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Local and effective: Two projects of butterfly farming in Cambodia and Tanzania (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

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The projects “Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre” in Cambodia (Asia) and “Zanzibar Butterfly Centre” in Tanzania (Africa) are presented as models of sustainable butterfly farming to support local communities.
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van der Heyden, T.
Local and effective: Two projects of butterfly farming in Cambodia and Tanzania
(Insecta: Lepidoptera)
SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología, vol. 39, núm. 155, septiembre, 2011, pp. 267-270
Sociedad Hispano-Luso-Americana de Lepidopterología
Madrid, España
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SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología
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267
Local and effective: Two projects of butterfly farming
in Cambodia and Tanzania
(Insecta: Lepidoptera)
T. van der Heyden
Abstract
The projects “Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre” in Cambodia (Asia) and “Zanzibar Butterfly Centre” in Tanzania
(Africa) are presented as models of sustainable butterfly farming to support local communities.
KEY WORDS: Insecta, Lepidoptera, butterfly farming, sustainability, conservation, development, tropics,
Cambodia, Tanzania.
Local y efectivo: Dos proyectos de cría de mariposas en Camboya y Tanzania
(Insecta: Lepidoptera)
Resumen
Los proyectos “Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre” en Camboya (Asia) y “Zanzibar Butterfly Centre” in Tanzania
(África) se describen como modelos de cría sostenible de mariposas en apoyo para comunidades locales.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Insecta, Lepidoptera, cría de mariposas, sostenibilidad, conservación, desarrollo, trópicos,
Camboya, Tanzania.
Lokal und effektiv: Zwei Schmetterlingsfarm-Projekte in Kambodscha und Tansania
(Insecta: Lepidoptera)
Zusammenfassung
Die Projekte “Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre“ in Kambodscha (Asien) und “Zanzibar Butterfly Centre” in
Tansania (Afrika) werden als Modelle nachhaltig betriebener Schmetterlingsfarmen zur Unterstützung lokaler
Gemeinschaften vorgestellt.
SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER: Insecta, Lepidoptera, Schmetterlingsfarm, Nachhaltigkeit, Erhaltung, Entwicklung,
Tropen, Kambodscha, Tansania.
Introduction
As pointed out before, farming and/or exhibiting tropical butterflies could offer a sustainable
opportunity for local (rural) communities in tropical countries to increase and diversify their income
(SAMBHU & VAN DER HEYDEN, 2010; VAN DER HEYDEN, 2011).
Two butterfly projects, which are working closely together and therefore could be named “sister
projects”, are the “Zanzibar Butterfly Centre” (ZBC) which started in 2006 near Jozani National Park
on the island of Unguja, Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania (Africa) and the “Banteay Srey
SHILAP Revta. lepid., 39 (155), septiembre 2011: 267-270 CODEN: SRLPEF ISSN:0300-5267
267-270 Local and effective Tw 10/9/11 17:37 Página 267
Butterfly Centre” (BBC), located near Phnom Kulen National Park in the Siem Reap Province in
Cambodia (Asia), which started in 2008.
Both centres offer large netted tropical exhibition areas, where visitors can observe hundreds or
even thousands of free-flying native butterflies from Tanzania and Cambodia, respectively.
But exhibiting butterflies is only one part of the activities of the ZBC and the BBC. The ZBC is
working closely together with Jozani Chwaka Bay National Park, Jozani Environmental Conservation
Association and Pete Development Association. Both centres are focussing on providing support for
local poverty alleviation and conservation projects investing revenues from visitor admissions.
On top of that, both centres are working together with local rural communities, where the
specimens exhibited in the centres are raised by local farmers. Pupae are bred for export, too.
Local farmers conserving nature and gaining strength/self-confidence
As the butterfly farms are located close to areas of natural forests, they provide an (economic)
opportunity for local communities to protect and conserve the surrounding natural habitats instead of
destroying them for agricultural purposes.
T. VAN DER HEYDEN
268 SHILAP Revta. lepid., 39 (155), septiembre 2011
2
Figures 1-4.– 1. A mating couple of Graphium agamemnon (Linnaeus, 1758) (Papilionidae) at the “Banteay
Srey Butterfly Centre”. 2. A breeding cage of a farmer of the “Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre” farming project.
3. Specimens of Cethosia cyane (Drury, [1773]) (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) emerging at the “Banteay Srey
Butterfly Centre”. 4. Troides helena (Linnaeus, 1758) (Papilionidae) at the “Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre”
(Photos: Ben Hayes).
1
34
267-270 Local and effective Tw 10/9/11 17:37 Página 268
In order to farm butterflies for a long(er) period of time, it is necessary to protect the wild
populations of the reared species. Only small parts of them are extracted from the wild. Females are
caught and placed in small breeding cages, where they lay their eggs on the food plants of the larvae.
The eggs are collected and put into small containers. After the caterpillars have hatched, they are
transferred to their respective food plants in the nursery. After pupation the pupae are “harvested” and
can be sold. In order to prevent unnecessary collection from the wild populations of the farmed species
a part of the reared pupae is used by the farmers to start a new cycle in the breeding cages.
As the local butterfy farmers realize that they are able to gain an income by rearing butterflies and
protecting nature at the same time, the benefits of conservation are clearly recognized by them and their
local communities. Besides, they are doing their butterfly business “at home” and are able to fulfill
domestic duties and care for their children without any problem.
In Tanzania eighteen farmers in the village of Pete were trained by the ZBC. At present sixteen
farmers from surrounding villages are participating in the project. The number should increase to
approximately twenty-five by the end of 2011. The farmers in Tanzania set up a democratic Farmer
Council to discuss different matters and to give advice to new farmers.
In Cambodia the BBC provided training for farmers from five nearby villages as well. At present
twenty-one families are involved in the farming project. The number should increase to thirty-five by
the end of 2011.
Species farmed
In both countries a variety of butterfly species is actually reared and sold by the farmers of the
projects of the BBC and ZBC (see Table I).
LOCAL AND EFFECTIVE: TWO PROJECTS OF BUTTERFLY FARMING IN CAMBODIA AND TANZANIA
SHILAP Revta. lepid., 39 (155), septiembre 2011 269
Species farmed in Cambodia by the BBC Species farmed in Tanzania by the ZBC
Atrophaneura aristolochiae (Fabricius, 1775) Acraea natalica Boisduval, 1833
Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) Acraea zetes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Catopsilia pomona (Fabricius, 1775) Amauris niavius (Linnaeus, 1758)
Catopsilia scylla (Linnaeus, 1763) Amauris ochlea (Boisdual, 1847)
Cethosia cyane (Drury, [1773]) Bebearia mardania (Fabricius,1793)
Charaxes solon (Fabricius, 1793) Belenois thysa Hopffer, 1855)
Danaus genutia (Cramer, [1779]) Byblia anvatara (Boisduval, 1833)
Delias pasithoe (Godart, 1816) Byblia ilithya (Drury, [1773])
Dysphania sagana (Druce, 1882) Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775)
Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus, 1763) Charaxes acuminatus Thurau, 1903
Elymnias nesaea (Linnaeus, 1758) Charaxes brutus (Cramer, [1779])
Euploea core (Linnaeus, 1758) Charaxes candiope (Godart, [1824])
Euploea mulciber (Cramer, [1777]) Charaxes pollux (Cramer, [1775])
Euthalia aconthea (Cramer, [1779]) Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Euthalia lubentina (Cramer, [1779]) Euphaedra neophron (Hopffer, 1855)
Graphium agamemnon (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurema brigitta (Stoll, [1780])
Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) Eurema floricola (Boisduval, 1833)
Graphium doson (Felder, 1864) Eurytela dryope (Cramer, [1775])
Graphium sarpedon (Linnaeus, 1758) Euxanthe wakefieldi (Ward, 1873)
Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) Euxanthe tiberius Grose-Smith, 1889
Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, 1758) Graphium angolanus (Goeze, 1779)
Junonia almana (Linnaeus, 1758) Graphium antheus (Cramer, [1779])
Lebadea martha Fabricius, 1787 Graphium leonidas (Fabricius, 1793)
Lexias dirtea (Fabicius, 1793) Graphium porthaon (Hewitson, 1865)
Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, 1758) Graphium policenes (Cramer, [1775])
Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764)
267-270 Local and effective Tw 10/9/11 17:37 Página 269
Table I.– Butterfly species reared by the farmers in Cambodia (BBC) and Tanzania (ZBC).
Conclusion
Both projects, the “Banteay Srey Butterfly Centre” in Cambodia and the “Zanzibar Butterfly
Centre” in Tanzania, were set up near protected areas. They assist with their conservation and help to
reduce pressure on natural resource use via the creation of local jobs offering an alternative livelihood
and poverty alleviation for families from surrounding local communities.
Acknowledgement
I wish to thank Mr. Ben Hayes, director of the BBC and the ZBC, for providing me with the
photos used for this publication and for particular information on both projects.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
SAMBHU, H. & VAN DER HEYDEN, T., 2010.– Sustainable butterfly farming in tropical developing countries as
an opportunity for man and nature-the “Kawê Amazonica Butterfly Farm” project in Guyana as an example
(Insecta: Lepidoptera).– SHILAP Revta. lepid., 38(152): 451-456.
VAN DER HEYDEN, T. M., 2011.– Focus on education: The “Neotropical Butterfly Park” in Suriname.– Antenna,
35(2): 68-69.
T. v. d. H.
Immenweide, 83
D-22523 Hamburg
ALEMANIA / GERMANY
E-mail: tmvdh@web.de
(Recibido para publicación / Received for publication 21-V-2011)
(Revisado y aceptado / Revised and accepted 15-VI-2011)
(Publicado / Published 30-IX-2011)
T. VAN DER HEYDEN
270 SHILAP Revta. lepid., 39 (155), septiembre 2011
Papilio demolion Cramer, [1776] Junonia natalica (Felder & Felder, 1860)
Papilio helenus Linnaeus, 1758 Junonia oenone (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio memnon Linnaeus, 1758 Junonia terea (Drury, [1773])
Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758 Melanitis leda (Linnaeus, 1758)
Parantica aglea (Stoll, 1781) Papilio dardanus Brown,1776
Parthenos sylvia (Cramer, [1775]) Papilio demodocus Esper, 1798
Polyura athamas (Drury, [1773]) Papilio nireus Linnaeus,1758
Tirumala septentrionis (Butler, 1874) Phalanta phalanta (Drury, [1773])
Salamis anacardii (Linnaeus, 1758)
Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758)
267-270 Local and effective Tw 10/9/11 17:37 Página 270
... Butterfly farming/ecotourism can be beneficial in providing local employment and reduces pressure on the beneficial insects [31] . Ecotourism by butterfly has become common in many countries including Singapore, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, Tanzania, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Costa Rica, Guyana and Mexico [32][33][34][35][36][37][38] . Thus, this piece of work will be an essential step to conserve the endangered butterfly and in developing ecotourism industry in Bangladesh. ...
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... Generally, in the international market, the majority of sales of butterflies are live butterflies (Nijman 2010; Boppre and Vane-Wright 2012), caterpillars (RamosElorduy et al. 2011), pupa ( Shambu and Heyden 2010;Heyden 2011;Boppre and Vane-Wright 2012), or specimens of dead butterfly (Leary 1991;Pyle 1995), whereas in Bantimurung NRP-TN Babul, most butterflies are sold in dead condition and has been processed into various forms of crafts. Commodification of butterflies as craft materials were from all kinds of butterflies and were caught from the wild regardless of species, size, condition, and quality. ...
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Putri IASLP. 2016 Handicraft of butterflies and moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) in Bantimurung Nature Recreation Park and its implications on conservation. Biodiversitas 17: 823-831. The abundance of butterflies in Bantimurung Nature Recreation Park of Bantimurung-Bulusaraung National Park, South Sulawesi, Indonesia provides economic benefits to the community through butterfly’s handicrafts trading. This study aims to determine local species of commodified butterfly that are traded in various forms of craft and its implications for the conservation of butterflies. The study was conducted through the direct identification of butterfly species which are sold as crafts or deposited directly by the catchers to collectors. Data of commodified butterfly were collected using direct interviews. Data were analyzed by descriptive quantitative and qualitative. The results showed that there are 142 species of butterfly which are traded in the period of 2010-2015. The seller participants on butterfly handicrafts consist of the butterfly catchers, middlemen, craftsmen, stall employee, stall employers, and street vendors. The buyer participants consist of local tourists, tourists from outside district/province, traders from outside district/province, buyers from overseas and scientists or butterfly collectors. The butterfly price range was in between Rp. 500.00-Rp. 150,000.00/head at collectors’ level. The butterfly selling prices increased up to Rp. 7,500.00-Rp. 1,000,000.00 when they were processed into various souvenirs forms. Considering that there were so many traded butterfly souvenirs in the market, it raised an impression that there were more butterflies trapped for souvenir than free-living butterfly escaped from the trap. Commodification of butterflies needs to be regulated by setting the butterflies harvesting quota based on population in nature, sex, season and age (especially for female butterfly), accompanied by socializing rules of law, increasing public awareness about the importance of conservation butterflies, and creating new jobs for the people who depend on the butterflies trading. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All rights reserved.
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Complete summary of the scientific knowledge currently available on closing of the knowledge-implementation gap in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Describes interdisciplinary and innovative uses of knowledge sources and knowledge mobilization practices to halt biodiversity loss under human-driven global environmental change. Essential reading for graduate students, researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers working across sectors with biodiversity knowledge and natural resource management around the world. Available here: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-81085-6
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The high population densities of Asian nations and pressures to intensify agriculture and industry have led to high rates of deforestation that reduce wildlife populations, increasing human–wildlife conflict, and distrust between local communities and conservation practitioners. We highlight how multidisciplinary teams are required to not only document the problems and derive solutions, but to also ensure that research outcomes are translated into concrete actions. We examine a series of case studies from tropical Asia across three categories of resource use to identify key project attributes that increase efficiency of the knowledge-to-action pipeline. Attention to communication between researchers and policy makers or target communities, inclusion of communities during multiple stages of project development and implementation, and financial or other tangible incentives for affected communities including payments for ecosystem services were all features of successful conservation projects. Despite these trends, National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans from the region often prioritize research that only defines problems, without attention to the skills required to develop solutions or to mobilize knowledge for successful conservation actions. Broader recognition of conservation as a situational, transdisciplinary, and multidisciplinary science is essential to improve roadmaps for action in such a culturally diverse region.
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The “Kawê Amazonica Butterfly Farm” project in Guyana, South America is described with its different phases and is presented as a model for sustainable butterfly farming.
Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) Euthalia lubentina (Cramer, [1779]) Euphaedra neophron (Hopffer, 1855) Graphium agamemnon (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurema brigitta (Stoll
  • Euthalia
  • Cramer
Euthalia aconthea (Cramer, [1779]) Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) Euthalia lubentina (Cramer, [1779]) Euphaedra neophron (Hopffer, 1855) Graphium agamemnon (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurema brigitta (Stoll, [1780])
1787 Graphium leonidas (Fabricius, 1793) Lexias dirtea (Fabicius, 1793) Graphium porthaon (Hewitson, 1865) Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, 1758) Graphium policenes (Cramer
  • Fabricius Lebadea Martha
Lebadea martha Fabricius, 1787 Graphium leonidas (Fabricius, 1793) Lexias dirtea (Fabicius, 1793) Graphium porthaon (Hewitson, 1865) Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, 1758) Graphium policenes (Cramer, [1775])
1758) Charaxes brutus (Cramer, [1779]) Euploea core (Linnaeus, 1758) Charaxes candiope (Godart, [1824]) Euploea mulciber (Cramer, [1777]) Charaxes pollux (Cramer
  • Elymnias
  • Linnaeus
Elymnias nesaea (Linnaeus, 1758) Charaxes brutus (Cramer, [1779]) Euploea core (Linnaeus, 1758) Charaxes candiope (Godart, [1824]) Euploea mulciber (Cramer, [1777]) Charaxes pollux (Cramer, [1775])
Eurema floricola (Boisduval, 1833) Graphium doson (Felder, 1864) Eurytela dryope (Cramer
  • Graphium
  • Cramer
Graphium antiphates (Cramer, [1775]) Eurema floricola (Boisduval, 1833) Graphium doson (Felder, 1864) Eurytela dryope (Cramer, [1775])
Melanitis leda (Linnaeus, 1758) Parantica aglea (Stoll, 1781) Papilio dardanus Brown
  • Linnaeus Papilio Polytes
Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758 Melanitis leda (Linnaeus, 1758) Parantica aglea (Stoll, 1781) Papilio dardanus Brown,1776
  • T Van
  • Heyden
T. VAN DER HEYDEN 270 SHILAP Revta. lepid., 39 (155), septiembre 2011
Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764) 267-270 Local and effective Tw
  • Linnaeus Papilio Demoleus
Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus, 1764) 267-270 Local and effective Tw 10/9/11 17:37 Página 269