ArticlePDF Available

Seaweeds as alternative to chemical pesticides for the management of root diseases of sunflower and tomato

Authors:

Abstract

With the rising popularity of organic farming, due to adverse effect of chemicals, the seaweed fertilizer industry is growing rapidly worldwide. Seaweeds act as natural plant growth stimulator and enable the plants to withstand drought, disease or frost. Root diseases of tomato and sunflower caused by root rotting fungi, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina, and root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., are the major constraints in tomato and sunflower production. In our studies, ethanol and water extracts of several seaweeds showed significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne javanica. In this study, efficacy of three seaweeds Spatoglossum variabile, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and Halimeda tuna was compared with a fungicide Topsin-M and a nematicide carbofuran both in screen house and under field condition. Seaweed and pesticides showed more or similar suppressive effect on root pathogens of tomato and sunflower by reducing fungal root infection and nematode's galls on roots and nematode's penetration in roots. However, mixed application of S. variabile with carbofuran caused maximum reduction in nematode's penetration in roots and produced greater fresh shoot weight, root length and maximum yield of tomato under field condition. Seaweeds offer a non-chemical means of disease control, which would also protect our environment from the use of hazardous chemicals.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Verticillium dahlia [Esserti et al. (2017)], Fusarium solani [AL-Isawi (2020)]. On the other hand, using a combination of seaweeds and Topsin-M reduced the percent of Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani infection in roots while increasing the fresh weight of shoot weight and the length of roots [Sultana et al. (2011 )]. Spraying an extract 0.2% of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum with chlorothalonil fungicide reduced the severity of Alternaria radicina and Botrytis cinerea fungal infections in greenhousegrown carrot plants [Jayaraj et al. (2008)] compared to fungicide alone, and was more effective in reducing infection. ...
... The severity of Alternaria radicina and Botrytis cinerea fungal infections was reduced when carrot plants were sprayed with an extract 0.2% of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, compared to fungicide alone. On the other hand, the usage of a combination of seaweeds and Topsin-M reduced the percent of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani infection in roots [Sultana et al. (2011)]. This is also in agreement with have been reported that marine extracts play a function in increasing plant pest and disease resistance [Esserti et al. (2017), AL-Isawi ( 2020)]. ...
... These results are compatible with that obtained by Sultana et al. (2011). Under field conditions, who discovered that combining seaweed (S. variabile) with carbofuran pesticide resulted in tomato with a higher fresh shoot weight, root length, and maximum yield. ...
Article
Full-text available
Greenhouse-pots grown pepper (Capsicum annumis) plants were used as a test to examine the effectiveness of various seaweeds alone or in combination with pesticide Topsin-M (fungicide) in suppressing the Gray leaf spot disease and growth of pepper, through 6 hours later, the fungal pathogen was injected Alternaria radicina after the first application of seaweed extracts. Treated plants with seaweed extracts combined Topsin-M compared to control plants and Topsin-M alone, exhibited a significant reduction in disease % at 20 days following inoculation. The lowest rate of disease percent was 18.5%, in response to the Max Sea Sailer combined with Topsin-M, while the rest of seaweed extracts showed values ranging from 20.8 to 21.6 % compared to the control which showed a disease percent up to 71.4% and 28.2% Topsin-M alone. This is reflected in the increase in some of the vegetative characteristics of pepper represented by plant height, numbers of leaves plant-1 , dry shoot, and root weight. As well as some chemical characters Nitrogen percent, Phosphorus, Potassium, and chlorophyll (spad) in the leaves.
... Similarly, seaweeds have been recognized as a rich source of a bioactive compound, when applied in soil trigger plant defensive capacity against several pathogens (Leandro et al., 2020) and plant pathogens (Sultana et al., 2011a,b;2018). Incorporation of seaweed in soil was found to reduce root diseases of soybean and pepper under field conditions and their efficacy was comparable with Topsin-M a fungicide and carbofuran, a nematicide in tomato and sunflower (Sultana et al., 2011a). In this study, we have evaluated the potential of endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas in suppressing the root rot fungi, induction of systemic resistance, and phosphorus uptake in okra plants, used alone or in soil amended with seaweed in clay pots and field plots. ...
... Endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas play a vital role in reducing the root disease via direct suppression of pathogens or inducing systemic resistance in plants (Moin et al., 2020;Korejo et al., 2019). (Sultana et al., 2011a;2018) and their efficacy is found comparable to commercial fungicides and fertilizers (Sultana et al., 2011b). Ehteshamul-Haque et al., (1996) reported better control of root diseases of okra with combined application of seaweed and rhizobia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Management of plant root diseases by the application of seaweed and endophytic bacteria, particularly fluorescent Pseudomonas, is capturing the interest of plant scientists. In this study, the effect of seaweed soil amendment alone or mixed with endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas (EFP-47) in reducing the root infecting fungi of okra was evaluated in pots and field plot experiments. The experiments conducted in 2019 and repeated in 2020, showed that soil amendment with seaweed, Stokeyia indica, and Ulva fasciata alone or mixed with fluorescent Pseudomonas significantly suppressedMacrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, and Rhizoctonia solani on okra roots compared to untreated control plants. In general U. fasciata + EFP-47 treated plants showed maximum inhibition of root rotting fungi. In addition, seaweed and Pseudomonas (EFP-47) applications increased the plant height and fresh weight in pots as well as in field plot experiments. Seaweed used alone or mixed with Pseudomonas (EFP-47) ameliorated the activity of plant resistance markers like salicylicacid and polyphenolic contents, improved antioxidant activity and phosphorus uptake in plants. It is suggested that endophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas and seaweed could be used for the management of root diseases of okra.
... The watermelon and eggplant experiments on the mixed soil with dry powders of S. variabile, P. indica and M. afaqhusainii supported the previous conclusion (Baloch et al. 2013). Sultana et al. (2011) also demonstrated well that several macroalgal powders have more or less similar suppressive effects against M. incognita as compared to the toxic chemical nematicide (carbofuran) treating sunflower and tomato in both greenhouse and field, and surprisingly obtained maximum reduction in nematode's penetration in roots and produced greater root length and maximum yield of tomato under field condition. Macroalgal extracts may be responsible for the nematode hatching toxicity, and the inhibition of nematode penetration and development within the root (Asha et al. 2012;Martin et al. 2007;Whapam et al. 1994). ...
... The reductions in penetration and galling of roots by Meloidogyne spp. were observed after the applications of commercial bio-product containing A. nodosum, S. variabile, M. afaqhusainii and Halimeda tuna (Radwan et al. 2012;Sultana et al. 2011). An evaluation on second-stage juveniles (J2) of the root knot nematodes have demonstrated that the soil drench of A. nodosum extracts for Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the number of females and egg recovery in roots by M. javanica (Wu et al. 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
The growing demand for chemical fertilizer with low utilization and environmental pollution has been issuing challenges to sustainable production of agricultural field. Due to internal nutrient elements and active substances, macroalgae have drawn the interest of agricultural and algal researchers. However, their major functions seem to center on improvement of nutrient utilization efficiency, more than a simple nutrient replacement for amount of fertilizer. In view of excessive fertilizer along with a series of side-effects, this review reports the application roles of macroalgae in agriculture, provides the positive evidences of the extracts on the soil for amendment, and plants for nutrient uptake. Commercial macroalgae will be such an economic and efficient materials source for cooperation even part substitution of conventional fertilizers, to manage soil sustainability and crop production. Worldwide, the researches of macroalgal products call for further advance, and their applications to agricultural market remain certain limitation. Aim at this, we expound their mechanisms on soil–plant system for more nutrient utilization efficiency, then analyze the current situation and advance priorities afterwards, to guide macroalgal application and respond to the strategy for controlling the chemical fertilizer.
... These results are consistent with that of Pandian et al. [47], who reported high antifungal activity of the Acanthophora spicifera methanolic extract against Microsporum gypseum. Similarly, Sultana et al. [48] reported a high fungicide effect of the red alga Melanothamnus extract against root infecting fungi F. solani and Macrophomina phaseolina attacking eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.). Khan et al. [17] reported a high antifungal activity against F. moniliforme and R. solani using the extract of M. afaqhusainii. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing use of chemical control agents and pesticides to prevent plant disease has resulted in several human and environmental health problems. Seaweeds, e.g., Amphiroa anceps extracts, have significant antimicrobial activities against different human pathogens. However, their anti-phytopathogenic activities are still being investigated. In the present investigation, three fungal isolates were isolated from root rot and grey mold symptomatic strawberry plants and were molecularly identified by ITS primers to Fusarium culmorum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Botrytis cinerea with accession numbers MN398396, MN398398, and MN398400, respectively. In addition, the organic extract of the red alga Amphiroa anceps was assessed for its antifungal activity against the three identified fungal isolates and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection. At 100 µg/mL, the A. anceps extract had the best biological activity against R. solani, B. cinerea, and TMV infection, with inhibition rates of 66.67%, 40.61%, and 81.5%, respectively. Contrarily, the A. anceps extract exhibited lower activity against F. culmorum, causing inhibition in the fungal mycelia by only 4.4% at the same concentration. The extract’s HPLC analysis revealed the presence of numerous phenolic compounds, including ellagic acid and gallic acid, which had the highest concentrations of 19.05 and 18.36 µg/mL, respectively. In this line, the phytochemical analysis also showed the presence of flavonoids, with the highest concentration recorded for catechin at 12.45 µg/mL. The obtained results revealed for the first time the effect of the A. anceps extract against the plant fungal and viral pathogens, making the seaweed extract a promising source for natural antimicrobial agents.
... Application of seaweed to plants resulted in decreased levels of nematode attack (Ara et al., 1997;Wu et al., 1997;1998). Sultana et al. (2011) reported that seaweeds like Spatoglossum variabile, Halimeda tuna and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii showed more or less similar suppressive effect on root rotting fungi and root-knot nematode to chemical fungicides (Topsin-M) and nematicide (carbofuran). In a large number of marine algae, antimicrobial activities are attributed to the presence of acrylic acid. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seaweeds inhabit almost everywhere and known as the omnipresent organisms. They are renewable living resources which are also used as feed, wastewater treatment or for the industrial production of phycocolloids, thickening, and gelling agents in food and pharmaceutical industries. This research article is based on chemical composition and nutritional values from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan using sixteen seaweeds belonging to three different Phylum including Chlorophytcota, pheophycota and Rhodophycota. The oil was extracted with n-hexane then it was subjected for physical, chemical and biochemical composition of different marine algae by means of some of the known tests, like tests for lipids, carbohydrates, protein etc. After that the residue of these seaweeds were examine in vitro condition for antifungal activities using food poising technique against three pathogenic fungi e.g., F. oxysporum, R. solani and M. phaseolina and for nematicidal activities using mortality and hatching test against M. javanica species and conclusion, got highly significant results. This study has revealed an interesting array to create a nutritional data to the alternation of an efficient food for Pakistan food industry and envisage pesticides invention for agricultural department.
... Several reports substantiate that Alage and their derived extract have been displayed efficiently suppression of plant pathogenic such as Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Erwinia, Fusarium, Verticillium,Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and potato virus X (PVX) (Caccamese et al., 1981;Sano, 1999;Kumar and Rengasamy,2000;Biondi et al., 2004;Nagorskaia et al., 2010;Jiménez et al., 2011;Esserti et al., 2017). The biocontrol potential of algae and its extract have been extended insects transmit diseases, effective in suppression of soil-borne nematodes, plant or fruit feeding insects (e.g., fruit fly larvae) and mites (Hankins and Hockey, 1990;Sultana et al., 2012;Ali et al., 2013;Rashwan and Hammad, 2020) . ...
Chapter
In this present situation, the ongoing pressure to reduce the use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizer inputs is a major challenge for sustainable agriculture. Microbial applications are a safe and renewable mode in the maintenance of agricultural productivity. Algae are acknowledged for their wide application ranging from agriculture to industries. They play a crucial role in sustainable agriculture and are used as bio-fertilizer and soil stabilizers, decreasing the need for synthetic fertilizers. The major focus is laid on the role of algae, microalgae, and cyanobacteria in soil fertility and their beneficial roles in agriculture and the maintenance of environmental sustainability.
... Apart from being an abundant source of vitamins, saccharides, enzymes, amino acids, phytohormones and elements like molybdenum, boron, manganese, iron, iodine, and zinc, algae and cyanobacteria extracts are a rich source of bioactive elicitors [144,145] with antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties [146]. These extracts are usually applied in agriculture to improve productivity and plant vitality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food security has become a major concern worldwide in recent years due to ever increasing population. Providing food for the growing billions without disturbing environmental balance is incessantly required in the current scenario. In view of this, sustainable modes of agricultural practices offer better promise and hence are gaining prominence recently. Moreover, these methods have taken precedence currently over chemical-based methods of pest restriction and pathogen control. Adoption of Biological Control is one such crucial technique that is currently in the forefront. Over a period of time, various biocontrol strategies have been experimented with and some have exhibited great success and promise. This review highlights the different methods of plant-pathogen control, types of plant pathogens, their modus operandi and various biocontrol approaches employing a range of microorganisms and their byproducts. The study lays emphasis on the use of upcoming methodologies like microbiome management and engineering, phage cocktails, genetically modified biocontrol agents and microbial volatilome as available strategies to sustainable agricultural practices. More importantly, a critical analysis of the various methods enumerated in the paper indicates the need to amalgamate these techniques in order to improve the degree of biocon-trol offered by them.
Article
Full-text available
An increasing human population necessitates more food production, yet current techniques in agriculture, such as chemical pesticide use, have negative impacts on the ecosystems and strong public opposition. Alternatives to synthetic pesticides should be safe for humans, the environment , and be sustainable. Extremely diverse ecological niches and millions of years of competition have shaped the genomes of algae to produce a myriad of substances that may serve humans in various biotechnological areas. Among the thousands of described algal species, only a small number have been investigated for valuable metabolites, yet these revealed the potential of algal metabolites as bio-pesticides. This review focuses on macroalgae and microalgae (including cyano-bacteria) and their extracts or purified compounds, that have proven to be effective antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, nematocides, insecticides, herbicides, and plant growth stimulants. Moreover, the mechanisms of action of the majority of these metabolites against plant pests are thoroughly discussed. The available information demonstrated herbicidal activities via inhibition of photosyn-thesis, antimicrobial activities via induction of plant defense responses, inhibition of quorum sensing and blocking virus entry, and insecticidal activities via neurotoxicity. The discovery of antime-tabolites also seems to hold great potential as one recent example showed antimicrobial and herbi-cidal properties. Algae, especially microalgae, represent a vast untapped resource for discovering novel and safe biopesticide compounds.
Chapter
All crop production can be susceptible to a variety of diseases, insects, and weeds. Some of them can damage plants, reduce their yield, while others can attack vegetables, fruit, ornamental plants leaving them unattractive and unmarketable. In the present chapter we focused on the novel trends in crop bioprotection which include biochemical pesticides, microbial pesticides, and plant-incorporated protectants. The examples of biopreparations (e.g., nematicide, fungicide, insecticide and acaricide, herbicide, bactericide) in the biocontrol of pests in the cultivation of vegetables, in orchards and ornamental plants are provided. The challenge is to find, adopt, and develop and finally to use a new generation of so-called green pesticides. They need to fulfill the most important conditions in order to be called the “green,” so must be safe for the environment and human, biodegradable and effective in their primary use, the plant protection.
Article
Full-text available
Using thin layer and gas chromatographic techniques, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid was detected in seaweed concentrate prepared from the brown kelp Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss. The level of the ethylene-releasing compound was estimated as 9.29 nmol ml_l.
Article
A great deal of recent research has been published worldwide on diseases and other pests of strawberry. Of over 860 papers published from 1991-95 on all aspects of strawberry research, >22% dealt with diseases, 6% with mites and insects, and <1% with nematodes. Among the disease research papers, those with emphasis on anthracnose were nearly twice as numerous as those on red stele, Phytophthora crown rot, or Botrytis fruit rot and their pathogens. The emphasis on these diseases is worldwide, while for some, such as Alternaria black spot, black root rot, and Fusarium wilt, the importance is regional. A few diseases, such as bacterial angular leafspot, Pseudomonas wilt, and Fusarium wilt, have not received as much attention, except locally, but have the capability of causing much damage on a broader scale in the future.
Article
Soil application to the roots of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Ailsa Craig) of a commercially available alkaline extract of the brown alga, Ascophyllum nodosum, resulted in a significant reduction in the number of second stage juveniles of both Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita invading the roots, compared to those of plants treated with water alone. Egg recovery from the seaweed extract treated plants was also significantly lower. The three major betaines found in the seaweed extract (γ-aminobutyric acid betaine, δ-aminovaleric acid betaine and glycinebetaine), when applied at concentrations equivalent to those in the extract, also led to significant reductions in both the nematode invasion profile and egg recovery. This led to the conclusion that the betaines present in the seaweed extract play a major role in bringing about the observed effects. Application as a soil drench of the inorganic constituents of the extract also resulted in significant reductions in egg recovery, but these reductions were not so pronounced as those produced by application of the betaines.
Article
In biological agriculture and horticulture diluted extracts of seaweed are applied to promote growth, prevent pests and diseases and improve the quality of the products. The efficacy of the extracts is probably based upon plant hormones (mainly cytokinins) and trace nutrients present in the extracts. A survey of the recent literature is given concerning the properties of seaweed extracts, methods of application, their effects and putative working mechanisms. The significance of seaweed extracts in biological agriculture and horticulture is evaluated, regarding environmental aspects of production and use.
Article
This brief review outlines the chemical structure, physicochemical properties and effects of seaweed polysaccharides on serum cholesterol levels. Some seaweed polysaccharides are used by the food industry as texture modifiers because of their high viscosity and gelling properties. In Asia, seaweeds have been used for centuries in salads, soups and as low-calorie dietetic foods. The dietary fibre which constitutes 25–75% of the dry weight of marine algae and represents their major component, is primarily soluble fibre. Nowadays, dietary fibre from different sources is known to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, mainly due to its characteristics of dispersibility in water (water-holding capacity), viscosity, binding ability, absorptive capacity, faecal bulking capacity and fermentability in the alimentary canal. Indigestible viscous seaweed polysaccharides such as alginates, carrageenans and funorans, which are capable of forming ionic colloids, have shown positive effects on serum lipid levels in rats. The capacity of seaweed polysaccharides to lower serum cholesterol levels seems to be due to their ability to disperse in water, retain cholesterol and related physiologically active compounds and inhibit lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.