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Antimicrobial flavonoid from Citrus microcarpa

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Air-dried leaves of Citrus microcarpa Bunge afforded 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (1) and squalene. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on 1 indicated that it has moderate activity against the fungus, C. albicans and low activity against the bacteria, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis and fungi, T. mentagrophytes and A. niger.
... [27][28] and C. microcarpa is one of the most active antimicrobial plants found in the rural area in Terengganu, Malaysia [27]. 3/, 4/, 5, 6, 7, 8-hexamethoxyflavone isolated from the leaf extract of C. microcarpa has shown moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans [29]. ...
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This study focused on the evaluation of in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of leaf extract of x Citrofortunella microcarpa since it has not been investigated. Collected leaves were air-dried, powdered and macerated in methanol. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness and subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis. The concentration series of 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.05 mgmL-1 of leaf extract and a solution of 2.0 mgmL-1 Dermatone® were prepared in methanol. The absorbance of each sample was determined in triplicate by spectrophotometry in the range of 290–320 nm, at 5 nm intervals, using methanol as the blank. The SPF values were calculated using the Mansur-equation. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, sterols, saponins, terpenoids, and glycosides were qualitatively observed. The SPF of leaf extract with respect to the concentrations 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.05 mgmL-1 and Dermatone® were 43.93, 42.38, 40.97, 36.63, 13.31 and 34.26 respectively. According to Pearson’s correlation, a positive statically not significant relationship was observed in between SPF and concentration (r = 0.655, p > 0.05). Since the presence of profound sun screening activity, this would offer an exciting avenue for further research towards the development of herbal sunscreens of high importance especially for the people living in tropical countries. Keywords: Calamondin, x Citrofortunella microcarpa, Photoprotective, Sun Protection Factor, UVB Radiation
... Therefore, they suggested that nobiletin might be the major antibacterial compound in immature calamondin peel. Nobiletin has also been purified from the leaves of calamondin and its antibacterial activity has been evaluated [89]. It showed moderate activity against the fungus Candida albicans, and low activity against the bacteria P. aerngionsa Q38 and Bacillus subtilis and the fungi Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus niger. ...
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Kumquat and calamondin are two small-size citrus fruits. Owing to their health benefits, they are traditionally used as folk medicine in Asian countries. However, the research on flavonoids and biological activities of kumquat and calamondin have received less attention. This review summarizes the reported quantitative and qualitative data of phenolic compositions in these two fruits. Effects of maturity, harvest time, various solvent extractions and heat treatment of phenolic compositions, and bioactivities were discussed; distributions of the forms of phenolic compounds existing in kumquat and calamondin were also summarized. Furthermore, biological activities, including antioxidant, antityrosinase, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antimetabolic disorder effects, have also been discussed. Effective phenolic components were proposed for a certain bioactivity. It was found that C-glycoside flavonoids are dominant phenolic compounds in kumquat and calamondin, unlike in other citrus fruits. Up to now, biological activities and chemical characteristics of C-glycoside flavonoids in kumquat and calamondin are largely unknown.
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Citrus x microcarpa Bunge is a plant that is used optimally by the people of Bangka Belitung known as the ‘Jeruk Kunci’. Utilization of this plant in the fruit is used as an acid enhancer in food and is made in the form of syrup. So that the jeruk kunci fruit waste is widely available and has not been utilized.based on literature, Citrus x microcarpa contains flavonoids and a monoterpeneshydrocarbon. Bioactivity which belongs asantimicrobial, antibacterial and antioxidant. Therefore, jeruk kunci fruit waste has the potential to be developed as an antibacterial herbal medicine based on literature studies. Citrus x microcarpa Bunge extract was obtained by maceration for 3 x 24 hours using ethanol solvent. Then phytochemical testing was conducted qualitatively using several reagents and quantitative phytochemical testing was carried out using functional group analysis contained in the extract uses the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) at the wavenumber region 4000-400 cm-1. Then, determination of antibacterial activity using the disk diffusion method. Based on FT-IR spectrum data analysis Citrus x microcarpa extract contains tannins. The results of antibacterial testing of Citrus x microcarpa Bunge extract obtained concentration of 20%, 40% and 60% has a relatively strong antibacterial inhibition. whereas for 80% and 100% concentrations the ability to inhibit is very strong.
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