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Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties of garlic and onions

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions and their underlying mechanisms for two common spices, garlic and onion, containing organosulphur compounds. Design/methodology/approach – Literature review of chemistry, physiology, molecular biology, clinical studies. Findings – Both garlic and onions exert their effects on human health via multiple different functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. The organosulphur compounds in these spices scavenge oxidizing agents, inhibit the oxidation of fatty acids, thereby preventing the formation of pro-inflammatory messengers, and inhibit bacterial growth, via interaction with sulphur-containing enzymes. Research limitations/implications – Currently available information on the optimal amount for consumption for each spice is insufficient. Originality/value – This review is unique in its comprehensive nature, considering multiple different effects of the spices examined as well as multiple studies from molecular to clinical approaches.

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... It has the potential to lower blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood glucose (13)(14)(15). It may also exert anti-inflammatory properties and reduce proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1B and TNF-α (16,17). Su et al. (18) showed that 14 days of allicin supplementation reduced IL-6 levels after one session of physical exercise compared to a placebo group. ...
... Ban et al. (31) found that thiacremonone, a novel sulfur compound found in garlic, exerted its anti-inflammatory properties through the inhibition of NF-κB activation via an interaction with the sulfhydryl group of NF-κB molecules. Furthermore, Wilson et al. (17), suggested that garlic exerts its effects on human health via multiple different functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. Organosulfur compounds in garlic can scavenge oxidizing agents and inhibit the oxidation of fatty acids, thereby preventing the formation of pro-inflammatory messengers; they also inhibit bacterial growth via interactions with sulfur-containing enzymes (17). ...
... Furthermore, Wilson et al. (17), suggested that garlic exerts its effects on human health via multiple different functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. Organosulfur compounds in garlic can scavenge oxidizing agents and inhibit the oxidation of fatty acids, thereby preventing the formation of pro-inflammatory messengers; they also inhibit bacterial growth via interactions with sulfur-containing enzymes (17). Our data showed that garlic supplementation alone had no significant effect on hs-CRP and TNF-α levels. ...
Article
Background: A sedentary lifestyle can result in chronic inflammation, which is a risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Lifestyle modifications, including physical activity and herbal supplements, may have health benefits. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of regular exercise and garlic consumption on some inflammatory biomarkers in sedentary overweight individuals. Methods: Forty-four sedentary overweight male participants (20 - 30 years) were randomized to the following groups: Exercise + garlic (ES), exercise + placebo (E), garlic (G), and placebo (P). The training protocol included 20 - 45 minutes of walking/running at 60 to 75% of the maximum heart rate, three sessions per week for eight weeks. Participants consumed two capsules containing 500 milligrams of garlic powder or placebo (starch) per day. Before and 48 h after the exercise intervention and supplement administration, blood samples were collected to assess the hs-CRP and TNF-α serum levels. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used to analyze the data at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: A significant difference was observed between the groups regarding the hs-CRP and TNF-α levels after the experimental period (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference between EG and placebo groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Based on the findings, garlic consumption, along with exercise training could exert anti-inflammatory properties in overweight subjects.
... 26 Additionally, garlic represses the inflammatory process through the modulation of cytokines profile and the stimulation of immune cells along with the suppression of induced NO synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) activity 27,28 and retains the inactive form of nuclear factor kappa B i(NF-κB) by suppressing excessive lipoxygenase (LOX and COX synthesis. 29 The organosulfur active constituents in different garlic formulations have antioxidant properties via direct scavenging capacity. 30 Garlic also stimulates catalase (CAT) enzyme and increases the levels of endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione and other endogenous thiols, and these effects make garlic useful in the prevention of diabetes nephropathy and other complications of T2DM and CVD. ...
... 30 Garlic also stimulates catalase (CAT) enzyme and increases the levels of endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione and other endogenous thiols, and these effects make garlic useful in the prevention of diabetes nephropathy and other complications of T2DM and CVD. 29 Many studies that were conducted on the effect of AGEx on diabetic rats showed positive results as it is concluded that AGEx reduced blood glucose level (BGL) and glycated hemoglobin significantly, and increased serum insulin level along with its antioxidant effect. 31 Garlic may have a beneficial effect in T2DM patients acting as insulin secretagogue and alleviating insulin resistance, 25 and time-release garlic powder tablets decreased fasting blood glucose level (FBGL) and had some beneficial effect on hyperlipidemia as well. ...
... Garlic affected infant behavior when administered in breastfeeding mothers, and chromosomal breakage, anemia, heart and kidney toxicity were reported as well . 29,39,42,43 Genus Zizyphus Genus Zizyphus (Figure 2) of family Rhamnaceae includes more than 100 species. Most members are small trees or shrubs found in many countries that have had a vital role in TM for a long time, as antipyretic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and natural treatment for tumors. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are 2 of the most prevalent diseases with poor impact on health status worldwide. In most cases, they coexist with other metabolic disorders as well as cardiac, micro- and macrovascular complications. Many plants are known for their hypotensive, cardioprotective, and/or antidiabetic activities. Their active ingredients either identified and isolated or still utilized as herbal preparations of certain plant parts. The use of medicinal plants comprises the main basis for most of the traditional medicine (TM) systems and procedures. As conventional medicines seem insufficient to control such progressive diseases, herbal agents from TM could be used as adjuvant with good impact on disease control and progression as well as other concomitant health conditions. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of 10 different herbal medicines of botanical origin or herbal preparations in the management of hypertension and its cardiovascular complications and type 2 DM along with various coexisting health disorders. These herbal medicines are garlic, berberine, resveratrol, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Zizyphus ( oxyphylla, mucronate, jujube, rugosa), hesperidin, red beetroot, Catha edulis, mulberry leaves, and Portulaca oleracea.
... Mandukhail et al. reported dose-dependent (3-30 mg/ kg) reduction of carbachol (CCh), (1 mg/kg)-induced bronchoconstriction by a flavonoid-rich hydroacetone AcE peel, similar to the effect of aminophylline in rats. In guinea pigs also, the AcE (0.3-3 mg/mL) relaxed both CCh (1 μM) and high K + -induced contraction of TSM concentration dependently and shifted the isoprenaline-induced relaxation concentration-response curves to the left, similar to effect of [17,51,94,144] Organosulfuric compounds iosulphinates, cepaenes, cysteine, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, diallyl disulfide, allyl methyl sulfide, allyl propyl disulfide, gamma-L-glutamyl-trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, Spropenyl cysteine sulfoxide, S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides, and S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide [51,145] Allicin Diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and ajoene [13,51,143,146] Phenolic compounds Phenolics, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and hydroxycinnamic acid [42,51] Lipophilic antioxidants Dialkyl disulfides, aglycones, anthocyanin, saponins, and fistulosin (octadecyl 3hydroxyindole) [41,62] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine ethanolic AcE 10 µl/ml given orally to the animals 30 min prior to allergen inhalation challenges on histamine-or acetylcholine (ACh-) induced bronchial obstruction were shown [86]. ...
... Other active components of onions including thiosulfinates and sulfines (sulfinyl disulfides) are able to activate cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways which initiate eicosanoid metabolism. us, these constituents might be responsible for anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic properties of the onion extracts [94]. ...
Article
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The health benefits of Allium cepa (A. cepa) have been proclaimed for centuries. Various pharmacological and therapeutic effects on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders are shown by A. cepa and its constituents. Flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol, alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides including S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide and S-propyl cysteine sulfoxide, cycloalliin, thiosulfinates, and sulfides are the main compounds of the plant. A. cepa displays broad-spectrum pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic effects. Our objective in this review is to present the effects of A. cepa and its constituents on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders. Different online databases were searched to find articles related to the effect of A. cepa extracts and its constituents on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders until the end of December 2020 using keywords such as onion, A. cepa, constituents of A. cepa, therapeutic effects and pharmacological effects, and respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders. Extracts and constituents of A. cepa showed tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effects, indicating possible bronchodilator activities or relieving effects on obstructive respiratory diseases. In experimental animal models of different respiratory diseases, the preventive effect of various extracts and constituents of A. cepa was induced by their antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects. The preventive effects of the plant and its components on lung disorders induced by exposure to noxious agents as well as lung cancer, lung infection, and allergic and immunologic disorders were also indicated in the experimental and clinical studies. Therefore, this review may be considered a scientific basis for development of therapies using this plant, to improve respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders.
... Although Allium vegetable such as garlic and onion have been safely used in cooking since ancient times, it is commonly known that excessive consumption can cause problems such as gastrointestinal tract injury, allergic reaction (in some individuals), anemia, weight loss, and toxicity to the heart, liver and kidney as well as chromosomal breaks [232,233]. Other adverse effects include burning sensation in the mouth, nausea, diarrhea and inhibition of spermatogenesis [234][235][236] and body odor. ...
... Amagase et al. [131] observed that enteric coated garlic preparations, designed to release allicin in the intestine, caused severe damage to the duodenal mucosa. Based on the above evidence, garlic is classified as a type 1 allergan and the allergan has been identified as DADS, allylpropyl sulfide, and allicin [233]. ...
Article
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Allium species, belonging to Alliaceae family, are among the oldest cultivated vegetables used as food. Garlic, onions, leeks and chives, which belong to this family, have been reported to have medicinal properties. The Allium species constituents have been shown to have antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and, in addition, other biological properties. These activities are related to their rich organosulfur compounds. These organosulfur compounds are believed to prevent the development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, diabetes, liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have also been reports on toxicities of these compounds. The major active compounds of Allium species includes, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dipropyl trisulfide, 1-propenylpropyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide and dimethyl disulfide. The aim of this review is to focus on a variety of experimental and clinical reports on the effectiveness, toxicities and possible mechanisms of actions of the active compounds of garlic, onions, leek and chives.
... The saponins have also shown an anti-inflammatory activity against chronic skin inflammation, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and induced ear edema(Adão et al., 2011;Navarro et al., 2001;Sparg et al., 2004). OSCs showed similar protection against inflammation(Bahram-Parvar & Lim, 2018;Rose et al., 2005;Wilson & Demmig-Adams, 2007). For instance, lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) can be converted into arachidonic acid (AA), a proinflammatory enzyme, which is responsible for various disorders in the body, including inflammation(Wilson & Demmig-Adams, 2007). ...
... OSCs showed similar protection against inflammation(Bahram-Parvar & Lim, 2018;Rose et al., 2005;Wilson & Demmig-Adams, 2007). For instance, lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) can be converted into arachidonic acid (AA), a proinflammatory enzyme, which is responsible for various disorders in the body, including inflammation(Wilson & Demmig-Adams, 2007). The capaene and thiosulfinate compounds of onion have the ability to neutralize the conversion and production of this AA. ...
Article
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Bioactive compounds possess different health benefits. Onion contains various bioactive compounds, such as organosulfur compounds, flavonols, ascorbic acids, and carbohydrate prebiotics, and its by‐products have more content of flavonoids than the bulb. Diallyl monosulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl tetrasulfide are the major organosulfur compounds, whereas quercetin, kaempferol, anthocyanin, and luteolin are considered as main flavonoids. Ascorbic acid and fructooligosaccharides are also regarded as bioactive compounds. Onion bioactive compounds have the strong antioxidant potential for neutralizing oxidative stress of the cells. These bioactive components are beneficial as anticarcinogenic, antibiotic, anti‐inflammatory, antiplatelet, antidiabetic, and cardioprotective agents along with other nutritional benefits. However, various postharvest practices have an impact on these bioactive compounds, for example, curing mostly enhances the bioactive level and processing temperature generally decreases the concentration of many of them, whereas storage studies suggest an increase of others under optimized conditions. Additionally, conventional extraction techniques showed a negative impact on bioactive compounds of onion, whereas innovative methods yielded a higher amount of bioactive components. There is a need for innovative and integrated procedures in the postharvest sector to maintain or enhance the level of bioactive compounds without compromising the quality of onions. The present review comprehensively describes different bioactive compounds of onion, their chemistry, and their pharmacotherapeutic roles. Moreover, it also explores the effects of various postharvest factors, such as temperature, storage duration, and extraction conditions on the level of the bioactive components. It also suggests industrial applications of onion waste and its bioactive compounds in the food sector.
... Allicin is one of the most important nutritive ingredients in garlic. A great deal of research show that allicin reveal antimicrobial (Ruddock et al., 2005), antiviral (Weber et al., 2007), anti-inflammatory (Wilson & Demmig-Adams, 2007), pathological function for both hyperlipidemia and arteriosclerosis in animal models and human clinical trials (Chi, 1982;Lawson & Gardner, 2005), and anti-platelet aggregation activities in vitro (Lawson, Ransom, & Hughes, 1992). It was not clear that whether decreasing allicin content and formation new compounds, green pigments, induced the functional change of garlic or not. ...
Article
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In order to comparison of processing technology on quality of “Laba” garlic products, the garlic was dipped in acetic acid and fumigated by acetic acid with carbon dioxide, CO2, respectively, until became green. The pigment formation, texture characteristics, and bioactivities of “Laba” garlic was investigated. Garlic fumigated by acetic acid with 80% CO2 exhibited the most discoloration, while the hardness and pigment bioavailability of garlic fumigated by acetic acid with 20% CO2 presented the highest value. Correlation test showed that scavenging rate of DPPH· of garlic products is highly dependent on allicin content, while showed a good negative correlation between allicin content and blue, yellow pigments. Though formation of new pigments, the scavenging rate of DPPH· decreased indicating that pigments of “Laba” garlic exhibited much poorer clearance rate of DPPH· than allicin. In summary, “Laba” garlic fumigated with acetic acid and 20% CO2 showed the best quality.
... These beneficial effects are strongly correlated mainly to the high content of sulfur compounds and flavonoids. The beneficial effects of flavonoids are due to the anticarcinogenic, anticholesterol, antidepressant [4], antidiabetic, antifungal [5], anti-inflammatory [6], antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis [7], antioxidative, hypotensive, and antispasmodic [8] activities, as well as to the affinity for copper, iron, and zinc ions [9]. The major flavonoids found in the onion are mainly flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and their glycosides) and anthocyanins (cyanidin and peonin) [1]. ...
Article
The interaction of flavonoids extracted from yellow onion skins with whey proteins isolate was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and simulation methods from the perspectives of microencapsulation. The fluorescence spectroscopy revealed a static quenching mechanism and the involvement of van der Waals and H bonding in complexes formation. The in silico methods suggested that the heat treatment of the major whey proteins affected the binding pockets and therefore the affinity for the main flavonoids. The interaction surface decreased and the interaction energy increased, suggesting lower binding strength. Further, the yellow onion skins extract was successfully encapsulated in whey proteins isolate and different combinations of polymers, including chitosan, maltodextrin and pectin by freeze drying. The resulted powder showed a total flavonoid content of 5.84 ± 0.23 mg quercetin equivalents/g DW in whey protein-chitosan combination and 104.97 ± 5.02 mg quercetin equivalents/g DW in whey protein-maltodextrin-pectin combinations, with antioxidant activity of 175.93 ± 1.50 mM mM Trolox/g DW and 269.20 ± 3.59 mM Trolox/g DW, respectively. The confocal microscopy indicated that the flavonoids aggregated inside the matrix formed between the whey proteins and various polymers and irregular and compact clusters. Therefore, a comprehensive approach involving the extraction of flavonoids from underutilized food by-products, such as yellow onion skins, evaluation of binding mechanisms with whey proteins, whereas tailoring their functional benefit through microencapsulation in order to obtain active ingredients are reported.
... Even if spices have an antimicrobial effect, the rate we used in the döner was lower. On the other hand, onion has the same feature as spices, due to having a component like allicin (63,64). It could be said that the usage ratio of onion in our study was rather high (3.91%) and that could inhibit the microbial growth. ...
Article
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Döner is a traditional meat meal that is commonly consumed in Turkey. Although it receives heat treatment during processing, some microorganisms including pathogens may remain alive. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the changes in the number of microorganisms (total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, aerobic mesophilic spore-forming bacteria, Staphylococcus-Micrococcus spp.) and survival potential of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens) during the cooking period. Experimentally prepared döner kebabs were cooked continuously or intermittently. This process resulted in a reduction of microorganisms depending on the species and the use of low quality raw materials, and a number of bacteria survived at significant levels after cooking. The remaining bacteria multiplied and reached unacceptable levels with interrupted heat treatment over a long period of time. However, staphylococcal enterotoxins were not detected in intentionally contaminated samples that were kept at room temperature for 18 h after cooking. On the other hand, no significant microbiological changes appeared in raw sections of döner during cooking when the heat source was turned off.
... Benkeblia [22] reported that the essential oil of onion possessed significant antimicrobial activity. In another study, it was found that onion inhibit the proinflammatory messenger and bacterial growth due to the presence of various organic sulfur compounds [23]. The ethyl acetate subfraction of onion showed the prevention against microbes. ...
Article
Antibiotics resistance is currently one of the major challenges in the health care system. The antimicrobial properties of some herbs have been used in the treatment of infectious diseases as well as disinfection of surfaces. This in a way helps overcome microbial resistance arising from indiscriminate use of synthetic antimicrobial agents for similar purpose. Some antibiotic resistant bacteria- Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from cooking wares in homes were investigated using agar well diffusion and agar dilution method to test for the antibacterial activity of fresh Allium cepa (onion) extract. All were susceptible to the fresh white and red onion extract except Staphylococus aureus which was susceptible to only the white onion extract. The diameter of zones of inhibition ranged from 2 mm-35 mm. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M. I. C.) and the Minimum Bacterial Concentration (M. B. C.) values of the fresh onion juices against the test bacteria were low ranging from 3.125% v/v – 25.0% v/v. This study indicates that the fresh raw extracts of Allium cepa possess significant antibacterial potency against these antibiotic resistant bacteria.
... Garlic (Allium sativum) is widely used for human consumption mainly as a spice, and in food preparation recipes. Many human studies showed that garlic contains chemical constituents that can help in the treatment or prevention of cancer, diabetes, blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia (16,18).Several compounds (sulfur volatile active component) in garlic extract responsible on their bioactive (antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties) effect such asAllicin (organosulfur compound, the family of Alliaceae), allin, ajoene, diallysulfide, dithiin, Sallycysteine [16,[19][20][21].In animal nutrition, many studies showed that garlic possesses many useful properties that can enhance overall animal performance. This is due to the presence of unique phytochemicals that have a strong action against bacterial and fungal threats, and oxidative stress which can affect overall animal performance (22)(23)(24). ...
Article
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The current investigation was conducted to study the effect of periodically use of garlic powder on some productive performance (mortality, feed intake, live body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio). Two hundred and ten Ross broilers (1 day old) were raised during the experimental period for six weeks. Broilers were divided into ten groups and were offered corn–soybean-based diets for two growth stages (starter and finisher stages). All chicks were distributed into ten experimental treatments with three replicates for each treatment and seven chicks in each replicate. The control treatment group received basal diet without supplementation of garlic powder. Three treatment groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.5, 1, and 1.5% garlic powder during the starter stage (i.e 1-21 days). Three treatment groups received a control diet for 21 days and then offered 0.5, 1, and 1.5% of garlic powder during the finisher stage (i.e 22-42 days). The last three treatment groups received a basal diet supplemented with 0.5, 1, and 1.5% garlic powder during both starter and finisher stages (i.e from 1-42 days). The results of this study showed that feeding garlic powder at higher inclusion rate (i.e 1.5%) significantly reduce feed intake compared to broilers fed garlic powder at low inclusion level (0.5%) and broilers in the control group. However, feeding garlic powder at higher inclusion level (i.e 1.5%) significantly increased average gain and improved feed conversion ratio among the other feeding treatments. It can be concluded that the positive effect of feeding garlic diet was more pronounced during the finisher stage (day 22-42 ) or when garlic powder fed during all the experimental period (i.e day 1-42). Finally, this study paves the way for the use of garlic powder or its constituents in the clinical settings where effective nutrition and increasing the human body weight may be necessary.
... Garlic (Allium sativum) is widely used as culinary or medicinal supplement for the prevention and treatment of various heart and metabolic diseases (Konjufca et al., 1997;Amagase et al., 2001). Garlic contains a sulfur volatile active component that has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant biological properties (Wilson and Demming-Adams, 2007), it has been examined as a potential alternative to antibiotics in pig production. The alternative growth promoters including herbs, prebiotics and/or eubiotics deserve special attention (Grela et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The effects of the use of antibiotics and garlic powder in the nutrition of weaning piglets were compared. The trial included 120 weaned piglets of the same genotype (Large White) distributed in three feeding treatments. In the first study period (day 27-56), a feed mixture with 20% protein was used, while in the second period (day 57-84), a mixture with 18% protein. The control group was fed with mixtures containing antibiotics in the amount of 0.2%, while the two experimental groups were fed with mixtures containing fermented garlic powder (FGP) in the concentration of 0.05% and 0.2%. The obtained results showed that the use of FGP, instead of antibiotics, resulted in better gain in second trial group, and also better feed conversion ratio, in both trial groups by 3.84% and 6.93% respectively, during the entire research period.
... Garlic consumption is associated with decreased risk of some types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disease [3]. Besides, various other biological activities have been reported for garlic, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory properties [4]. Onion has also been utilised as a medicinal agent according to sources dating from ancient times. ...
Article
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Onion (Allium cepa) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) are common herbs and vegetables found in our daily life. It belongs to the genus Allium, which is usually known for their high antioxidant and anticancer properties. Medical researchers highly recommend the exploitation of herbs and plants as alternative ways in the treatment of cancer. This research was designed to study the anticancer effects of onion and leek extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Crude extracts of ethanol, methanol, and water of onion and leek were obtained by maceration. MCF-7 cells were cultured in complete media at 37 °C and subjected to different treatments that involved varying concentrations (10, 50, and 100 μg/mL) of onion and leek extracts for 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. The percentage of cell viability and the concentration of extracts on MCF-7 cells were determined using MTT assay. The water leek extract proved to be the most effective extract at 50 μg/mL, whereby it showed a significant inhibition ability due to the presence of entadamide A-β-D-glucopyranoside as identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). Further studies about the mechanism of both extracts in causing cell death and the determination of the presence of other bioactive compounds in the extracts are needed.
... Some of these organosulfur compounds are also used in the treatment of various types of tumors caused by Helicobacter pylori along with gastric ulcers. Moreover, existence of sulfur and nitrogen usually improve the efficiency of some compounds for the treatment of several types of fungal, bacterial, and different pathogen causing diseases [27][28][29]. Recently, antimicrobial activity of trisubstituted quinoxaline derivatives has been reported [19]. ...
Article
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A number of new symmetrically and asymmetrically 2,3-disubstituted quinoxalines were synthesized through functionalization of 2,3-dichloroquinoxaline (2,3-DCQ) with a variety of sulfur and/or nitrogen nucleophiles. The structures of the obtained compounds were established based on their spectral data and elemental analysis. The antimicrobial activity for the prepared compounds was investigated against four bacterial species and two fungal strains. The symmetrically disubstituted quinoxalines 2, 3, 4, and 5 displayed the most significant antibacterial activity, while compounds 6a, 6b, and the pentacyclic compound 10 showed considerable antifungal activity. Furthermore, compounds 3f, 6b showed broad antimicrobial spectrum against most of the tested strains.
... The excellent wound healing effect of the extract and the formulated tablets may be attributed to their effect on reducing the blood glucose level of the diabetic rats (Figure 1 a) and subsequently enhancing angioneogenesis [42]. Since inflammation and circulating cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) are among the mechanisms of retardation of diabetic wound healing [42], the anti-inflammatory effects of some plants of the herbal blend [43][44][45][46] may have a role in the promoted wound healing in the groups receiving the herbal extract or the tablet formulation. Meanwhile, the more prominent enhanced hypoglycemic and diabetic wound healing effect of the optimized tablet formulation may be attributed to the instant absorption, accurate dosing and induced chemical and microbiologic stability of the prepared tablets compared to the aqueous extract solution [47,48]. ...
Article
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Many herbal products have been used to control blood glucose level and minimize complications of diabetes mellitus. However, the feasibility of using such herbal product has been hindered due to the lower stability of their extracts and patients incompliance. Objective: An optimized fast disintegrating tablet preparation of spray dried aqueous extract of poly herbal blend has been formulated to maximize the therapeutic activity of such herbal extract. Methods: different ratios of superdisintegrants were evaluated in terms of reducing disintegration time and wetting time of the prepared formulations. The potential of the optimized formula in reducing blood glucose level and promoting wound healing in streptozotcin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was determined. Key finding: Oral administration of the optimized formula (F6) had significant superior effect in reducing blood glucose level and promoting wound healing of diabetic rats compared receiving the aqueous extract of the herbal blend (P<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). That may be attributed to the enhanced stability and the accurate dosing of such solid dosage form. In addition, no remarkable toxic manifestations or histologic changes were observed in treated animals. Conclusion: These findings uncover the potential of the formulated dosage form in enhancing the hypoglycemic and wound healing activity of the herbal extract.
... Santas et al., (2010) had reported that the ethyl acetate sub-fractions of onion showed prevention against microbes which may be due to the presence of flavonoids in these extracts. In another study, it was found that onion inhibits the pro-inflammatory messengers and bacterial growth due to the presence of various organic sulfur compounds (Wilson and Adams, 2007). ...
... Crude extracts rich in phenolics such as fruits, herbs, vegetables and cereals are widely used in the food manufacturing and processing since they increase the quality and nutritional value of food by delaying oxidative degradation of lipids. In fact many plants spices and herbs have protective effect related to the presence of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds in their cell walls (Srinivasan, 2005;Wilson and Adams, 2007;. The role of food antioxidants in the maintenance of health and reduction of risks developing cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes and other diseases is increasingly apparent as reflected in the increase in consumer's preference for functional foods with specific health properties (Anonymous, 2002). ...
... Más allá de la actividad antifúngica, antibacteriana y antioxidante tradicionalmente reconocidas a estos vegetales15 , en la actualidad se considera que dietas ricas en ajo y/o cebolla inducen una serie de beneficios para la salud. Algunas de sus propiedades bioactivas se han revisado en detalle en los últimos años16 , demostrándose que su uso puede tener efectos beneficiosos en patologías como el cáncer 17 , salud cardiovascular e hipercolesterolemia18 , dislipidemia e hipertensión arterial, y alteraciones patológicas responsables de enfermedades como el síndrome metabólico19 .En general, las plantas del género Allium son ricas en minerales, aminoácidos esenciales, fibra, vitaminas, flavonoides y otros compuestos fenólicos. ...
Article
Objectives: Review and discussion of the scientific evidence on the effects of organosulfur compounds ofAlliumgenus as immunomodulators and immunostimulators. Methods: A review of original scientific articles and reviews was conducted. Results: Numerous research and trials have shown the close relationship between food and health, pointing out the benefits that vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, prebiotics or phytochemicals exert on various diseases. Among them, the role of substances of vegetable origin, such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, nitrogen and organosulfur compounds, should be remarked for their positive influence on the microbiota, intestinal health and immune system.In this work the scientific evidences about the benefits of some organosulfur compounds ofAlliumgenus, such as allicin or propyl propane thiosulfonate, are reviewed and discussed for their immunomodulatory and immune-enhancing properties. Conclusions: Numerous scientific studies have shown the positive effects of organosulfur compounds ofAlliumgenus on the immune system and inflammatory processes. In particular, of some compounds such as allicin, although its instability strongly affects its real application in nutraceutical supplements, and other compounds, such as propiin derivatives, are more promising as immunostimulators ingredients
... Medicinal plant/herbs have a long history of their use in preventing or treating human, animal and poultry diseases. Among wide variety of plant/herbs, Allium sativum and Punica granatum have broad spectrum activities which include anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antiprotozoal, antifungal, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. ...
... Onion is one of common local vegetables which have been used as source for food and medicine. The plant is in tree types according to the skin; red, white and purple which is used as source for energy [7,8]. The extract of Onions has shown effective against common cold, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, coughs a sore throat [9]. ...
... 36 Lectins, prostaglandins and thiosulfates contained in onions have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. 44,45 Lupenol present in white cabbage exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. 46,47 Radish is a good source of glucosinolates, which have antioxidant properties. ...
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Periodontal diseases affect up to 90% of the population worldwide. Deficiencies in vitamins, minerals and polyphenolic compounds, whose main sources are fruit and vegetables (F&V), may predispose to these diseases. The PICO (Patient, Intervention of interest, Comparison or Control Intervention, and Outcome) question was: What is the effect of F&V intake on the outcomes of periodontal diseases, observed in either experimental or observational studies of human populations suffering from periodontitis or gingivitis, compared to controls without intervention or healthy people.The review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol for search strategy, selection criteria and data extraction. The searched databases included MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus and Google Scholar. A total of 181 potentially relevant articles were identified, which were then evaluated according to pre-specified criteria relating to relevance and quality. Finally, 15 articles were selected for review. Four articles described intervention studies, 3 reported on prospective and retrospective cohort studies, and 8 concerned cross-sectional studies. A total of 10,604 people aged 15-90 years took part in the studies. On the basis of the research it can be concluded that the consumption of at least 5 servings of F&V per day may prevent the progression of periodontal diseases, especially periodontitis, and even tooth loss. Moreover, incorporation of specific F&V into the diet or, alternatively, their lyophilized forms, and nutritional education activities seem to support the standard of care therapy of gingivitis and periodontitis. However, further observational and well-designed experimental studies, with homogeneous periodontal status outcomes, are needed to confirm these findings. Furthermore, professional dietetics care for periodontal patients should become an integral component of the healthcare program.
... Thiosulfinates and cepaenes found in A. cepa, can inhibit production of arachidonic acid as well as its downstream proinflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes (Wilson and Demmig-Adams 2007). Thiosulfinates and cepaenes (100 mM) exerted anti-inflammatory properties mediated through inhibition of chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. ...
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Context Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae), known as onion, is consumed throughout the world. Onion and its derivatives including saponins, aglycones, quercetin, cepaenes, flavonoids, organosulfurs, and phenolic compounds, showed various pharmacological properties and therapeutic effects. Objective Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of A. cepa and its main constituents, along with the underlying molecular mechanisms are presented. Methods Databases including, Web of Knowledge, Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were checked for articles published between 1996 and the end of July 2020, using the key-words Allium cepa, quercetin, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Results A. cepa and its constituents mainly quercetin showed anti-inflammatory effects mediated via reduction of total and differential WBC counts, inhibition of chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, COX, and LOX pathways and prevented formation of leukotrienes and thromboxanes, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as onVCAM-1, NF-κB, MARK,d STAT-1, JNK, p38 and osteoclastogenesis. A. cepa and its derivatives showed antioxidant effect by decreasing lipid peroxidation, NAD(P)H, MDA, NO, LPO and eNOS but enhancing antioxidants such as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, GSPO, TrxR, SDH, GST and GR activities and thiol level. Immunomodulatory effects of the plant and quercetin was also shown by reduction of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β and TNF-α and IgE levels, but increased CD4 cells, IFN-γ level and IFN-γ/IL4 ratio (Th1/Th2 balance). Conclusions The effect of onion and its constituents on oxidative stress, inflammatory and immune system were shown indicating their therapeutic value in treatment of various diseases associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune-dysregulation.
... The anxiolytic-like and antidepressant activities in animal study were also reported for lemongrass essential oil treatment [5]. Garlic also shows antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties [6,7]. Garlic oil and its components showed antidepressantlike effects via the increase of serotonin and the dopamine level [8]. ...
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The functional food market is growing with a compound annual growth rate of 7.9%. Thai food recipes use several kinds of herbs. Lemongrass, garlic, and turmeric are ingredients used in Thai curry paste. Essential oils released in the preparation step create the flavor and fragrance of the famous tom yum and massaman dishes. While the biological activities of these ingredients have been investigated, including the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the responses to the essential oils of these plants. To investigate the effects of essential oil inhalation on the brain and mood responses, electroencephalography was carried out during the non-task resting state, and self-assessment of the mood state was performed. The essential oils were prepared in several dilutions in the range of the supra-threshold level. The results show that Litsea cubeba oil inhalation showed a sedative effect, observed from alpha and beta wave power reductions. The frontal and temporal regions of the brain were involved in the wave alterations. Garlic oil increased the alpha wave power at lower concentrations; however, a sedative effect was also observed at higher concentrations. Lower dilution oil induced changes in the fast alpha activity in the frontal region. The alpha and beta wave powers were decreased with higher dilution oils, particularly in the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Both Litsea cubeba and turmeric oils resulted in better positive moods than garlic oil. Garlic oil caused more negative moods than the others. The psychophysiological activities and the related brain functions require further investigation. The knowledge obtained from this study may be used to design functional food products.
... Garlic contains various bioactive compounds like allicin, alliin, diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, ajoene, and S-allyl-cysteine (Shang et al., 2019). The antibacterial activity of garlic is also well documented (Kumar & Berwal, 1998;Wilson & Demmig-Adams, 2007). It has been reported that garlic reduced S. enterica numbers in mayonnaise by 10fold (Leuschner & Zamparini, 2002). ...
Article
The study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 0.5 or 1% (w/w) chitosan and 1% (w/w) garlic against Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in hummus dip stored at 4, 10, or 25°C for 28, 21, or 7 days, respectively. In hummus without garlic, at all storage temperatures and storage periods, 0.5% chitosan decreased Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes by 0.9–2.3, 0.6–2.3, and 0.9–1.3 log CFU/g, respectively. In comparison, 1% chitosan decreased the numbers by 1.6–2.9, 1.4–2.7, and 1.3–1.8 log CFU/g, respectively. In hummus with 1% garlic, 0.5% chitosan decreased Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes by 0.7–2.5, 0.6–2.2, and 1.0–1.5 log CFU/g, respectively. Furthermore, 1% chitosan decreased the numbers by 1.6–2.8, 1.2–2.7, and 1.5–1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. With few exceptions, adding 1% garlic to hummus did not result in any significant reduction (at p < 0.05) in microbial numbers. The greatest decreases of Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes were 3.1, 3.6, and 2.9 log CFU/g with 1% chitosan held at 4°C for 28 days. The highest overall acceptability was for hummus with 0.5% chitosan + 1% garlic. Commercial use of chitosan is expected to help producers improve hummus safety
... Comparatively, multiple studies have proven that antiinflammatory agents can decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines. 41,42 Therefore, treatment with garlic is expected to reduce the exacerbations of hepatitis and improve the quality of patient's life in numerous inflammatory diseases. 43 Garlic is a natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antimicrobial properties. ...
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Background: Trastuzumab is a new biological drug that has been used to treat breast and gastric cancer; however, its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity limit its use. Garlic has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and anticancer effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of garlic on trastuzumab-induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into four equal groups as vehicle control (G1), garlic (G2), trastuzumab (G3), and trastuzumab+garlic (G4). All rats were sacrificed after eight weeks of treatment, followed by blood collection and excision of liver tissues for further analyses. The liver specimens were processed for histopathological (HP), immunohistochemical (expression of TNF-α and PCNA), immunofluorescent expression of Chk2 and p53, biochemical, and flow cytometry investigations to evaluate the extent of hepatocyte injury. The biochemical analysis was conducted for the activity of tissue antioxidants (GPX1, CAT, and SOD2), serum lipid profile, and liver enzymes, whereas ROS was performed by flow cytometry. Results: The results revealed remarkable structural changes in hepatocytes of G3 with significant increases in the numbers of inflammatory cells and positive PCNA cells, area % of collagen fibers, and immuno-expression of TNF-α, as well as a significant reduction in the nuclear expression of Chk2. In addition, significant reductions were noticed in the antioxidant enzymes (SOD2, CAT, and GPX1) activity of G3. In contrast, the levels of lipid profile tests (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDLC, and HDLC), liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP), and ROS revealed significant increases in rats of G3. Likewise, garlic administration in G4 restored all mentioned changes to their average levels deviated by trastuzumab. Conclusion: Based on the current results, garlic demonstrates hepatoprotective effects against trastuzumab-induced toxicity in rats. The study suggested for the first time that the coadministration of garlic with trastuzumab for treating breast or gastric cancer can augment their efficacy with minimal toxicity.
... Garlic (Allium sativum) is widely used for human consumption mainly as a spice, and in food preparation recipes. Many human studies showed that garlic contains chemical constituents that can help in the treatment or prevention of cancer, diabetes, blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia (16,18).Several compounds (sulfur volatile active component) in garlic extract responsible on their bioactive (antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties) effect such asAllicin (organosulfur compound, the family of Alliaceae), allin, ajoene, diallysulfide, dithiin, Sallycysteine [16,[19][20][21].In animal nutrition, many studies showed that garlic possesses many useful properties that can enhance overall animal performance. This is due to the presence of unique phytochemicals that have a strong action against bacterial and fungal threats, and oxidative stress which can affect overall animal performance (22)(23)(24). ...
... Garlic and its extracts are well known for several years due to their beneficial impact on human health (Wilson and Demmig-Adams, 2007). In the 20 th century, the features of one or more compounds present in bulbs of garlic were characterized. ...
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Housefly is a significant domestic pest, which causes nuisance. The use of insecticides is discouraged to manage housefly; therefore, alternative management strategies are inevitable. The current study investigated the impact of different plant extracts, i.e., Moringa oleifera (moringa), Allium sativum (garlic) and Piper nigrum (black pepper) on biological parameters of house fly. Two different concentrations (i.e., 25 and 50%) of the extracts were blended in larval diet made through mixing of wheat bran, yeast and dried milk powder. The results indicated significant differences for larval duration. Maximum larval duration was recorded for garlic followed by black pepper and moringa, respectively. In case of pupal duration, non-significant differences were observed among plant extracts. Increase rate of oviposition was noticed with moringa at 25% concentration, while decreased oviposition rate was noted for garlic with 50% concentration. Egg hatching percentage remained non-significant for the botanical extracts. The highest survival was observed with moringa, while garlic resulted in the lowest survival. The highest repellency was noticed for garlic followed by black pepper, whereas moringa resulted in the lowest repellency after 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Prolonged developmental time was observed for bot concentrations of garlic, whereas moringa noted the shortest developmental time. Thus moringa was found to be a promoter of housefly development. Minimum adult emergence was found with both concentrations of garlic followed by 50% concentration of black pepper. The 50% concentration of black pepper promoted the population of adult males, while both concentrations of moringa and 25% concentration of black pepper encouraged the population of female adults. Study outcomes depicted that tested botanical extracts had significant potential for disturbing biological parameters of housefly. The garlic extracts can potentially be used to manage housefly. However, further investigations on the larval and adult mortality are needed.
... Fundamentally, these flavonoids in onion are glucosides and quercetin aglycone, in addition to kaempferol monoglycoside or isorhamnetin monoglycoside in some species. Due to its compounds, onion extracts show anti-aging, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diarrhoeal, antimutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-spasmodic, anti-ulcer, and antiproliferative properties [12][13][14]. One of the most important compounds of onion is quercetin that exhibits antioxidant and/or pro-oxidant as well as modulates different protective intracellular signaling cascades [15]. ...
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Aging is associated with structural and functional changes of the cornea. Fresh onion juice contains phenolic compounds and flavonoids that may provide an anti-aging effect. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the onion juice to ameliorate these aging changes. Rats were grouped as adult and aged groups. Rats of both groups received eye drops of diluted onion juice in their right eyes every 8 hours for 12 weeks, while the left ones were served as control eyes. The corneas of both eyes underwent histopathological, immunohistochemical and morphometric assessments, in addition to measuring their intraocular pressure (IOP). The aged group exhibited a significantly elevated IOP, decreased tear secretion, degenerated corneal epithelium and endothelium, surface erosions and stromal edema with irregular collagen fibers. Administration of onion juice led to lowering of IOP, significant increase in tearing, restoration of most of epithelial, endothelial and stromal integrity, and increased epithelial, keratocystic and endothelial cell densities. Immunohistochemically, the epithelium and endothelium revealed positive immune reactions for both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and paired box protein-6 (PAX6) in the control and onion-treated corneas of the adult group, while these immune reactions were negative in the untreated aged ones. Onion drops in aged corneas showed a positive immune reaction for EFGR and PAX6 involving the epithelial and endothelial layers. In conclusion, topical onion juice improves corneal aging changes through its direct effect, and indirectly through lowering IOP and enhancing tear secretion.
... Onion extracts were previously shown to support the circulatory system by causing reduction of blood viscosity, and thus preventing blood clots [12]. Anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-allergic, bactericidal, and bacteriostatic properties of onion are also well-documented [13]. Most of the mentioned health-promoting effects of onions have been attributed to the organic sulfur compounds responsible for the characteristic flavor of onions, as well as to flavonoids, such as quercetin and its derivatives [14]. ...
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Here we report the results of a three-year replicated field trial on the effects of novel clover- and alfalfa-based fertilizer products (Ekofert® K and Ekofert® L), with the input levels equivalent to 120, 180, or 240 kg N ha−1, on the yield and selected sensory and nutritional quality parameters of onion. The study showed that Ekofert fertilizer applied at all three levels produced similar or higher yields than the standard fertilization regimes used in conventional farming in all three seasons. Significant differences in onion composition profiles between fertilization treatments were detected within individual seasons; however, due to substantial interseasonal variation, no consistent differences could be detected between (i) mineral N and Ekofert fertilizer treatments, (ii) the two different Ekofert products, and (iii) contrasting Ekofert input levels. Results demonstrate that clover- and alfalfa-based pelleted organic fertilizer products are a suitable alternative for intensive organic field vegetable production.
Article
Antimicrobial materials prepared from natural products could provide new ways to preserve seafood and extend the shelf life. Herein, four kinds of fluorescent carbon dots were prepared using onion, ginger, garlic, and fish through one-step hydrothermal synthesis. The four prepared carbon dots were nearly spherical and nanosized, with amorphous structure, neutral charge and good water dispersibility. The onion and garlic carbon dots contained more sulfur elements than the ginger and fish carbon dots. Interestingly, the onion carbon dots exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fragi with good stability over a wide pH range. In addition, the onion carbon dots also exhibited antimicrobial activity against representative Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of onion carbon dots against Pseudomonas fragi were 2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1, respectively. The integrity of the cell wall and the cell membrane were damaged for Pseudomonas fragi, and the extracellular alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and ATP activity also increased after exposure to the onion carbon dots, thus leading to a decrease in the cell viability and alteration of the cellular morphology for Pseudomonas fragi. Furthermore, the preservation effect of onion carbon dots on Atlantic mackerel evaluated by storage at 4 °C revealed that the onion carbon dots significantly reduced drip loss, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value and total viable counts (TVC) value, and extended the shelf life of Atlantic mackerel by 2 days. This finding suggests that onion carbon dots have potential to be applied as a bacteriostatic agent for aquatic products.
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Bulbs from the Alliaceae family have been well-known and valued spices for thousands of years, not only for their unique flavor and aroma features, but also for their high nutritional and health-promoting values. Long-term or excessive consumption of these vegetables, especially raw garlic, can have side effects in the body (including in the digestive tract), causing a number of pathological changes in the intestinal wall; these changes lead, in turn, to its damage, dysfunction, and disorder development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of freeze-dried vegetables from the Alliaceae family, i.e., garlic (Allium sativum L.), white onion, and red onion (Allium cepa L.) on the morphometric parameters (intestinal villi length, crypt depth, thickness of tunica mucosa, and the thickness of tunica muscle) of the jejunum of rats fed a semi-synthetic atherogenic diet (1% dietary cholesterol). In freeze-dried vegetables administered to rats, the contents of selected bioactive ingredients and their antioxidant potentials were determined. The effect of the onion vegetable supplements on growth parameters, serum lipid profile, plasma antioxidant potential, and the intestinal morphological parameters of rats loaded with cholesterol was determined. In an animal experiment, 30 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 diet groups, diet consumption and FER were studied. Supplementation of the atherogenic diet with vegetables improved the blood plasma lipid profiles and atherogenic indices, in a manner that was dependent on the type of supplementation used, with the best hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects found in garlic use. The atherogenic diet, as well as the supplementation of this diet with the tested vegetables from the Alliaceae family, influenced the histological changes in the epithelium of the jejunum of rats. The damage to the intestinal mucosa was the greatest in animals fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with garlic. Bearing in mind that the desired beneficial therapeutic or prophylactic effects of onion vegetables (in particular garlic) in the course of various metabolic ailments (including atherosclerosis) are achieved during long-term supplementation, it is important to remember their possible cytotoxic effects (e.g., on the digestive tract) in order to achieve real benefits related to the supplementation with vegetables from the Alliaceae family.
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At global level, infectious disease/disorders are one of the main causes of illness and death. Commercially, there are several drug and antibiotics are designed to fights against pathogens such as penicillin, ampicillin. Prolonged dosage or treatment affects the physiology composition of pathogens and becoming resistance against antibiotics. Therefore, there is a vital need to find an alternative way to deal with disease-causing microbes. Currently, therapeutic or drug compounds made from natural resources are rich of bioactive compounds that provide a better biological activity to kills the pathogenic cells and to cure the infection. In this review, we studied about the importance of traditionally used medicinal herbs or plants such as garlic, curcumin, their composition and bioactivity.
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Long‐recognized physiological actions of black pepper Piper nigrum and turmeric Curcuma longa plants or their active ingredients (piperine [Pip] and curcumin [Curc], respectively) have been tested in nutritional and clinical experiments. Available data suggest that both dietary additives influence food acceptance, metabolism, and digestive physiology and increase the bioavailability of several drugs and nutrients. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to test how Common Carp Cyprinus carpio respond to diets supplemented with Pip, Curc, and black pepper extract (BP) in terms of food intake, growth, whole‐body composition, and muscle free amino acid (FAA) levels. We used the following dietary treatments: a reference diet based on casein and gelatin (CG), a diet in which a fraction of CG protein (20%) was replaced with an FAA mixture (Met0.4 [methionine 0.4%]), and three other diets identical to Met0.4 but supplemented with 0.02% Pip, Curc, or BP. We found that addition of spices and their active ingredients impacted fish growth (BP depressed growth by 30%); however, these dietary additives did not show any significant effect on food intake across the treatments. Dietary Pip increased total lipids in the whole body. The total indispensable FAA level was higher in the Curc group compared to the CG group only. The total dispensable FAA level in the BP group was higher than those in the CG and Met0.4 groups but was not different than those in the Pip and Curc groups. We conclude that further study is warranted with different levels of spices in fish diets. A summary of the current state of knowledge on the effect of Pip on nutrient flux and nutrient utilization, as well as possible regulatory mechanism(s) involved in the action of spices in fish, with a focus on Pip, is also provided.
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Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered as major human pathogens and their resistance to antibiotic treatment and host defense systems can be increased due to the formation of biofilms. The biofilm-associated biofouling of industrial surfaces, particularly membranes, remains a serious concern that challenges investigators to develop practical solutions for the reduction of their impact. The present study developed antibacterial membrane surfaces that can mitigate biofilm formation. α-Amylase and lysozyme, as antibacterial enzymes, were covalently immobilized on polydopamine/cyanuric chloride functionalized polyethersulfone (PES) membranes to form biocompatible antibacterial surfaces. Several methods including SEM, AFM, Bradford, water contact angle goniometry, and surface free energy measurement techniques have been used to demonstrate the attachment of enzymes onto PES membranes by changing the physicochemical properties of the surface. The two enzymatic systems alter the membrane surface chemistry by rendering lower free surface energy and higher hydrophilicity, which leads to the creation of a layer of hydration energy barrier preventing microorganisms from being anchored on the surface. Those microorganisms that managed to overcome the energy barrier and get attached to the surface are attached by the enzymes' bond cleavage functionality. This multilevel defense system protects the membrane against any biofilm formation. The results of microtiter test and flow cytometry assay indicated that α-amylase/lysozyme mixture treated membrane samples came with more than 87% removal of biofilms. The results of the biofouling experiment in a dead-end cell demonstrated that the modified membrane surface had only a slightly impaired water flow compared to an unmodified membrane, which was due to the removal of biofilms by the enzymes’ activity. The results also showed that the modification of membranes with antibacterial enzymes could create a new biotechnological horizon to prevent biofilm formation.
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Desde los orígenes de los humanos y los animales ha existido una interacción estrecha que ha derivado en el aprovechamiento del humano de los animales domésticos y/o silvestres para su bienestar. Las zoonosis se refieren al proceso por el cual las enfermedades de los animales se transmiten naturalmente y a través de vectores a los seres humanos, ya sea a través de la exposición directa de la persona a los animales, mediante el consumo de alimentos hechos de los animales, así como por diferentes artrópodos y otros vectores biológicos, también se estudian las enfermedades infecciosas trasmitidas por el hombre a los animales (antropozoonosis). Es evidente que los efectos negativos de las zoonosis representan no solo los riesgos sobre la salud pública, sino también sobre la socioeconomía, y a nivel psicológico, tal es el caso de la pandemia actual del coronavirus (covid-19). Los seres humanos estamos y seguiremos estando ligados a los productos y subproductos de origen animal para nuestra subsistencia. Está documentado que alrededor del 70 por ciento de las nuevas enfermedades que han surgido en los seres humanos en las últimas décadas han sido asociadas a la interacción humano-animal. Con base a lo anterior es primordial promover estrategias para mantener la salud y la inocuidad de los productos que consume o tiene interacción el humano, si queremos seguir viviendo en este planeta. Las zoonosis dadas su naturaleza se puede concluir que son de origen multifactorial, lo que las hace en muchas de las veces difíciles de controlar. Desde la Peste Negra hasta la pandemia del coronavirus (covid-19), la humanidad ha realizado actividades relacionadas con el conocimiento de la zoonosis, desarrollo de programas de control en bioseguridad en los diferentes eslabones de las cadenas agroindustriales, el desarrollo de vacunas entre otras con el fin de disminuir los efectos adversos de las mismas. Al respecto es importante mencionar que el intercambio de experiencias de investigación científica a nivel nacional e internacional ha permitido de alguna manera sobrevivir a estas catástrofes. La presente obra es el resultado de investigaciones y experiencias de un grupo interdisciplinario de científicos, docentes y expertos en las ciencias biomédicas de origen nacional e internacional. Se describe en el primer capítulo el efecto de la globalización sobre las zoonosis, donde dada su actualidad y relevancia se aborda el ejemplo del coronavirus (covid 19). En los subsecuentes capítulos se incluye información sobre el impacto del calentamiento global sobre enfermedades emergentes, el uso de los modelos animales para el estudio de enfermedades infecciosas de alto impacto en las enfermedades emergentes y reemergentes. Se presentan varios capítulos relacionados a la trasmisión de enfermedades zoonoticas a través de los alimentos, tales como brucelosis, tuberculosis, hepatitis E y diferentes enfermedades de importancia en salud pública. Asimismo se analiza la importancia de patologías infecciosas emergentes y reemergentes a nivel global y relacionadas con el cambio climático. En otros temas de importancia y actualidad, se presentan capítulos relacionados a residuos de anfibióticos, de la resistencia microbiana a antibióticos utilizados para el combate de las zoonosis y el estudio de substancias naturales para substituir a los antibióticos industriales. Posteriormente se describen y se analizan diferentes ejemplos de las zoonosis y los factores que las promueven, especialmente en los sistemas de producción agropecuarios y silvo-pastoriles, aunque se incluyen dos capítulos; uno sobre zoonosis asociada a los helmintos procedentes de los caninos y otro sobre zoonosis por mamíferos marinos. La forma de cómo se abordan los temas es principalmente desde el punto de vista disciplinario como la patología, la toxicología, la microbiología.
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The urgent need for new green and sustainable models is ground for the current demand of innovative renewable resource based pharmaceutical products. We propose a Rojo Duro skin onion extract loaded poloxamer/chitosan spray mucoadhesive thermogel aimed at solving current limitations in oral mucosits treatment. Being among the main side effects of radio- and chemotherapy, effective treatment of buccal lesions still represents an unmet medical need. The obtained thermogel combined optimal gelling capacity, release behavior, sprayability, mucoadhesion properties, while maintaining the extract antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The product preserved all properties when stored for 1 month as a freeze-dried powder at 4°C. This potential new product is highly translational, as it combines a recognized safety to administration/application advantages, as well as simplicity and sustainability.
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Grade 05 Scholarship Examination has emerged as one of the leading public examinations in Sri Lanka. The parents of the students evince more interest in this exam than in any other public examinations. Hence this examination is considered an examination among parents and school principals. The major objective of this study was to find out the relationship between the differential academic influence of parents and the achievement of their students in Grade 05 examination. A sample of 100 Grade 05 Students in Addalaichenai Education Division and their parents were selected as sample of the study. A scale to find out the extent of academic involvement in the academic achievement of students was used in the study and the results of the students at Grade 05 Scholarship Examination were used to collect data for the study. The data collected were analyzed by using ‘F’ test and‘t’ test. The findings have revealed that high and medium academic involvement of parents improves the achievement of student whereas low academic involvement of parents negatively affects academic achievement of students
Chapter
Neben der „Polypill“ körperliche Aktivität als Grundlage des Bewegungsmanagements stellen Psychomanagement und Ernährungsmanagement ganz wesentliche Säulen für ein erfolgreiches und selbstbestimmtes Altern dar. Hinsichtlich unserer Intellektualität und Psyche spielen Einflüsse von Alter, Stress und Bewegung auf die Hirnfunktion (Gastbeitrag von Dr. med. Kurt Leitner) auf die mentale Fitness, auf Lebenslust, Selbstvertrauen sowie auf die Sexualität (Gastbeitrag von Prof. Dr. Gerti Senger) eine wesentliche Rolle. Ferner wird in einem Gastbeitrag von Dompfarrer Toni Faber die Frage erörtert, ob Glaube Halt geben kann, insbesondere dann, wenn Schicksalsschläge, Einsamkeit und andere die Lebenszufriedenheit beeinflussende Faktoren auftreten. Im zweiten Teil des Kapitels wird die Rolle der richtigen Ernährung, des Wasserhaushaltes und der Gefahr der Dehydratation dargelegt, zumal das praktische Ernährungsmanagement auch einen wesentlichen Anteil am Immunmanagement hat, da viele Lebensmittel immunmodulierend wirken. Dazu gehören auch andere gesundheitsrelevante Hinweise über die Wirkung des Sonnenlichts, der Sauna, hygienische Aspekte sowie jene Impfungen, die für den älteren Menschen wichtig und notwendig erscheinen.
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Medicinal plants such as Allium cepa L. (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) have become the focus of intense study regarding to gather conservation and potential pharmacological effects. Allium cepa L. (Onion) which belongs to the family Alliaceae is also known as 'garden onion' or 'bulb' onion (Yin & Cheng, 1998). Allium sativum (Garlic) has been used as herbal medicine in world wide and it help prevent various diseases and disorders. Allicin is the main biologically active component present in freshly crushed garlic cloves it is an antioxidant compounds found to have been health-protecting factor. Primary sources of antioxidants Allicin compounds are naturally present in whole grains, fruits and vegetables (Lawson et al., 1991). In the present study, two important medicinal plants namely Allium cepa (Onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic), assessed the phytochemical components and antifungal activity against skin pathogens with different concentration and combination.
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Onion, which has protective effects on human health, is one of the most common vegetables used in everyday diets. The market for onions from customers is due to the presence of different bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites. These are the additional nutritional constituents of plants present in very small quantity. The daily consumption of onion reduces blood pressure by antiaggregating the thrombyocytes, stimulates haematopoiesis, reduce asthma attack,anticholesterolemic, antidiabetic and effective against cardiovascular disease. Interest in the health benefits of phytochemical constituents is growing and has culminated in a thorough analysis of flavonols, a category of secondary metabolites commonly documented to have health benefits, primarily via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which are non-nutritive plant polyphenols. It is found most of the plant, studied extensively in fruits and vegetables. Quercetin, glycosides, allicin (S-containing compound), vitamins and minerals are all bioactive substances rich in onions. Onion as vegetable has high medicinal values, widely used in cosmetics industries and as preservatives. Onion bioactive compounds and their health benefits have yet to be thoroughly investigated.
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Background At the present time skin problems need to address seriously, antibiotic resistance development is very fast in skin infectious bacteria. For the prevention of all types of skin infections, natural plant extracts can provide suitable defense line because they contain active compounds. Wrinkles, sunburn, itching, black heads, white heads and uneven tone of the skin are the collective issues related to skin. Extensive use of antibiotics for skin diseases is restricted due to the development of worse antibiotic resistance. Objective In this study the antibacterial potential of plant extracts was assessed against skin infectious bacteria to get alternative cure of skin diseases. Method Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were isolated from clinical samples and E.coli was used as non-pathogenic control strain from Jinnah University for Women strain repository. Their antibacterial activity was performed against eight plant extracts through well diffusion method. Result Among eight plant extracts, Neem (Azadirachta indica), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Sandalwood (Santalum album), Shahtara (Fumaria parviflora) Chirayata (Swertia chirayita) and commercially available mixed Citrus peel showed good inhibition of bacterial growth. Discussion Natural sources such as fruits, herbs, minerals, leaves, flowers, roots, honey and rose water are now becoming part of skin care and treatment products because they possess antimicrobial activities. Skin products with herbal ingredients are now evolving as suitable solutions to the existing skin problems.
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This study investigated potentially synergetic effects of red onion skin extract and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on lipid oxidation of salmon. The skin and flesh of red and yellow onions were extracted with water at 25°C, 45°C, 65°C and 90°C, ethanol and acetone in water solutions. Total anthocyanin and polyphenol levels and antioxidant capacity were determined after extraction. Minced salmon samples were mixed with red onion skin extract (ROSE) and packaged under MAP at different O2 concentrations (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of total package gas composition) with 40% CO2 and balance N2. Polyphenol recovery and antioxidant capacity increased for each sample as the extraction temperature increased with hot water use. Water extraction at 90°C provided higher extraction yields than ethanol and acetone in water solutions. The ROSE treatment of fish with MAP reduced lipid oxidation rates as evidenced by a decrease in peroxide value (43%) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (30%). The ROSE might effectively suppress the free radicals in a MAP system. A skin extract and MAP application might increase the shelf life of salmon. Hot water use increased the antioxidant activity of onion skin extracts. Onion skin decreased peroxide values and TBARS of salmon in MAP. Waste of onion skin can be converted to use as a natural polyphenol extract.
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The frequency of emergent infectious diseases in humans has up burdened the public in past three foregone decades; which may threatened to rise in the near future. Since ancient times, traditional medicines served as model of treatment, which is still recognized in many rural communities. The proactive immune system is quite essential for survival in a global spread/proximity of dangerous microbes, and serious impairment of immune system can predispose to severe, even life-threatening, infections. The battle between pathogens and the host immune defences has raged for thousands of years which suppressed the immune system and act as platform for infectious diseases. In addition to treatment, strengthened immune system act as golden key to fight against diseases. Most of the herbs in addition to treatment, also acts as immuno-stimulators by increasing body resistance by mobilizing the "effector cells" which act against all foreign particles rather than just one particular disease or antigen. Globally thousands of plant species may act as blue chips in enhancing immunity and in treatment which may need larger, randomized and controlled trials with long term follow up to use this natural wealth to combat these deadly infectious disease. The collaborative efforts in the field of phytotherapy and chemotherapy are essential in upbringing the discovery of new drugs based on indigenous knowledge.
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Onion seeds have one of the lowest longevity among the cultivated crops as it loses viability within a year. The unmarketable seeds have no reported food value or feed value. Onion seeds contain considerable oil content which has potential industrial utility. The present study reports the changes in the quality of seed oil extracted from seeds stored for one year (2019-2020), after which the seeds were unmarketable due to low germination. The physico-chemical properties of seed oil were studied in four onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties (Bhima Safed, Bhima Super, Bhima Dark Red and Bhima Shakti) by standard analytical test. The per cent oil content varied from 12.94% - 16.02% and storage resulted in 0.64% loss in seed oil content. The mean seed germination in freshly harvested seeds was 80.50%, which declined to 52.33% after one year of ambient storage. The electrical conductivity, which measures the membrane integrity increased by 108.60% in one-year-old seeds. The physico-chemical properties of the seed oil deteriorated with the age of the seed. In comparison to the control, the acid values and peroxide values of the seed oil increased by 51.11% and 12.90% respectively, while saponification value decreased by 36.18%. Among the varieties, Bhima Dark Red had the highest degradation in the seed storability and vigour, which also had the highest deterioration in the lipid quality. The present study reports for the first time the degradation of seed lipids during ageing in onion which might be contributing to the poor storability of onion seeds.
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Onion seeds have one of the lowest longevity among the cultivated crops as it loses viability within a year. The unmarketable seeds have no reported food value or feed value. Onion seeds contain considerable oil content which has potential industrial utility. The present study reports the changes in the quality of seed oil extracted from seeds stored for one year (2019-2020), after which the seeds were unmarketable due to low germination. The physico-chemical properties of seed oil were studied in four onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties (Bhima Safed, Bhima Super, Bhima Dark Red and Bhima Shakti) by standard analytical test. The per cent oil content varied from 12.94% - 16.02% and storage resulted in 0.64% loss in seed oil content. The mean seed germination in freshly harvested seeds was 80.50%, which declined to 52.33% after one year of ambient storage. The electrical conductivity, which measures the membrane integrity increased by 108.60% in one-year-old seeds. The physico-chemical properties of the seed oil deteriorated with the age of the seed. In comparison to the control, the acid values and per-oxide values of the seed oil increased by 51.11% and 12.90% respectively, while saponification value decreased by 36.18%. Among the varieties, Bhima Dark Red had the highest degradation in the seed storability and vigour, which also had the highest deterioration in the lipid quality. The present study reports for the first time the degradation of seed lipids during ageing in onion which might be contributing to the poor storability of onion seeds.
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Fruits and vegetables (FVs) have long been a major source of nutrients and dietary phytochemicals with outstanding physiological properties that are essential for protecting humans from chronic diseases. Moreover, the growing demand of consumers for nutritious and healthy foods is greatly promoting the increased intake of FVs. Allium (Alliaceae) is a perennial bulb plant genus of the Liliaceae family. They are customarily utilized as vegetable, medicinal, and ornamental plants and have an important role in agriculture, aquaculture, and the pharmaceutical industry. Allium plants produce abundant secondary metabolites, such as organosulfur compounds, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. Accordingly, Allium plants possess a variety of nutritional, biological, and health-promoting properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, immunoregulatory, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. This review aims to highlight the advances in the research on the bioactive components, physiological activities and clinical trials, toxicological assessment for safety, and applications of different Allium plants. It also aims to cover the direction of future research on the Allium genus. This review is expected to provide theoretical reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of Allium plants in the fields of functional foods, medicine, and cosmetics.
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Spices are esoteric food adjuncts that have been used as flavoring and coloring agents, and as preservatives for thousands of years. Spices have also been recognized to possess medicinal properties and their use in traditional systems of medicine has been on record for a long time. With the advancement in the technology of spices and on knowledge of the chemistry and pharmacology of their active principles, their health benefit effects were investigated more thoroughly in recent decades. Many health benefit attributes of these common food adjuncts have been recognized in the past few decades by pioneering experimental research involving both animal studies and human trials. These studies documented digestive stimulant action, hypolipidemic effect, antidiabetic influence, antilithogenic property, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic potential of spices. Among these, the hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties of a few specific spices have far-reaching nutraceutical value. These beneficial physiological effects also have the potential of possible therapeutic application in a variety of disease conditions. This review presents an overview of experimental evidence for the nutraceutical potential of spices.
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Antimicrobial activity of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 ml/l) of essential oil extracts of three type of onions (green, yellow and red) and garlic against two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmomella Enteritidis, and three fungi, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium cyclopium and Fusarium oxysporum, was investigated. The essential oil (EO) extracts of these Allium plants (garlic and onions) exhibited marked antibacterial activity, with garlic showing the highest inhibition and green onion the lowest. Comparatively, 50 and 100 ml/l concentrations of onions extracts were less inhibitory than 200, 300 and 500 ml/l concentrations. However, with garlic extract, high inhibitory activity was observed for all tested concentrations. S. aureus showed less sensitivity towards EO extracts inhibition, however S. Enteritidis was strongly inhibited by red onion and garlic extracts. The fungus F. oxysporum showed the lowest sensitivity towards EO extracts, whereas A. niger and P. cyclopium were significantly inhibited particularly at low concentrations. Conclusively, where seasoning is desired, essential oil extracts of onions and garlic can be used as natural antimicrobial additives for incorporating in various food products.
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The antibacterial effect of a home-made raw garlic extract and commercial garlic tablets alone and in combination with antibiotics or omeprazole was determined against clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. MIC values of raw garlic extract and three types of commercial garlic tablets ranged from 10,000 to 17,500 mg/L. When MIC values of the commercial tablets were based on the allicin content, no differences between the three types were observed. The combination of garlic and omeprazole, studied with killing curves, showed a synergic effect which was concentration dependent. Further clinical evaluation of garlic in combination with the conventional agents for H. pylori treatment seems warranted.
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An animal study was carried out to examine the beneficial influence of known hypolipidemic spice principles - curcumin and capsaicin - and the spice garlic on the antioxidant status of red blood cells and liver tissue in hyperlipidemic rats. Rats were rendered hyperlipidemic by maintaining them on a high-fat (30%) diet for 8 weeks. Spice principles - curcumin (0.2%) or capsaicin (0.015%) - or garlic (2.0%) were included in the diets of separate animal groups. Erythrocytes isolated at the end of the study were analyzed for intracellular antioxidant molecules and antioxidant enzymes. Intracellular total thiols in the erythrocytes of high-fat-fed rats were depleted significantly (16%). Similarly, the intracellular glutathione content in erythrocytes was depleted in high-fat-fed rats (28%). The concentration of lipid peroxides in the erythrocytes (intracellular as well as membrane) induced by H(2)O(2) was significantly higher in the high-fat-fed group. Curcumin (0.2%) or capsaicin (0.015%) or garlic (2.0%) in the diet which produced the hypotriglyceridemic effect were also effective in reducing oxidant stress, which was indicated by a significant countering of the depleted intracellular antioxidants - total thiols and glutathione - and elevated lipid peroxides in erythrocytes. The elevated lipid peroxide in blood plasma due to the high-fat diet was also significantly countered by the spice treatments. The severely depleted hepatic glutathione in high-fat treatment was also effectively reversed by dietary curcumin, capsaicin and garlic. Thus, dietary hypolipidemic spices were effective in reducing the oxidant stress, which was indicated by countering the depleted antioxidant molecules and antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes and liver, and decreasing the elevated lipid peroxide content.
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Epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk for the development of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Onions are a major source of dietary flavonoids; however, there may exist varietal differences in composition, concentration, and beneficial activities. To characterize these differences, shallots and 10 onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties commonly available in the United States (Western Yellow, Northern Red, New York Bold, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Shallots contained the highest total phenolic content (114.7 +/- 10.0 mg/100 g of sample) among the varieties tested, with a 6-fold difference observed when compared to the variety with the lowest phenolic content (Vidalia, p < 0.05). Western Yellow onion variety exhibited the highest total flavonoid content (69.2 +/- 3.7 mg/100 g of onion) of the varieties tested, with an 11-fold difference when compared to the variety with the lowest flavonoid content (Western White, p < 0.05). Shallots exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity (45.5 +/- 2.1 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of onion), followed by Western Yellow, New York Bold, Northern Red, Mexico, Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. For all varieties, both total phenolic and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with total antioxidant activity (R (2) = 0.9668, p < 0.05; and R (2) = 0.7033, p < 0.05, respectively). The proliferation of HepG(2) and Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion after exposure to the Western Yellow, shallots, New York Bold, and Northern Red extracts, with Western Yellow, shallots, and New York Bold exhibiting the highest antiproliferative activity against HepG(2) cells and New York Bold and Western Yellow exhibiting the highest antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cells. However, the varieties of Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia demonstrated weak antiproliferative activity against both HepG(2) and Caco-2 cells. These results may influence consumers toward purchasing onion varieties exhibiting greater potential health benefits and may significantly affect future breeding efforts to enhance onion nutritional qualities.
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Allium and Brassica vegetables have long been known for their antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Most microorganisms tested were sensitive to extracts of the Allium and Brassica vegetables and the degree of sensitivity varied depending on the strain under study and test conditions. Among the vegetables, garlic showed the most potent activity, followed by onion. Brassica, including cabbage, showed the least potent activity. The principal antimicrobial compounds of Allium and Brassica have been elucidated as allicin (S-allyl-L-propenethiosulfinate) and methyl methanethiosulfinate, respectively. Both compounds belong to the same chemical group, thiosulfinate, generated from S-allyl and S-methyl derivatives of L-cysteine sulfoxide, respectively, existing in Allium and Brassica as major non-protein sulfur-containing amino acids. There have been only few applications of garlic as a natural food preservative, in spite of numerous studies on antimicrobial activity of the vegetables. Relative instability of the antimicrobial compounds and the strong odor of their mother plants seem to limit the use of them as a practical food preservative.
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The safety of the consumption of spices – turmeric, red pepper and black pepper and their respective active principles was established in animal studies by observing the influence on growth, organ weights, nitrogen balance and blood constituents upon feeding at levels close to human intake as well as upto 100-times the normal human intake. Exhaustive animal studies documented the beneficial influence of turmeric/curcumin, red pepper/capsaicin, and garlic on lipid metabolism, especially anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of the three spices and anti-lithogenic effect of curcumin and capsaicin. The anti-diabetic effects of turmeric/curcumin, onion and cumin seeds were also evidenced with particular ameliorative influence of curcumin and onion on diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant effects of curcumin (of turmeric), capsaicin (of red pepper) and eugenol (of clove) were evidenced both in in vitro and in vivo systems and the consequential health beneficial anti-inflammatory influence in experimentally induced arthritis was documented. The mechanism of digestive stimulant action of common spices examined in experimental animals revealed to be mediated through phenomenal stimulation of bile secretion with an enhanced bile acid concentration (ingredients essential for fat digestion and absorption) and an appropriate stimulation of the activities of digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine. The protective influence of hypolipidemic spices – curcumin, capsaicin and garlic on the altered fluidity of erythrocytes under hypercholesterolemic situation was evidenced in experimental animal models. Antioxidant spices were also shown to greatly reduce LDL-oxidation and also modulate the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Several spices or their extracts were also found to beneficially inhibit platelet aggregation. All these observations strongly indicate that many spices and their active principles are excellent nutraceuticals.
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Nerve cell death is the central feature of the human neurodegenerative diseases. It has long been thought that nerve cell death in these disorders occurs by way of necrosis, a process characterized by massive transmembrane ion currents, compromise of mitochondrial ATP production, and the formation of high levels of reactive oxygen species combining to induce rapid disruption of organelles, cell swelling, and plasma membrane rupture with a secondary inflammatory response. Nuclear DNA is relatively preserved. Recent evidence now indicates that the process of apoptosis rather than necrosis primarily contributes to nerve cell death in neurodegeneration. This has opened up new avenues for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and may lead to new and more effective therapeutic approaches to these diseases.
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Spices and vegetables possess antioxidant activity that can be applied for preservation of lipids and reduce lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The potential antioxidant activities of selected spices extracts (water and alcohol 1:1) were investigated on enzymatic lipid peroxidation. Water and alcoholic extract (1:1) of commonly used spices (garlic, ginger, onion, mint, cloves, cinnamon and pepper) dose-dependently inhibited oxidation of fatty acid, linoleic acid in presence of soybean lipoxygenase. Among the spices tested, cloves exhibited highest while onion showed least antioxidant activity. The relative antioxidant activities decreased in the order of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, garlic, mint and onion. Spice mix namely ginger, onion and garlic; onion and ginger; ginger and garlic showed cumulative inhibition of lipid peroxidation thus exhibiting their synergistic antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts were retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C, indicating that the spice constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation. The antioxidant activity of these dietary spices suggest that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, they possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation.
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Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) are among the oldest of all cultivated plants. Additionally, both plants have been used as medicinal agents for thousands of years. Both garlic and onion have been shown to have applications as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor, hypolipidaemic, antiarthritic and hypoglycemic agents. In recent years, extensive research has focussed on the beneficial and medicinal properties of garlic and onions. In particular, the use of these agents in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer is an area of considerable investigation and interest.
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The transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been studied extensively due to its prominent role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory genes, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. It has been known for more that a decade that NF-kappaB is a redox-sensitive transcription factor. The contribution of redox regulation and the location of potential redox-sensitive sites within the NF-kappaB activation pathway are subject to intense debate due to many conflicting reports. Redox regulation of NF-kappaB has been extensively addressed in this journal and the reader is referred to two comprehensive reviews on the subject [1,2]. With the identification of signaling intermediates proximal to the degradation of the inhibitor, IkappaB, the number of potential redox-sensitive sites is rapidly increasing. The purpose of this review is to address recent insights into the NF-kappaB signaling cascades that are triggered by proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. In addition, the role of nitrogen monoxide (.NO) in the regulation of NF-kappaB will be reviewed. Opportunities for redox regulation that occur upstream of IkappaB-alpha degradation, as well as the potential for redox control of phosphorylation of NF-kappaB subunits, will be discussed. Redox-sensitive steps are likely to depend on the nature of the NF-kappaB activator, the type of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species involved, the selectivity of signaling pathways activated, as well as the cell type under investigation. Lastly, it is discussed how redox regulation of NF-kappaB activation is likely to involve multiple subcellular compartments.
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A progressive rise of oxidative stress due to the altered redox homeostasis appears to be one of the hallmarks of the aging process. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also serve as signaling agents for inflammation, a systemic defensive reaction against microbial pathogens and other foreign bodies. Changes in the pattern of gene expression through ROS-sensitive transcription factors give rise to both aging and inflammation phenotypes. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction also lead to many age-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis. Transcription factors that are directly influenced by ROS and proinflammatory cytokines include nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), activator protein 1 (AP-1), specificity protein 1 (Sp1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here we describe the basic components of the intracellular redox control machinery and their dysregulation with age leading to altered transcription factor function and age-associated pathophysiology.
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Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N. America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25% over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health. These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs). Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available.
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Garlic has played an important dietary and medicinal role throughout the history of mankind. In some Western countries, the sale of garlic preparations ranks with those of leading prescription drugs. The therapeutic efficacy of garlic encompasses a wide variety of ailments, including cardiovascular, cancer, hepatic and microbial infections to name but a few. However, the elucidation of its mechanism for therapeutic action has proved to be more elusive and a unifying theory, which could account for its reported multifarious activities, is yet to emerge. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to be at the core of many disease processes and it is an attractive and convenient hypothesis that garlic might exert its activities through modulatory effects on ROS. A literature search on garlic and its antioxidant potential churned up a surprisingly large amount of data, some of it good, some bad and some of its definitely ugly. Various preparations of garlic, mainly aged garlic extract (AGE), have been shown to have promising antioxidant potential. However, the presence of more than one compounds in garlic, with apparently opposite biological effects, has added to the complexity of the subject. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to exert antioxidant potential but higher doses have been shown to be toxic to the heart, liver and kidney. So where do we stand today on this issue of garlic? Is garlic always good for health? How safe is it? Is it necessary to isolate the antioxidant compounds for its medicinal use in a more effective way? These issues are addressed in this review. Copyright
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Organosulfur compounds present in natural food are generally considered as beneficial for health because of their antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. This has led to their excessive and long-term consumption. However, there is also evidence that these compounds demonstrate toxicity and adverse health effects suggesting their potential dual biological roles. Thus, they can act as double-edged biological swords.
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Herbs and spices have been used for generations by humans as food and to treat ailments. Scientific evidence is accumulating that many of these herbs and spices do have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. A growing body of research has demonstrated that the commonly used herbs and spices such as garlic, black cumin, cloves, cinnamon, thyme, allspices, bay leaves, mustard, and rosemary, possess antimicrobial properties that, in some cases, can be used therapeutically. Other spices, such as saffron, a food colorant; turmeric, a yellow colored spice; tea, either green or black, and flaxseed do contain potent phytochemicals, including carotenoids, curcumins, catechins, lignan respectively, which provide significant protection against cancer. This review discusses recent data on the antimicrobial and chemopreventive activities of some herbs and spices and their ingredients.
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Allicin, the active substance of fresh crushed garlic has different biological activities and was implicated as an anti-inflammatory agent. Epithelial cells have an important role in intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of allicin on intestinal epithelial cells. The spontaneous and TNF-alpha-stimulated secretion of IL-1beta, IL-8, IP-10 and MIG from HT-29 and Caco-2 cells was tested with, or without pretreatment with allicin. Cytokine secretion was assessed using ELISA and expression of mRNA was determined by an RNA protection assay. Allicin markedly inhibited the spontaneous and TNF-alpha -induced secretion of IL-1beta, IL-8, IP-10 and MIG from the two different cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the expression of IL-8 and IL-1beta mRNA levels. In addition, allicin suppressed the degradation of IkappaB. No effect on cell viability was noted. These observations indicate that allicin exerts an inhibitory immunomodulatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells and suggest that allicin may have the potential to attenuate intestinal inflammation.
Article
Garlic is a popular spice added to several edible preparations and is a remedy for a variety of ailments. Epidemeological as well as laboratory studies have shown that garlic consumption reduces certain cancer incidences in the stomach, colon, mammary, cervical, etc. This article focuses on the general chemistry, metabolism, anticarcinogenic properties, mechanism of action behind the anticarcinogenic effects, functional foods based on garlic; and future areas of research. Garlic has been shown to metabolized into N-aceryl-S-allyl cysteine, allyl mercaptan, diallyl disulfide, diallyl sulfide, diallyl sulfoxide, diallyl sulfone, and allyl methyl sulfide. Garlic has been thought to bring about its anticarcinogenic effect through a number of mechanisms, such as the scavenging of radicals, increasing gluathione levels, increasing the activities of enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase, catalase, inhibition of cytochrome p4502E1, DNA repair mechanisms, prevention of chromosomal damage etc. Future research should standardize the dosage of garlic and type, ie., whether it should be taken fresh, cooked, or aged. The formulation of odorless functional foods with the retention of anticarcinogenic activity should be further studied.
Article
Garlic (Allium sativum) has long been known to have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties but there are few data on its effects against oral bacterial species particularly putative periodontal pathogens or their enzymes. Filter sterilised, aqueous extract of garlic was tested for ability to inhibit the growth of a range of oral species and to inhibit the trypsin-like and total protease activity Porphyromonas gingivalis. The garlic extract (57.1% (w/v), containing 220 microg/ml allicin) inhibited the growth and killed most of the organisms tested. In general, the minimal inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations for the Gram-negative strains (garlic MIC range 35.7-1.1 mg/ml; allicin mean MIC 4.1 microg/ml; mean MBC 7.9 microg/ml) were lower than those for the Gram-positive strains tested (garlic MIC range 142.7-35.7 mg/ml; allicin mean MIC 27.5 microg/ml; mean MBC 91.9 microg/ml). Also, of the organisms tested, the putative periodontal pathogens had among the lowest MICs (17.8-1.1 mg/ml garlic) and MBCs (35.7-1.1 mg/ml garlic). Time-kill curves for Streptococcus mutans and P. ginigvalis, showed that killing of the latter started almost immediately, whereas there was a delay before S. mutans was killed. The garlic extract also inhibited the trypsin-like and total protease activity of P. gingivalis by 92.7% and 94.88%, respectively. These data indicate that garlic extract inhibits the growth of oral pathogens and certain proteases and so may have therapeutic value, particularly for periodontitis.
Article
Protections of endothelial integrity by elimination of certain risk have proven to be effective in maintaining hemostasis and in slowing the progress of the cardiovascular disease. Indigenous drugs are the natural source of protection against these disorders, which can be used more effectively by the knowledge of their active ingredients as well as by their mechanism of action. Most prominent among these drugs are garlic, [Alium sativum L., Family: Liliaceae, Bulbs] and turmeric [Curcuma longa L., Family: Zingiberaceae, Rhizomes]; commonly used Indian traditional spices. In the present study, we examined the atheroscleroprotective potential of diet supplementation of garlic and turmeric by measuring serum lipid profile, changes in cardiovascular parameters i.e. arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram and heart rate. We further tried to elucidate the mechanism of restoration of endothelial function and the role of endothelium-derived factors mainly, nitric oxide (NO) and cycloxygenase derived contracting factors. A notable restoration of arterial blood pressure was seen in animals on garlic and turmeric supplemented diet. Animals on supplemented diet showed a significantly enhanced vasorelaxant response to adenosine, acetylcholine, isoproterenol and contractile effect of 5-hyderoxytryptamine was significantly attenuated. Inhibition of these responses by L-NMMA was smaller in tissues from herbal treated animals. Incubation of tissues with L-arginine (10(-5) M) resulted in a significant reversal of L-NMMA induced inhibition of endothelium-mediated relaxation, which appeared to be pronounced in rings from animals supplemented with herbs as compared to hypercholesterolemic animals. Addition of indomethacin (10(-5) M) augmented the relaxation in all the groups of animals. The present study demonstrated that garlic and turmeric are potent vasorelaxants as well as reduce the atherogenic properties of cholesterol. Whether combination of these vasodilators in cardiovascular disorders with increased peripheral vascular resistance remains to be determined.
Article
Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It possesses diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties following oral or topical administration. Apart from curcumin's potent antioxidant capacity at neutral and acidic pH, its mechanisms of action include inhibition of several cell signalling pathways at multiple levels, effects on cellular enzymes such as cyclooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases, immuno-modulation and effects on angiogenesis and cell-cell adhesion. Curcumin's ability to affect gene transcription and to induce apoptosis in preclinical models is likely to be of particular relevance to cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy in patients. Although curcumin's low systemic bioavailability following oral dosing may limit access of sufficient concentrations for pharmacological effect in certain tissues, the attainment of biologically active levels in the gastrointestinal tract has been demonstrated in animals and humans. Sufficient data currently exist to advocate phase II clinical evaluation of oral curcumin in patients with invasive malignancy or pre-invasive lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the colon and rectum.
Article
Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is associated with multiple factors such as raised serum total cholesterol, raised LDL and an increase in LDL oxidation, increased platelet aggregation, hypertension, and smoking. Numerous in vitro studies have confirmed the ability of garlic to reduce these parameters. Thus, garlic has been shown to inhibit enzymes involved in lipid synthesis, decrease platelet aggregation, prevent lipid peroxidation of oxidized erythrocytes and LDL, increase antioxidant status, and inhibit angiotension-converting enzyme. These findings have also been addressed in clinical trials. The studies point to the fact that garlic reduces cholesterol, inhibits platelet aggregation, reduces blood pressure, and increases antioxidant status. Since 1993, 44% of clinical trials have indicated a reduction in total cholesterol, and the most profound effect has been observed in garlic's ability to reduce the ability of platelets to aggregate. Mixed results have been obtained in the area of blood pressure and oxidative-stress reduction. The findings are limited because very few trials have addressed these issues. The negative results obtained in some clinical trials may also have resulted from usage of different garlic preparations, unknown active constituents and their bioavalability, inadequate randomization, selection of inappropriate subjects, and short duration of trials. This review analyzes in vitro and in vivo studies published since 1993 and concludes that although garlic appears to hold promise in reducing parameters associated with cardiovascular disease, more in-depth and appropriate studies are required.
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