become socialized to a school society that mirrors the larger one, and expects docile obedience, they started to experiment with power roles and the concept of obedience and disobedience. As conformism can be defined as the change in thinking, feeling or acting following pressure, real or imaginary, exercised by the group (Moghaddam, 1998), obedience is instead that modification that is manifested carrying out the instructions issued by figures given authority (Bocchiaro and Zamperini, 2012). There are situations in which we cannot freely express our ideas, and this activates our resources in order to affirm ourselves and our values. ...
... Workplaces could be one type of this environment where should not be overcame any extreme provocative problems like conformity, obedience or bystander effect. In Bocchiaro and Zamperini's (2012) work can be found a deeper insight into all of these problems. Fortunately, they suggested that conformism and obedience are not basic elements of our culture. ...
Article
Abstract. Creativity means constructive actions ending in innovation, art, breaking rules or thinking out of the box. Creativity is good, the new resource of the future. I would not like to query the importance or the benefits of creativity for individuals, organizations, and societies. Creativity is also beneficial at the individual level or organizational level. For instance, creativity helps us manage our daily lives or helps us to find creative and innovative solutions for both organizational and daily problems. At the same time, creativity might also produce negative effects by leading individuals to engage in unethical behavior and to skip or reason wrong ethical solutions. Greater creativity helps us solve difficult problems across many domains, but creative sparks may lead us to take unethical routes when searching for solutions to tasks. But I think not only creativity but moral creativity is highly relevant in this increasingly changing, innovative, and competitive world of the 21st century. This study aims to examine the relationship between creativity and morality. In this article I am going to summarize the literature of the „dark side of creativity” highlighting the economical part and I try to give an overall point into state of art. In the first chapter I will give an overall overview about the definition of creativity which based on the 4 Ps (personality, product, process, press) without going in the depths of psychopathology. This summarizing is followed by the definition of moral. Regarding the 4Ps of creativity I try to find some connections between the creative and ethical economical behavior. I focus on results of important literatures and try to translate those into some practical guidelines for the futures. This article is the first but important step to draw the readers’ attention to see creativity through the glasses of moral. This theoretical paper will not contain any empirical study but try to be dominantly a literature review which is mainly important for the business actors. Key words: creativity, moral, ethics, business.
... The relationship with the authority is a fundamental element in every social context, since every social organization, whether it is a family or an institution, is based on an hierarchical structure to adequately function (Passini & Morselli, 2010c). The intrinsic hierarchical nature of authority relationship allowed the scholar to reduce complexity by referring to it in terms of obedience and disobedience (Blass, 2012;Bocchiaro & Zamperini, 2012;Milgram, 1965;Passini & Morselli, 2009). In fact obedience and disobedience can occur only within a hierarchical structure, as highlighted by Milgram (1974) in his differential analysis between obedience and conformism. ...
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Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.
... Obedience is a socially learned behaviour, which permeates our lives since childhood e relatedly, it is important to notice the presence of the noun parents in the nucleus e and it is a behaviour gratified by the authority and soon becomes an implicit operative norm (Miller, Collins, & Brief, 1995). Furthermore, adjustment to social and formal norms-construed as legal rules-is fundamental for survival of social system and for the maintenance of social order (Bocchiaro & Zamperini, 2012). In the first periphery, obedience evokes the terms submission, submitted, duties, mandatory, and blind. ...
... One could wonder what is the rationale behind independence introduced as a probability. However, social experiments show that people are inconsistent in their behavior and simple situational factors are more powerful than individual traits in shaping human behavior, see e.g., [3] for a review. This fact is reflected in our model by the probability of independence -in each time step an agent can be independent or susceptible with probability p and its behavior changes in time. ...
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In this paper, we modify a two-dimensional variant of a two-state nonlinear voter model and apply it to understand how new ideas, products or behaviors spread throughout the society in time. In particular, we want to find answers to two important questions in the field of diffusion of innovation: Why does the diffusion of innovation take sometimes so long? and Why does it fail so often? Because these kind of questions cannot be answered within classical aggregate diffusion models, like the Bass model, we use an agent-based modeling approach.
... Even though obedience to authority is a classic research topic in psychology, the processes underlying disobedience to authority have not been thoroughly explored (see Bocchiaro & Zamperini, 2012). While the authority heuristic is generally assumed to be a strong situational force to which people are sensitive (Cialdini, 2001;Milgram, 1974), and whereas individual differences have been largely neglected in research on authority (Blass, 1991;Kelman & Hamilton, 1989), it is not difficult to think of examples showing that there can be drastic differences in the degree to which individuals are influenced by authority figures (Petersen & Dietz, 2000). ...
Article
The present studies examined whether differences in Need for Cognitive Closure (NCC) were related to differences in regulatory control when confronted with authority. In two studies, levels of regulatory control were measured when participants resisted (Study 1) or prepared to resist the influence attempt of an authority figure (Study 2). Results showed that resisting the influence attempt from a high authority figure was more depleting for participants higher in NCC compared to individuals lower in NCC. However, when they were given instructions and time to prepare the act of resistance, individuals high in NCC actually showed an increase in regulatory control. Authority is usually viewed as a general principle of influence, however the present studies suggest that there are individual differences that influence how people may experience interactions with authorities.
Article
Full-text available
Cohesion has a positive influence on many aspects of everyday life, including improved military performance. However, due to focus on the positives, many studies tend to omit potentially negative outcomes of cohesion. It is particularly important in regard to authoritarian military institutions, in which unit cohesion can have unintended consequence resulting in dehumanizing effect of the out-groups. The following research examines the process from cohesion to dehumanization and argues that there is a need to change the way how unit cohesion is achieved. The distinction is made between the controlled and autonomous cohesion. It will be argued that autonomous locus of causality is potentially more beneficial for military cohesion and performance in conflict environments.
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