Article

Understanding the Roles of the Customer and the Operation for Better Queue Management

Authors:
  • Boston University Questrom School of Business
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Abstract

Queuing, a familiar element of most service delivery systems, has the potential for significantly affecting the customer's overall satisfaction with the service encounter. A customer's degree of satisfaction with waiting or with the service received in its entirety is dependent on the actual performance of the delivery system, the customer's expectations regarding that performance and the customer's perception of the service encounter. The actual operational performance of different queuing configurations has been previously addressed, as have the issues of managing customers' expectations and perceptions regarding their queuing experiences. This earlier research has identified several factors which can affect a customer's perception of waiting and consequently his or her satisfaction with that wait. Proposes a taxonomy based on the service manager's ability to control the customer's perception of the queuing experience. Defines which queuing factors can be controlled by the firm, which factors can partially be controlled by the firm and which factors are outside the firm's control, and suggests tactics for managing queues for each category of factors.

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... We aim to improve the client experience during the waiting time because research shows that satisfaction and rating of a service greatly depend on the waiting periods that they need to endure. As a result, queuing theories are a subject of active interest [5], [6], [7] with practical implementations as in [8] and [9]. The work in [5] addresses maximizing server availability using queuing theory for a time or a distance standard assumed for emergency vehicles. ...
... The work in [5] addresses maximizing server availability using queuing theory for a time or a distance standard assumed for emergency vehicles. On the other hand, researchers in [6] and [7] discuss customer satisfaction by assuming different theoretical approaches for queuing systems. The authors of [6] explore the effect of a customer's perception of the waiting time can affect overall satisfaction of the service, while [7] researches how a waiting time guarantee affects the customer's waiting experience. ...
... On the other hand, researchers in [6] and [7] discuss customer satisfaction by assuming different theoretical approaches for queuing systems. The authors of [6] explore the effect of a customer's perception of the waiting time can affect overall satisfaction of the service, while [7] researches how a waiting time guarantee affects the customer's waiting experience. We consider these factors in our attempt to improve the client's experience throughout the waiting time through facilitation of entertainment options that they can viewed and the ability to listen to the audio of the channel playing on waiting areas television. ...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a smart queue management system for delivering real-time service request updates to clients' smartphones in the form of audio and visual feedback. The proposed system aims at reducing the dissatisfaction with services with medium to long waiting times. To this end, the system allows carriers of digital ticket to leave the waiting areas and return in time for their turn to receive service. The proposed system also improves the waiting experience of clients choosing to stay in the waiting area by connecting them to the audio signal of the often muted television sets running entertainment programs, advertisement of services, or news. The system is a web of things including connected units for registering and verifying tickets, units for capturing and streaming audio and queue management, and participating client units in the form of smartphone applications. We implemented the proposed system and verified its functionality and report on our findings and areas of improvements.
... Studies show that waiting can reduce customer satisfaction (Bitner, Booms, & Tetreault, 1990;Chang & Yang, 2008;Davis & Heineke, 1994;Lee & Lambert, 2006;Hensley & Sulek, 2007;Li, 2010). Therefore, research in marketing almost always interprets waiting as a problem. ...
... In this sense, we can differentiate between the time a consumer perceives they wait and the actual, objective or real time they wait (Jones & Peppiatt, 1996). Real or objective waiting times are reduced by extending opening hours, operating at maximum capacity level, opening more checkouts or employing more service staff (Ahmadi, 1997;Davis & Heineke, 1994;Davis & Vollmann, 1990;Yan & Lotz, 2006). Yet, despite the efficiency and advances in operations management, there are important practical limitations in terms of managing real waiting times. ...
... Because of the operational complexity and the habitually prohibitive cost of eliminating real waiting times, much of the research focuses on understanding and managing the perceived waiting time (Dube-Rioux, Schmitt, & Leclerc, 1989;Maister, 1985;Davis & Heineke, 1998). In this sense, management may manipulate a range of contextual factors in order to make the wait seem less unpleasant and feel as short as possible (Davis & Heineke, 1994;Pruyn & Smidts, 1998). The perceived waiting time is reduced by filling the time with constructive, attractive and stimulating activities (Katz, Larson, & Larson, 1991;Maister, 1985;Taylor, 1994;Larson, 1987;Kellaris & Kent, 1992), by promoting social interaction and by providing a pleasant and fair (orderly) waiting environment (Baker & Cameron, 1996). ...
Article
This paper calls for a re-examination of the conventional wisdom that making consumers wait for service is necessarily negative. This is important because after three decades of research on waiting, consumers still spend a considerable amount of time waiting, in an ever-widening range of contexts. And although there is a continuous and steady stream of waiting studies, there have been few significant advances in our understanding in recent years. We forward a set of challenging propositions that consider the positive effects of waiting. In contrast to established thinking, we propose that waiting attracts more consumers; increases perceived value; provides information to facilitate consumer decision-making; improves customer evaluations; and encourages positive anticipation. The propositions are supported theoretically and empirically by drawing on related disciplines. With this paper, we aim to stimulate new and innovative discussion around the topic of waiting, with particular emphasis on waiting in tourism services, and to question accepted knowledge in order to begin laying the basis for the next phase of research on consumer waiting.
... Similarly, individuals traveling alone may also use their travel experience to form new friendships (Yarnal and Kerstetter, 2005). In a retail setting, Davis and Heineke (1994) found that people standing in a queue by themselves seemed to grow more impatient than people waiting in groups. Here, social interactions through conversations with other people contributed to positive emotions and led to less boredom. ...
... The participant observation data supported the effects of distractors such as music (Areni and Kim, 1993), TV screens (Borges et al., 2015) and social interaction (Davis and Heineke, 1994) on the perceived waiting times. The present study adds connected mobile devices to the existing list of distractions that play a role in reducing perceived waiting times of consumers The impact of connected mobile device usage and more specifically of tourists. ...
... This study's quantitative results showed that solo travelers were no more or no less likely to believe that using their devices made waiting feel shorter. This directly contradicts the findings of Davis and Heineke (1994) who found that people in groups experienced waiting times more positively than people waiting alone. While this may have been true in 1994, the nature of social interaction while waiting has been dramatically changed by connected mobile devices, as this study has found. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore how tourists use connected mobile devices such as smartphones to manage their tourist experience. Design/methodology/approach A multi-method, cross-sectional approach was used consisting of questionnaires about tourists self-reported use of connected mobile devices and recorded observations of tourists' interaction with their devices. Findings Respondents who reported a more intense use of their connected mobile devices also reported a heightened tourist experience. Specifically, high users reported more intense emotions and expressed the belief that using their device improved the quality of their vacation. More extensive use of connected mobile devices was also linked to the perception that waits for attractions and restaurants were shorter Research limitations/implications While the data and methods employed do not allow for testing of causality, the field research approach provides the benefit of high ecological validity, complementing previous studies on this topic. Practical implications Commercial service providers should explore ways to stimulate the use of devices, for instance by offering information about the attraction, or by providing an attractive setting for tourists taking photos. This contributes to shorter time perception and improved visitor evaluations. Originality/value Tourists' use of connected mobile devices to manage their tourist experience varies in terms of quality and intensity. Findings show that travelers know how to use their smartphones in a way that best suit their information and social needs.
... Unfortunately few of these take into account the wide variety of factors that other literature has identified, and many treat actions as simplistic and rationally guided. McElreath and Mayorga (2008) attempt to show that apparent 'confused' behaviour is actually rational, but there is sufficient evidence (such as Kakava and Erasmus, 2012;Davis and Heineke, 1994) to show that much queue behaviour is emotive, perceptual and experiential. ...
... o Waiting is a multi-faceted experience, consistent with the evolution of customer response, as illustrated in Figure 2 below and synthesised from Kakava and Erasmus (2012) and Davis and Heineke (1994). ...
... o Customers are likely to be disgruntled if the store does not adhere to its opening and closing times (Davis and Heineke, 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
Few aspects of retail have been studied as scientifically and with such little long-term effect as queues. Queues continue to grow in spite of intensive focus and many technical and not-so-technical solutions. Queues may be the secret to retail competitive advantage, or just an insignificant distraction as the Hungarian writer George Mikes once noted “alone and unmonitored, the English can create an orderly queue of one”. This literature review was prepared in response to a technologist’s claim that queues could be managed with the simple measure known as “1+1”. The reading covers areas such as mathematics, technology, industry and social behaviour. Several theoretical models are extracted and synthesised in order to facilitate the study of queues and discovery of retail solutions. Key concepts include the evolution of customer responses, differing customer views of the waiting experience, store-related and customer-related factors affecting customer perceptions of waiting, and the different queue–related store touch-points. Literature shows that queues are an exceedingly complex phenomenon, and many of the drivers and indicators of customer satisfaction with queuing cannot be measured simply in terms such as the length of queue or wait time. Improving queues and satisfying customers requires considerable understanding and more sophisticated responses. The theoretical models prepared here offer a concise summary of contemporary thinking on the subject, and this may be used to inform the search for new solutions and improve queue project outcomes.
... Waiting is considered to be an integral part of the service delivery process (Durrande-Moreau and Usunier, 1999;Groth and Gilliland, 2001;Sheu et al., 2003;van Riel et al., 2012). It is the first interaction that customers experience with an organisation in the service encounter (Davis and Heineke, 1994;McGuire et al., 2010). Customers do not like to wait in service encounters ( Jones and Peppiatt, 1996) as they consider waiting in line as a non-value-added activity (Stevenson, 2002). ...
... Meyer and Schwager (2007) argue that customers place much emphasis on the outcome of the service experiences, consequently that service organisations should manage customer experiences that provide value whenever customers interact with the service encounter. The experience of waiting can influence perceptions of quality of service in various service settings, such as manufacturing and service operations, profit and non-profit organisations, as well as private and public services (Davis and Heineke, 1994;Nie, 2000). Bielen and Demoulin (2007) argue that in choosing a service provider, customers balance the number of benefits against effort, money and psychic costs of purchasing and consuming the service. ...
... Past studies have also identified factors of service design that may affect the waiting encounter such as the physical comfort of waiting (Davis and Heineke, 1994;Arneill and Devlin, 2002), the service provider behaviour (Sarel and Marmorstein, 1998;Butcher and Heffernan, 2006;Hensley and Sulek, 2007) and the physical environment of the waiting encounter (Chebat and Filiatrault, 1993;Pruyn and Smidts, 1998;Hensley and Sulek, 2007). The current findings revealed that the servicescapes were poor in the different service organisations with respect to layout, signage, waiting area, information provided to waiting customers and time-fillers used. ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore customers’ reactions to waiting experiences in service encounters. It seeks to explore the key driving features determining customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with waiting experiences during service encounters. The main challenge for service organisation is to understand the satisfactory and dissatisfactory features of the waiting experiences so as to design and deliver a memorable experience leading to positive post-consumption reactions. Design/methodology/approach – The critical incident technique (CIT) was used to explore the salient factors on which customers forged their evaluation and based their satisfaction while waiting in lines in the context of various service encounters. To elicit incidents, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 customers in Mauritius and a total of 297 critical incidents involving customers’ waiting experiences in service encounters were identified. Findings – Based on the CIT analysis, four distinctive features associated with the satisfying and dissatisfying waiting experiences emerged: social justice, servicescapes, affective response and service outcome. The customers exhibited mostly dissatisfying reactions to waiting experiences during the service encounters. Originality/value – While CIT has been used extensively in services management, it has not been used to explore customers’ reactions to waiting experiences. Therefore, this study extended the waiting experience literature in service encounters to explain customers’ reactions to waiting.
... Waiting in services is a problem because it reduces customer satisfaction (Davis and Heineke, 1994;Li, 2010). It induces consumer boredom and irritation (Larson 1987;Pruyn and Smidts, 1998) and it may lead consumers to abandon services or to avoid that service on future occasions (Bielen and Demoulin, 2007;Davis and Vollmann, 1990). ...
... Although waiting in line is one of the most habitually researched waiting contexts in the marketing and economics literature (Adan et al., 2001;Bennett, 1998;Davis and Heineke, 1994;Minton, 2008;Rafaeli et al., 2002), the authors have not found any previous study in the services marketing literature that examines the cultural aspects of waiting in line. Yet, the qualitative data of this study is replete with examples of how the participants find that the rules of queuing for services vary across cultures. ...
... It uses adjectives that routinely refer to waiting as wasted or unproductive time (Unzicker, 1999). Research assumes that consumers constantly strive to avoid waiting, or to fill waiting time and thereby avoid boredom (Davis and Heineke 1994;Pearce, 1989). In this sense, the literature and research on waiting in services is largely characterised by a monochronic time logic. ...
Article
Purpose Waiting in services commonly reduces customer satisfaction and has a considerable and enduring negative effect on the overall evaluation of a service. Waiting may even lead consumers to abandon a service or to avoid that service on future occasions. This paper aims to advance the understanding of the role played by culture in shaping the perceptions of waiting in services. In doing so, the study aims to demonstrate that solutions for managing waiting in services should be culturally appropriate. Design/methodology/approach This study uses in-depth interviews and consumer diaries. The sample includes expatriates from most continents living in Catalonia, Spain. Findings The study confirms existing theories on cultural differences in time orientations in a services marketing context. It uncovers a range of culture-bound rules of waiting and differences in cultural interpretations of what it means to wait and even whether waiting is occurring or not. Practical implications This study questions the applicability of some standard waiting solutions across cultural contexts. Companies that operate in different cultures should consider their approach to managing waiting times according to the cultural time orientations of their customer base. The cultural aspects of time-based service guarantees and time-rationing strategies are considered. Originality/value This paper takes an innovate approach to “uncovering” the implicit rules of waiting by asking expatriate consumers about their waiting experiences while living abroad. Expatriates are in a unique position to identify these differences, as they have a cultural point of comparison with their home countries.
... Hence, companies try to reduce both real and perceived waiting times (Hui & Tse, 1996;Maister, 1985;Yan & Lotz, 2006). They may attempt to improve the waiting experience by implementing new systems to reduce real waiting times (Davis & Heineke, 1994) or they may manipulate contextual factors such as music, information about waiting times, and the social environment (Davis & Heineke, 1994;Pruyn & Smidts, 1998). Thus, waiting times may be overestimated or underestimated by customers depending on the strategies implemented to manage the perception of waiting time (Hornik, 1984;Jones & Peppiatt, 1996;Katz et al., 1991). ...
... Hence, companies try to reduce both real and perceived waiting times (Hui & Tse, 1996;Maister, 1985;Yan & Lotz, 2006). They may attempt to improve the waiting experience by implementing new systems to reduce real waiting times (Davis & Heineke, 1994) or they may manipulate contextual factors such as music, information about waiting times, and the social environment (Davis & Heineke, 1994;Pruyn & Smidts, 1998). Thus, waiting times may be overestimated or underestimated by customers depending on the strategies implemented to manage the perception of waiting time (Hornik, 1984;Jones & Peppiatt, 1996;Katz et al., 1991). ...
... Hence, companies try to reduce both real and perceived waiting times (Hui & Tse, 1996;Maister, 1985;Yan & Lotz, 2006). They may attempt to improve the waiting experience by implementing new systems to reduce real waiting times (Davis & Heineke, 1994) or they may manipulate contextual factors such as music, information about waiting times, and the social environment (Davis & Heineke, 1994;Pruyn & Smidts, 1998). Thus, waiting times may be overestimated or underestimated by customers depending on the strategies implemented to manage the perception of waiting time (Hornik, 1984;Jones & Peppiatt, 1996;Katz et al., 1991). ...
... Hence, companies try to reduce both real and perceived waiting times (Hui & Tse, 1996;Maister, 1985;Yan & Lotz, 2006). They may attempt to improve the waiting experience by implementing new systems to reduce real waiting times (Davis & Heineke, 1994) or they may manipulate contextual factors such as music, information about waiting times, and the social environment (Davis & Heineke, 1994;Pruyn & Smidts, 1998). Thus, waiting times may be overestimated or underestimated by customers depending on the strategies implemented to manage the perception of waiting time (Hornik, 1984;Jones & Peppiatt, 1996;Katz et al., 1991). ...
... The literature on both consumer intertemporal choice and service management revealed a positive relationship between the value of an outcome and consumers' willingness to wait (Thaler, 1981;Loewenstein and Thaler, 1989;Davis and Heineke, 1994;van Riel et al., 2012). In fact, intertemporal choices can be considered a problem of self-control because waiting for a reward requires effort independent of the size of the reward itself (Thaler, 1981). ...
... Specifically, the higher the value of the future outcome and the more the consumer is involved in the decision, the lower the perceived weight of the expended effort. Accordingly, consumers are more willing to wait for a good or a service if it is perceived to be of high value because in this case, they accept that some of the costs are represented by the wait time (Davis and Heineke, 1994). Nevertheless, delivery services could represent an exception if timeliness constitutes a focal performance through which quality is evaluated (Murfield et al., 2017). ...
Purpose Short delivery time is a feature that can influence consumers’ purchasing decisions and that retailers compete over fiercely. Accordingly, evaluating the effect of delivery time on demand and identifying marketing-mix variables that alter this relationship may influence retailers’ strategies and impact supply chain (SC) performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study was performed in collaboration with the largest furniture retailer in Italy, which provided its sales and inventory data for 19,000 units sold over a six-month period in 32 stores throughout Italy. Data were analysed using logistic regression with fixed effects. Findings The value of delivery time for consumers, even in an industry generally characterised by long delivery lead times, is surprisingly high. The evidence reveals that when the delivery time changes from two days to seven days, demand is reduced by 37.5 per cent, although variables related to location and the marketing mix moderate this relationship. Practical implications Retailers can use the findings presented herein to drive their inventory and facility planning decisions and support investments in SC integration. Originality/value Supply chain management (SCM) studies consider the value of delivery time anecdotally and have neglected empirical estimations of the magnitude of the effects of delivery time on consumer demand. Further, SCM studies have not explored the factors moderating this relationship, although intertemporal choice and service management studies have demonstrated the existence of such factors.
... Numbers have quantifying and sequencing functions (Corbett, 2004) so that a number system can instrumentally enhance the efficiency of customer management and bring convenience to customers. For instance, a take-a-number system allows customers to gauge the expected time they need to wait and become more comfortable and distracted when waiting (Davis & Heineke, 1994). Particularly in our research, we believe that numerical identification may have another noteworthy effect on customers, that is, it can induce the feeling of self-dehumanization among the numbered customers. ...
... However, consumers may resist personal identification due to the increasing privacy concerns in modern society (Awad & Krishnan, 2006;Wattal et al., 2012). Further, personal identification is less systematic to manage and not suggestive of the sequence or waiting time (Corbett, 2004;Davis & Heineke, 1994). Future research may systematically test the strengths and weaknesses of personal (vs. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effect of numerical customer identification (i.e., assigning numbers to identify customers) in the service context on the numbered customers' reaction to service failures. We manipulated numerical identification in different ways (room number, customer number, table number, and order number) and measured customers' tolerance of services across various settings (in a restaurant, a spa, and a café) in four studies. The results demonstrated that after being identified by a number, customers tend to exhibit a higher tolerance of service failures (Studies 1 and 2), and this effect is mediated by a sense of self-dehumanization among the numerically identified customers (Study 3). Moreover, the investigated effect diminished when customers had heightened individuation (e.g., by disclosing personal information) to buffer against dehumanization (Study 4). Our findings contribute to the underexplored research area on customer identification, broaden the numerical research and dehumanization literature in marketing, and bring practical implications for firms to mitigate the negative effects of service failures and decrease customer dissatisfaction.
... People are looking for a higher level of healthcare services with less time to wait. Waiting is not likable by people [2], and in general, waiting time is the most frequent complaint by all patients [3]. Long queues happen in various sectors, i.e., hospitals, banks, and retail stores [2]. ...
... Waiting is not likable by people [2], and in general, waiting time is the most frequent complaint by all patients [3]. Long queues happen in various sectors, i.e., hospitals, banks, and retail stores [2]. In healthcare, taking a long time to book an appointment, get treatment, or take medicine can negatively impact patients' satisfaction and safety [1,[3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Integration between information systems is critical, especially in the healthcare domain, since interoperability requirements are related to patients’ data confidentiality, safety, and satisfaction. The goal of this study is to propose a solution based on the integration between queue management solution (QMS) and the electronic medical records (EMR), using Health Level Seven (HL7) protocols and Extensible Markup Language (XML). The proposed solution facilitates the patient’s self-check-in within a healthcare organization in UAE. The solution aims to help in minimizing the waiting times within the outpatient department through early identification of patients who hold the Emirates national ID cards, i.e., whether an Emirati or expatriates. The integration components, solution design, and the custom-designed XML and HL7 messages were clarified in this paper. In addition, the study includes a simulation experiment through control and intervention weeks with 517 valid appointments. The experiment goal was to evaluate the patient’s total journey and each related clinical stage by comparing the “routine-based identification” with the “patient’s self-check-in” processes in case of booked appointments. As a key finding, the proposed solution is efficient and could reduce the “patient’s journey time” by more than 14 minutes and “time to identify” patients by 10 minutes. There was also a significant drop in the waiting time to triage and the time to finish the triage process. In conclusion, the proposed solution is considered innovative and can provide a positive added value for the patient’s whole journey.
... According to Taylor (1994), satisfaction of a customer is not only affected by the length of time they have to wait for the service, but also their expectation of the service or their perception of what is creating the queue. For this reason, queue management should not only be about the length of time a customer waits in the system, but also their perception of the waiting must be managed (Davis and Heineke, 1994).Customers often overestimate the time they spend waiting for a service (Katz et al., 1991). As their perceptions of waiting time increases, the resulting dissatisfaction and frustration also increases. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study took interest in evaluating customers' perceptions in waiting lines, measured by time wastage, neglect and boredom and their innate reactions, measured by service abandonment intentions towards satisfaction, loyalty and reuse behaviour during and after service experience. We collected data from bank customers in five regions of Ghana. 251 out of 309 questionnaires distributed were returned and found usable for data analysis. Our findings reflect the banking industry of Ghana characterised by little service differentiation and similar customer characteristics across service firms. This study's findings validate extant works on service firms' focus on their specific business dimensions while relegating the customer.
... The question for queue management is not only the real time spent by a customer in a queue, it is also the customer's perception of that time and the related level of their satisfaction with the service [8]. Information on the waiting time has a positive impact on the customer's satisfaction with the waiting time [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Regardless the level of technological development in a community, the unavoidable phenomenon is the appearance of queuing. This situation will continue as long as there is the customer’s need for the direct contact with the service suppliers, as the case is in the Post of Serbia. The aim of the paper is to estimate the time a customer will spend in queuing while approaching the counter for financial services in a postal network unit. The observed system comprises a single queue, three handling channels and the service according to the FIFO principle. This paper presents a developed model that is realized in the following phases: recording data, preparing data for training, training the neuro-fuzzy system, forming a data set for testing where the expected mean service speed is obtained using the moving average method, and testing the neuro-fuzzy model. Observing the mass service system has so far been directed towards, the evaluation of their behaviour in the past which presents a basis to evaluate whether the system provides satisfactory performances. This paper moves a step in the direction of the behaviour evaluation of a mass service system, in the future, in order to observe whether it is possible to predict the service quality level to be provided to a customer. System customer in this case is not limited by the number of demanded services. © 2015, Budapest Tech Polytechnical Institution. All Rights Reserved.
... Every organization that interacts with customers will be dealing with issues of queue management systems. In daily life, customers wait for service in a variety of settings, including manufacturing and service business, profit and non-profit organizations, as well as private and public agencies (Davis & Heineke, 1994). Apart from that, these are some of the reviews from the "tripadvisor.com.my" ...
Article
Haliza Mohd Said, , , and (2014). Customers Frustration and Its Implication Towards Intention to Queue: An Evidence Of A Malaysian Theme Park in Kuala Lumpur. UNITAR International University.
... Waiting to pay at the checkouts at hypermarkets is very tiresome as people lead very busy lives. Therefore, waiting time should be managed and controlled [1][2]. Checkout management is the next big technology for retailers in the modern world with less time spent queueing and better customer care. ...
... With this in mind, companies continually seek strategies to reduce these undesirable effects. This may involve reducing real waiting times (Davis and Heineke, 1994) or speeding up transactions (Katz et al., 1991). It may also include extending opening hours or implementing new technologies to more effectively manage waiting times and appointments (Davis and Vollmann, 1990;Yan and Lotz, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how managers of theme parks interpret waiting times from a services marketing perspective. In-depth interviews are undertaken in order to uncover manager's perceptions of waiting. 'The inevitability of waiting times', 'the negative interpretation of waiting times' and 'neutral waiting times' are three themes that emerge from this qualitative study. A deeper analysis of the waiting experience may contribute to enhanced strategies for managing waiting in theme parks, improved evaluations of the service and increased customer satisfaction. Finally, some practical tips for practitioners are proposed in the form of management takeaways.
... Arriving customers are expected to approach the service system, and wait for service regardless of the number in queue. But, according to Davis and Heinete (1994), a balking customer dissatisfied with the queue, refuses to join and may or may not return later, while a reneging customer, although joined the queue, wait for some time, becomes tired and impatient, then leaves. Customers who move from one queue to another hoping to receive Departure Queue Discipline Arrival Process ...
Article
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Queuing theory plays a huge role in solving and preventing operational bottlenecks and service failures in the organization. But, observations show that Queuing analysis may become extremely complex and cumbersome. Therefore, most entrepreneurs, having realized its usefulness in managing their much earned successes achieved in relation to customer’s patronage and service delivery now desire its simplified applications in normal day to day running of operations. The methodology adopted in this paper, therefore is to describe queuing theory and its associated terminologies in relation to service delivery. In view of this, the paper presented a simplified exposition of queuing theory and management of waiting lines as it affects entrepreneurial drive for more business growth and opportunities with its attendant implications to customers’ service delivery and satisfaction. The paper concluded that if appropriately delivered and applied, queuing theory goes a long way in achieving and maintaining customer satisfaction. It recommended that entrepreneurs should seek the opportunity of gaining better understanding and application of queuing theory to practically reduce or eliminate boredom, irritation, breakdown and frustration to customers without much ado.
... Tom and Lucey (1999) found that waiting time or delay is the factor most critical to consumer satisfaction with shopping experiences. Some consumers dislike waiting in line so much that they hire people to wait in lines for them (Ittig, 1994;Davis and Heineke, 1994). There is also evidence indicating that consumers' dissatisfaction with long waits affects both their overall satisfaction with the service and their future intention to use those service providers. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports an empirical investigation of restaurant customers' evaluations of and reactions to delays in service when choosing cook to foods in Malaysia. It also compares customers' evaluations of waiting time at two of the most popular types of ethnic restaurants in Malaysia (Malay and Indian Muslim restaurants). The findings indicate that majority of restaurant customers are clearly concerned about waiting time. Customers expressed that unacceptable waiting time does affect their satisfaction, mood and propensity to dine again. Some customer segments are more concerned about various aspects of waiting than are other customers. There are also differences between how customers view waiting times in each of the two styles of restaurant included in this study. Customers strongly believe that waiting time for cook to order food in Malay restaurants is much longer compared to the Indian Muslim restaurants, which provide better overall speed of service. These results have significant implications for Malay restaurant operators. While both styles of restaurant should always pay attention to customers' needs and expectations as part of their business strategies, Malay restaurant operators need to catch up to what their Indian Muslim counterparts are already achieving. They will to better understand and pay closer attention to customers' needs in order to be well positioned and take advantage of the general growing trends in eating habits of Malaysian customers and their service expectations.
... Another paper [2] studies the effect of offering a time guarantee (i.e. making sure the client is served within a certain time-frame and compensating them if they are not) on customer satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes a solution to the problem of client dissatisfaction with long waiting times associated with some services. This solution is a smart queue management system that provides real-time visual and audio updates to service requests via a smartphone app. Users receive digital tickets and are free to leave the waiting area until it is their turn to be served. If they choose to remain in the area, they have the option of listening to the signal of the television set that is typically muted for a better experience. The system comprises connected units forming a web of things. There are units for ticket registration and verification, audio capturing and streaming, queue management, and user units as smartphone applications. We have tested this system to ensure its functionality and report our results and possible improvements.
... Riel, et al. [3] showed an antagonistic, impactful and beeline relationship between a negative emotional response to the wait and satisfaction. The overall satisfaction leads to the behavioural response [16,17]. The response could be revisiting the retail outlet (positive) or switching the retail outlet (negative). ...
Article
Full-text available
The waiting line is an essential element in the consumer's assessment of the overall shopping experience. Perceived idle time while waiting in the queue exaggerates the negative response to wait duration and affects the overall customer satisfaction. The store employees find it hard to muddle through peak hours and deal with the demand for a speedy process. The inefficient queuing system can lead to productivity and monetary losses from an operational outlook. This study explores the determinants of emotional discomfort encountered by customers waiting at the retail checkout. The study pursues a descriptive research design and is cross-sectional. Survey research was employed to ascertain customers' perceptions of their wait experience. The sample consisted of 385 respondents visiting the target organised outlets located in various localities in Bengaluru. Pearson correlation, multiple regression analysis, and SEM are applied to examine the data. Regardless of their age and gender, respondents experienced emotional discomfort at the retail checkout. Various situations while waiting in the queue appeared to influence the emotional discomfort significantly. This study suggests that while waiting in the queue at the retail checkout, situational factors influence emotional discomfort and subsequently persuade store switching intentions. The findings of this study are pertinent to retail outlets selling diverse merchandise and having situations requiring waiting. The study concludes that emotional discomfort is predominant during the checkout process in Indian retail outlets.
... Increased labor costs and the easy availability of self-service technologies (SSTs) have created incentives for service providers to give customers the option of serving themselves (Meuter et al., 2005). Substituting customers for employee labor saves operation costs and improves productivity (Davis and Heineke, 1994;Lovelock and Young, 1979). For example, airlines have succeeded in shifting a large volume of their routine check-in transactions to kiosks, resulting in a cost decline in printing boarding passes from $3.68 to just $0.16 (Dragoon, 2005). ...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to conceptually and empirically differentiate between two types of customer participation (CP): CP as “producers” (CPP), when customers primarily contribute physical labor to produce a service (e.g. assembling a frame), and CP as “designers” (CPD), when customers primarily share information to design a service (e.g. designing a frame). The study examines whether CPD and CPP influence customers’ perceptions of value creation and choice of participation differently. Furthermore, it investigates the moderating effect of customer expectation on the effect of CPD/CPP on customers’ participation responses. Design/methodology/approach – This study uses two scenario-based experiments. Study 1 examines the main effect of CPP and CPD on perceived value of participation and participation choice, and Study 2 investigates the moderator of customer expectation. Findings – Study 1 indicates that CPD creates greater value and is a more preferred participation choice than CPP. Study 2 further suggests that the differential advantage of CPD over CPP becomes weakened with a CPP expectation and amplified with a CPD expectation. Research limitations/implications – This research helps reconcile current mixed empirical findings in the literature and opens up a new stream to enrich the theoretical understanding of CP. Its use of consumer psychology theories also adds a consumer psychological perspective to CP research. Practical implications – This research demonstrates that not all CPs are equal, offers guidelines to design and manage CP and suggests managing customer expectations so as to enhance the appeal of CPP in light of its productivity implications. Originality/value – This study represents a pioneering work to empirically differentiate two types of CP and offers a new perspective for understanding the complexity of CP.
... Over the years, managing the queues is common problem in healthcare and considered significant for the safety and overall satisfaction of patients [1]. long queues in healthcare organizations can produce high levels of distraction for the employees instead of focusing on the original activities [2]. ...
Chapter
Queue Management is significant to improve the provided healthcare services. Despite previous studies on technology adoption and users’ intention to use various technologies in healthcare, users’ acceptance of queue management solutions (QMS) have rarely been measured. End users in healthcare domain and their acceptance for information technologies are important to ensure the success of implementation for these technologies. It is essential to assess the level of acceptance for those users, and understand the related influencing factors. The objective of this study is to evaluate the factors that impact the acceptance of technology by physicians in UAE. It proposes a model based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) extended by the construct “Trust”. The study was conducted in healthcare organization in UAE and represents 63 physicians. To evaluate the proposed model, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used, and data was analyzed using SmartPLS and SPSS Statistics Software. It was found that the proposed model could explain 62.3% of total variance in the behavioral intention to use Queue Management Solution (QMS) by physicians. The results also showed that Performance expectancy and Facilitating conditions are significantly influencing the physicians’ intention to accept using QMS. Moreover, Trust as external factor has positive significant influence on the beliefs of physicians, especially when it comes to the importance of QMS to gain better performance results. This study can provide useful knowledge for decision-makers in healthcare organizations; who are planning to implement new QMS, or enhance the current available solution.
... This is related, in part, to customer anxiety by waiting. When the actual wait cannot be determined, updates or status reports at predetermined intervals can be an acceptable substitute [14]. When a patient does not know what is holding up the queue or causing a delay, the wait becomes noticeably longer. ...
Article
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This study aimed to analyze psychological effect of waiting environment on perceptions of waiting time for outpatients in Kendari Regional Public Hospital. Respondents participitated in this study were 384 patients, taken during study period between September-December 2019. Data analysis employed Partial Least Square Method and analyzed on SmartPLS 3 application. The results revealed that, there is a positive and siginificant effect between queuing environment on perception of waiting time in outpatient care in Kendari Regional Public Hospital with regression coefficient of 0.217 (positive) and t-value of 2.463> 1.96. Environmental elements regarding enjoyable management of queue services were found to positively influence the affective state of individuals which consisted of interactions of pleasure and passion during the period of waiting for service. A short waiting time perception can compensate for the long actual waiting time and and can take on the role of as service recovery.
... This is related, in part, to customer anxiety by waiting. When the actual wait cannot be determined, updates or status reports at predetermined intervals can be an acceptable substitute [14]. When a patient does not know what is holding up the queue or causing a delay, the wait becomes noticeably longer. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to analyze psychological effect of waiting environment on perceptions of waiting time for outpatients in Kendari Regional Public Hospital. Respondents participitated in this study were 384 patients, taken during study period between September-December 2019. Data analysis employed Partial Least Square Method and analyzed on SmartPLS 3 application. The results revealed that, there is a positive and siginificant effect between queuing environment on perception of waiting time in outpatient care in Kendari Regional Public Hospital with regression coefficient of 0.217 (positive) and t-value of 2.463> 1.96. Environmental elements regarding enjoyable management of queue services were found to positively influence the affective state of individuals which consisted of interactions of pleasure and passion during the period of waiting for service. A short waiting time perception can compensate for the long actual waiting time and and can take on the role of as service recovery. Index Terms— Perception of Waiting Time, Waiting Environment, Psychology of Waiting
... Even customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction has been attributed to time, specifically waiting for a purchase or service experience (Pàmies et al., 2016). Waiting time can have differential effects on consumers depending on their individual differences and the event or service for which they are queuing (Davis and Heineke, 1994;Fullerton and Taylor, 2015;Larson, 1987). For example, millennials waiting in line for an upcoming concert may actually enjoy the anticipation and derive social capital from appearing trendy and cool, which could enhance their overall experience. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the anticipated emotions of consumers and their anticipated perceived quality (PQ) of an exhibit, event or service that they are waiting to attend. Design/methodology/approach The study consists of a quantitative survey-based descriptive study of n = 470 real-world consumers from a waiting line at the Shark Reef exhibit in Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino, Las Vegas. Data is analyzed with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to extrapolate causal conditions or recipes, for word of mouth (WOM) generation regarding the exhibit. Findings Recipes that influence positive WOM for an upcoming exhibit include: affect evaluation and affect expectations (AEXs) and affect evaluation, affect expectation, event entertainment and PQ. Practical implications By recognizing the need to optimize the customer waiting experience, services marketing managers can more successfully engage customers and influence their subsequent intentions. Originality/value Emotions regarding the anticipation of an upcoming event are critical to cultivating the intent to spread positive WOM.
... Source: Own design (Kendall, 1953) The choice of scheduling discipline will affect the order processing time, and the duration of order processing queues will affect customer satisfaction. If a customer is very satisfied with the service, he or she is likely to order again in the future (Davis & Heineke, 1994). However, a dissatisfied customer could share his or her bad experience with other potential customers. ...
Thesis
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This thesis compares delivery concepts for last-mile delivery with the primary aim to help retailers understand which delivery concept is more suitable in specific scenarios. The delivery concepts of conventional vehicle and bike courier are discussed in detail. In this paper we combine the methods of modelling and scenario planning to simulate the last-mile delivery process and the operation of retail stores in different urban districts. In contrast to other existing studies, we consider not only the transportation process but also the fulfilment process, so that entire online shopping procedures are broken down step by step for in-depth analysis. Our results show that in some cases the cost of the bike courier model can compete in regard to instant delivery with the conventional vehicle model, especially in small areas with high demand. However, the conventional vehicle model beats the bike courier model in cost in a large or high-fluctuation demand area. When the demand increases to a certain level, retailers need to do a break-even point analysis to consider whether to hire additional workers to fulfill the service level. Another consideration is purchasing an additional vehicle, which is a large cost increase. Additionally, the queuing time significantly affects the bike courier model due to the short time window. Even with long queues, bike couriers can deliver only one order at a time, which can lead to poor service levels and additional labor costs. In summary, our quantitative results provide evidence that the performance of the fulfilment process significantly impacts the last-mile delivery. Depending on the conditions of their districts, retailers can refer to the results of our scenario and make a better decision about how serve their customers.
... airline, customer service), and aims to strike a balance between keeping patients up to date with a realistic indicator of time (and therefore better able to plan their commitments around their intervention) and not providing false hope, notwithstanding the fact that waiting times understandably differ based upon individual clinical need. 25 To ensure actions were fed back to all participants, we developed an infographic (Supplementary Material 3). Patients on the waiting list were directed to view this on our dedicated support web site via a text message update containing a weblink. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims COVID-19 has compounded a growing waiting list problem, with over 4.5 million patients now waiting for planned elective care in the UK. Views of patients on waiting lists are rarely considered in prioritization. Our primary aim was to understand how to support patients on waiting lists by hearing their experiences, concerns, and expectations. The secondary aim was to capture objective change in disability and coping mechanisms. Methods A minimum representative sample of 824 patients was required for quantitative analysis to provide a 3% margin of error. Sampling was stratified by body region (upper/lower limb, spine) and duration on the waiting list. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of elective orthopaedic waiting list patients with their planned intervention paused due to COVID-19. Analyzed parameters included baseline health, change in physical/mental health status, challenges and coping strategies, preferences/concerns regarding treatment, and objective quality of life (EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item scale (GAD-2)). Qualitative analysis was performed via the Normalization Process Theory. Results A total of 888 patients responded. Better health, pain, and mood scores were reported by upper limb patients. The longest waiters reported better health but poorer mood and anxiety scores. Overall, 82% had tried self-help measures to ease symptoms; 94% wished to proceed with their intervention; and 21% were prepared to tolerate deferral. Qualitative analysis highlighted the overall patient mood to be represented by the terms ‘understandable’, ‘frustrated’, ‘pain’, ‘disappointed’, and ‘not happy/depressed’. COVID-19-mandated health and safety measures and technology solutions were felt to be implemented well. However, patients struggled with access to doctors and pain management, quality of life (physical and psychosocial) deterioration, and delay updates. Conclusion This is the largest study to hear the views of this ‘hidden’ cohort. Our findings are widely relevant to ensure provision of better ongoing support and communication, mostly within the constraints of current resources. In response, we developed a reproducible local action plan to address highlighted issues. Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2021;2(8):573–583.
Article
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This study examined the application of queue theory in the banking system in Nigeria, with particular reference to GTBank and Ecobank Idumota branch, Lagos, Lagos state. The queuing characteristics of the banks were analyzed using a Multi-Server Queuing Model. The performance measures analysis including the waiting and operation costs for the banks were computed with a view to determining the optimal service level. Findings revealed that the traffic intensity was higher in GTbank with p =0.98 than in Ecobank with p= 0.78. Also, the potential utilization showed that Ecobank was far below efficiency compared to GTBank. Looking at the waiting time of customers in line and the time spent in the system, that is (Wq + Ws), we discovered that customers in Ecobank spent more time before being served both on queue and in the system than that of GTBank bank. The study concluded by emphasizing the relevance of queuing theory to the effective service delivery of the banking sector in Nigeria and strongly recommends that for efficiency and quality of service delivery to customers, the management of GTBank and Ecobank should adopt a 13-server model and 10-server model respectively to reduce total expected costs and increase customer satisfaction.
Chapter
The health status of the people in rural areas is faced with challenges primarily due to availability, acceptability, financial accessibility to healthcare services. These include traditional and cultural beliefs, behavioural norms that explain community viewpoints of social roles and various community members’ functions. Rural and remote areas are medically underserved, access to healthcare services is difficult sometimes. Distance covered to access the nearest available health facility by some rural dwellers is discouraging. Thus, moving critically ill or injured persons is hampered because of long-distance or poor transportation means. In the end, many prefer to use traditional medicine than travel that long distance for medical treatment. Recently, healthcare delivery systems have focused on innovative approaches to improve health outcomes, control costs, and foster achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). One of these innovations is mHealth (Short Messaging Service) [SMS] texts, which have peculiar attributes, making it particularly suitable for health care in rural and hard-to-reach areas in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Moreover, text-messaging interventions are uniquely suited for underserved populations. This chapter highlights some interventions on the uses and benefits of SMS text applications in healthcare service delivery.
Article
This study examines the topic of waiting on the Internet from a marketing perspective. Although the speed of the Internet has increased notably since its popularization in the 1990s, consumers' expectations have also increased significantly. This paper reports on a qualitative study of online consumer experiences of waiting on the Internet. This is an important issue because online waiting has been linked to negative business outcomes such as consumer abandonment, lack of trust, interrupted interactivity and negative brand attitudes. The study finds that online waiting does not always involve negative emotional reactions, especially when the wait is followed by the successful completion of the task at hand. Indeed, the reaction to online waiting was often one of resignation and the acceptance of a certain amount of delay. This finding contrasts with the conventional wisdom on waiting in services that making consumers wait for service is negative and should be eliminated. Theoretical explanations are sought for this result which is contradictory to mainstream research. In the specific context of waiting online, this study suggests that companies would be well advised to direct more efforts towards assisting the user to accomplish his/her task online rather than simply speeding up download times.
Article
Purpose – In service sector, measuring quality of services is generally acknowledged to be difficult as it involves many psychological features. Hence, identifying the determinants of service quality and linkages with customer satisfaction is a challenging research topic. In this study, the authors take up a research study to address this challenge. The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of factors influencing customer satisfaction in the context of a Chinese buffet restaurant in the UK. Design/methodology/approach – The authors use a questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL instrument for the purpose. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the authors have found that service quality could be grouped into four main factors – service, food, ambience and price. Findings – Using multiple-regression analysis, the authors have found that food is the most significant factor influencing customer satisfaction, followed by price, ambience and service, respectively. Using a multi-group analysis, the authors have found interesting moderating roles of age, gender and annual income on the influence of the four factors on satisfaction: ambience is considered significant by male customers while it is not significant for female customers; the influence of price on satisfaction is much higher for female customers than for male customers; food and service factors are important for younger customers while price is important for older customers; price is important for customers with lower levels of income but not important for high-income customers. Practical implications – These results are useful to restaurant managers in allocating appropriate levels of resources to different factors based on their contributions to customer satisfaction in order to maximize customer satisfaction efficiently and effectively. Originality/value – Analysis and findings of this research are based on the customers’ survey data of a Chinese buffet restaurant in the UK. The authors have found an interesting ranking of the importance of service factors: food followed by price, ambience and service. The results on the moderating role of customer characteristics provide newer insights in the literature on service quality. The research findings can help the hotel management to improve their service levels to attain maximum customer satisfaction.
Chapter
Traditional 1-D discrete chaotic systems are not suitable to use directly in PRBG design for their cryptographic usage as their structures are simple and have predictability. Pseudo-random sequences have wide applications in image and video encryption, hash functions, spread spectrum communications, etc. In chaos-based cryptography, chaotic systems have been regarded as an important pseudorandom source in the design of pseudo-random bit generators due to its inherent properties of sensitive dependence on initial conditions and parameters. In order to improve the dynamism and features of standard logistic map, a 1-D discrete combination chaos model is proposed in this paper. The chaos model enables to construct new chaotic systems with combination of logistic map and Trigonometric functions. The performance analysis shows that the new systems are more complex and better than the original Logistic map. Further, we also propose to present a new pseudo-random bit generator based on new log-tan chaotic system and log-cot chaotic system. The randomness and other statistic analysis show that our pseudo-random bit generator has good randomness features, satisfy the linear complexity and balancedness requirements well.
Book
This book sheds light on the emerging research trends in intelligent systems and their applications. It mainly focuses on four different themes, including Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing, Information Security and Networking, Medical Informatics, and Advances in Information Systems. Each chapter contributes to the aforementioned themes by discussing the recent design, developments, and modifications of intelligent systems and their applications.
Chapter
Die Integration des externen Faktors, der einen Produktionsfaktor sui generis darstellt, in den Dienstleistungserstellungsprozess geht mit einer Unsicherheit der Leistungserstellung einher. Dies gilt insbesondere auch für das Kapazitätsmanagement einer Dienstleistungsunternehmung, das durch diese inhärente Fremdbestimmung des Erstellungsprozesses vor besonderen Problemen steht. Darüber hinaus ist dieser externe Faktor Anlass, den Produktionsprozess der Dienstleistungen in eine Vor- und Endkombination zu untergliedern. Während der Vorkombination die Aufgabe obliegt, den Aufbau eines Leistungspotenzials durch die Kombination interner Produktionsfaktoren zu bewerkstelligen, setzt die Endkombination die Unternehmung in die Lage, entsprechend der unternehmerischen Sach- und Formalziele, absetzbare Leistungen zu erstellen. Die Vorkombination dient somit der Schaffung einer Leistungsbereitschaft und hat damit im Rahmen der Dienstleistungsproduktion einen vorbereitenden Charakter. Die Aufgabe der Endkombination besteht dann darin, durch den Einsatz dieser zur Verfügung stehenden Leistungsbereitschaft, weiterer interner Produktionsfaktoren und den externen Faktor eine Leistung zu erstellen, wobei der externe Faktor die Endkombination initiiert (Altenburger 1980, S. 105ff.; Corsten 1985, S. 161ff.). Damit steht die Produktion der Marktleistung in funktionaler Abhängigkeit vom Einsatz des externen Faktors, so dass aus dem Integrationserfordernis für den Dienstleistungserstellungsprozess eine gewisse Fremdbestimmtheit resultiert. Um diese Fremdbestimmtheit differenzierter zu betrachten, ist es zweckmäßig, zwischen determinierten und indeterminierten Dienstleistungsprozessen zu unterscheiden. Determinierte Produktionsprozesse sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Input, Throughput und Output festliegen und durch den Produzenten vorhersehbar und beherrschbar sind. Demgegenüber liegen indeterminierte Prozesse dann vor, wenn mindestens eines der angeführten Elemente nicht eindeutig bestimmt ist. Diese einfache Vorgehensweise (Gerhardt 1987, S. 108ff.) vernachlässigt jedoch die skizzierte Mehrstufigkeit der Dienstleistungserstellung und stellt damit nur eine erste Annäherung an die aufgezeigte Problematik dar.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is that service sectors sectors create queues intentionally as a promotional strategy. Potential buyers might become actual customers after witnessing and joining queues. However, the effectiveness of company promotional activities involving queues remains unclear. Despite the innovativeness of this marketing strategy, few companies have adopted this approach, owing to the lack of research on how waiting influences customer behaviors toward waiting in queues. Design/methodology/approach Therefore, this study identifies four factors of customer willingness to stand in a queue using questionnaire survey: company promotional activities, improvement of waiting environment, company’ reactions to the queue and customers’ perceptions regarding waiting time. Findings This study identifies causal relationships among the aforementioned factors. The results of this investigation reveal that a company’s promotional activities significantly and indirectly reduce customers’ perceived waiting time by improving the waiting environment. Analytical results also show that a company’s queuing management can indirectly reduce customers’ perceived waiting time by improving the waiting environment. Originality/value Based on the analytical results concerning causal relationships, improving the waiting environment is critical to affecting positively customers’ perceptions regarding waiting time. Queuing management can indirectly reduce customers’ perceived waiting time by improving the waiting environment. A company’s promotional activities can indirectly reduce customers’ perceived waiting time by improving the waiting environment. Customers who enjoy both the waiting environment and the promotional activities experience much shorter perceived waiting time.
Chapter
Fifth edition of the best-selling textbook updated and revised to take account of current trends such as the experience economy, CSR, connectivity and smart controls, and allergen and data protection laws.
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Retailers have installed self-service technologies such as self-checkout that aim to improve the efficiency of checkout operations and minimize customers’ waiting experiences that reduce customer satisfaction. Customers’ expectation for self-checkout should influence their evaluation of checkout operations for existing checkout options when the new service is installed at the checkout. This study investigates how expectations about self-checkout affects perceptions of waiting in terms of social injustice, unattractiveness, and undistraction as well as customer satisfaction when retailers change checkout operations through installing self-service technologies. The results from an online survey in Japan revealed that social injustice has a stronger negative impact on satisfaction when customers have low expectations for self-checkout. In contrast, unattractiveness and undistraction tend to affect satisfaction negatively when expectation is high. This study clarifies the mechanism of how installing self-service technologies influences customer satisfaction with pre-existing services in terms of the psychological factor of waiting.
Article
This Student registration at University involved students being registered in Student Affairs Department and make a deposit in Finance Department within the University, where they would present a form which had previously been filled in by the student. Students often wait for minutes, hours, half day or days to receive registration service for which they were waiting. Delays in the registration may result in difficulties of scheduling at speciality units and decrease in student satisfaction. This system examines the wide-spread problem of extended waiting times for registration. This system implements as student flow scheduling system and can help staff of student affairs department to reduce student congestion in department. This system uses Queuing analysis and Computer Simulation in Operation Research (OR) field. OR is a scientific approach to analyse problem and reduce waiting time. Simulation is the use of a system model that has the mapped characteristics of existence in order to produce the essence of actual operation. This system presents stand-alone application to help student registration using queuing analysis and computer simulation whose are finding appropriate waiting time for student affairs department.
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We present a blockchain radio access network (B-RAN) as an advanced wireless access paradigm. The proposed B-RAN unites massive trustless subnetworks to form a large-scale trustworthy cooperative network by leveraging the blockchain principle. We introduce the economic concept of network effects with respect to the benefit of a growing B-RAN. We show that B-RAN can create and capture values by connecting multilateral groups and constructing a multi-sided platform (MSP). To establish multi-fold trust among distinct groups for deep integrations and healthy interactions, we divide functions of B-RAN into six layers within a hierarchical architecture to build trust from the ground up, and provide a number of key enabling technologies to overcome major obstacles in B-RAN. More importantly, we assess the performance of B-RAN using our unique in-house prototype through three representative case studies.
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Time theory studies abstractly argue that, depending on the customer experience, time spent waiting may be positive, negative, or even neutral, and it can affect the perceived passing of time and enjoyment of the overall customer experience. However, a company can manipulate customer perceptions of waiting time. Positive perceptions of waiting time can then be used for marketing purposes. Customer perceptions of waiting time can be reduced by making the queuing process enjoyable, by improving the waiting environment, and by making promotional activities enjoyable. To validate the aforementioned factors and develop the enjoyable queuing model, this study surveyed 1571 customers queuing at service companies in Taiwan, including 409 customers of upscale restaurants, 430 customers of restaurants, 439 customers of food stands, and 293 customers queuing at consumer electronics shops to purchase newly released iPhones. The applicability of the enjoyable queuing model was evaluated by partial least squares structural equation modeling, and group differences were evaluated by partial least squares multi-group analysis. The analytical results for each case and managerial implications are presented.
Conference Paper
The purpose of this quantitative research is to explore the customer satisfaction and service quality attributes towards a governmental education training center for public servants in central Taiwan. The collective data is analyzed by SPSS for descriptive analysis. As a result, the top three of the most satisfied attributes are attractive quality attribute of “elegant green environment,” and “center provides you with peace of mind and satisfactory service,” and one-dimensional quality attribute of “easy parking”. The results can be served as a future reference for pursing excellence and serving the people in Taiwan with a higher quality.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore healthcare waiting time and the negative and positive effects (i.e. the dual effects) it has on outpatient satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Self-administered surveys with 334 outpatients and follow-up interviews with 20 outpatients in three large hospitals in Taiwan were conducted to collect data. Findings Quantitative surveys demonstrated that perceived waiting time correlated with satisfaction negatively first but then positively. Satisfaction also correlated with doctor reputation and patient sociability. Follow-up qualitative interviews further revealed that, for some patients, waiting contributed positively to patient evaluations through signaling better healthcare quality and facilitating social interaction. Originality/value This research demonstrated the possibility that waiting might have positive effects on healthcare satisfaction. It also identified variables that could produce greater positive perceptions during hospital waiting and underlying mechanisms that could explain how the positive effects work. This research may potentially help hospitals with a better understanding of how they can improve patients’ waiting experiences and increase satisfaction.
Article
Purpose Based on cost of quality (CoQ) research, this study aims to highlight the importance of incorporating the costs to customers in contributing to service quality when examining how customers respond to possible service failures [quality assurance behavior (QAB)]. Consequently, this study also aims to show how the CoQ framework can be a useful tool to the service industry in determining enhancements in quality and related expenditures. Design/methodology/approach Using the airline industry as a case example, this study empirically tests the impact of predicted service quality and its associated costs on an individual’s QAB (wait time spent at the departing airport) through revealed preferences. The study uses survey data from more than 4,000 passengers matched with travel-specific quality information archived by the US Department of Transportation (DOT). Findings This study finds that customers are willing to increase their level of QAB when informed of an increased probability of service failure. This study also finds that the level of QAB varies depending on anticipated customer costs of avoiding or responding to service failures. Practical implications Findings of this study emphasize the need for shared responsibility between service providers and their customers in making decisions on the provision of service quality, as helping customers adjust the appropriate level of QAB may result in greater efficiency and higher quality of service. Originality/value This study conceptualizes and empirically tests causal relationships between expected quality and customer efforts (QAB), thus contributing to operations literature examining CoQ in a service setting. This study argues that it is critical to consider shared responsibilities between co-producers (service providers and customers) in service operations studies.
Article
Queues are part of everyday routine and experienced by most shoppers, yet little attention has been given to providing historical accounts of queuing as a consumer task or as a shopper experience. This paper examines grocery shop queues and the changing experience of shoppers in historical perspective, specifically focusing upon the shift from counter-service to self-service grocery formats in Britain from 1945 to 1975. The paper draws upon a wide range of material using evidence from oral histories and witness groups, which is supported by contemporary sources from the Mass Observation Archive, newspapers, shopper surveys, and trade publications and reports. The conceptual framework developed in the paper explores the public and private dimensions of queues to consider the experiences and perceptions of shoppers during a period of rapid change in the retail grocery system. More generally, the paper contributes to our understanding of how management innovations are connected to untraded public values.
Article
In this paper, we examine whether the format of service lines affects customers’ satisfaction with their queuing experience. Using a goal-theoretic approach, and data from a series of experimental studies, we show that the duration of the wait moderates the psychological tradeoff between the initial queue length and its rate of movement, such that customers prefer a single line format for shorter waits but a multiple line format for longer waits. We also show that satisfaction declines with an increase in the number of stages in service lines. This adverse effect of multi-staging can be mitigated by using information devices as well as orienting customers away from local, stage-specific, sub-goals towards the overall goal of receiving service and exiting the system. We synthesize these findings about the psychophysics of queuing to generalize a model of satisfaction with waiting that accounts for the effect of service line formats and can represent customers’ utility functions in models of queuing systems.
Article
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As consumers experience a greater squeeze on their time, even short waits seem longer than ever before. If firms can improve customers’ perceptions of the time they spend waiting to be served, then customers will experience less frustration and may feel more satisfied with the service encounter. This paper examines customer perceptions of waiting in line and investigates methods for making waiting more tolerable.
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Data obtained from 375 members of a consumer panel in a two-phase study of consumer experiences with automobile repairs and services were used to examine the antecedents and consequences of consumer satisfaction. The results support previous findings that expectations and disconfirmation are plausible determinants of satisfaction, and suggest that complaint activity may be included in satisfaction/dissatisfaction research as suggested by earlier descriptions of consumer complaining behavior.
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Experience has shown that efficiency usually increases when separate traffic systems are combined into a single system. For example, if Group A contains 10 trunks and Group B 8 trunks, there should be fewer blocked calls if A and B are combined into a single group of 18 trunks. It is intuitively clear that the separate systems are less efficient because a call can be blocked in one when trunks are idle in the other. Teletraffic engineers and queuing theorists widely accept such efficiency principles and often assume that their mathematical proofs are either trivial or already in the literature. This is not the case for two fundamental problems that concern combining blocking systems (as in the example above) and combining delay systems. For the simplest models, each problem reduces to the proof of an inequality involving the corresponding classical Erlang function. Here the two inequalities are proved in two different ways by exploiting general stochastic comparison concepts: first, by monotone likelihood-ratio methods and, second, by sample-path or “coupling” methods. These methods not only yield the desired inequalities and stronger comparisons for the simplest models, but also apply to general arrival processes and general service-time distributions. However, it is assumed that the service-time distributions are the same in the systems being combined. This common-distribution condition is crucial since it may be disadvantageous to combine systems with different service-time distributions. For instance, the adverse effect of infrequent long calls in one system on frequent short calls in the other system can outweigh the benefits of making the two groups of servers mutually accessible.
Article
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Queueing environment and feedback regarding the likely magnitude of the delay can also influence customer attitudes and ultimately, in many instances, a firm's market share. Even if we focus on the wait itself, the 'outcome' of the queueing experience may vary nonlinearly with the delay, thus reducing the importance of average time in queue, the traditional measure of queueing performance. This speculative paper uses personal experiences, published and unpublished cases, and occasionally 'the literature' to begin to organize our thoughts on the important attributes of queueing.
Article
The authors investigate whether it is necessary to include disconfirmation as an intervening variable affecting satisfaction as is commonly argued, or whether the effect of disconfirmation is adequately captured by expectation and perceived performance. Further, they model the process for two types of products, a durable and a nondurable good, using experimental procedures in which three levels of expectations and three levels of performance are manipulated for each product in a factorial design. Each subject's perceived expectations, performance evaluations, disconfirmation, and satisfaction are subsequently measured by using multiple measures for each construct. The results suggest the effects are different for the two products. For the nondurable good, the relationships are as typically hypothesized. The results for the durable good are different in important respects. First, neither the disconfirmation experience nor subjects' initial expectations affected subjects' satisfaction with it. Rather, their satisfaction was determined solely by the performance of the durable good. Expectations did combine with performance to affect disconfirmation, though the magnitude of the disconfirmation experience did not translate into an impact on satisfaction. Finally, the direct performance-satisfaction link accounts for most of the variation in satisfaction.
Article
Cutting-edge Japanese companies today are capitalizing on time as a critical source of competitive advantage: shortening the planning loop in the product development cycle and trimming process time in the factory - managing time the way most companies manage costs, quality, or inventory. In fact, as a strategic weapon, time is the equivalent of money, productivity, quality, even innovation. Managing time has enabled top Japanese companies not only to reduce their costs, but also to offer broad product lines, cover more market segments, and upgrade the technological sophistication of their products. These companies are time-based competitors.
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There are significant reasons for believing that combining queues may at times not be a good thing to do. These reasons include customer reaction, elimination of jockeying, increased service times and costs for combined queues, and the absence of published before-and-after studies. It is hoped that when operations researchers think about and analyze service systems, they will pay attention to the concerns raised. In addition, it is hoped that some of these concerns will inspire new research on queueing questions and will encourage publication of careful reports of experience in combining queues in counter service systems.
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The customer's direct interaction with a service-producing process suggests that marketing concepts, such as customer satisfaction, should be incorporated into the operational decision-making process. Such an interfunctional approach might result in improved solutions to managerial problems that were previously afforded only an operational perspective. One area where this combined view might yield important insights is in defining the proper level of service that a firm should provide its customers.
Article
There is no need to recount the statistics relating to service system growth or the frequent calls to utilize productivity as a strategic variable. These issues are well understood—services are the most rapidly growing of our economic sectors, and there is plenty of effort being devoted to studying ways of improving their productivity. What is needed, in my opinion, is a better understanding of the very nature of services themselves, and more specifically, some practical philosophy for designing the service delivery process. These two related issues can be addressed by 10 “commandments” gleaned from my 10 years of studying services, my recent research on branch banking, and a lifetime of living with services as a consumer. In order to provide some structure to an admittedly idiosyncratic list, the commandments are grouped under the following headings: The Facility, The Customer, and The Server. (In reading the list and explanations, please assume that the normal academic caveats such as “other things being equal” and “subject to cost/benefit analysis” have been stated. In other words, grant me exemption from the type II error.)
Article
A model is proposed which expresses consumer satisfaction as a function of expectation and expectancy disconfirmation. Satisfaction, in turn, is believed to influence attitude change and purchase intention. Results from a two-stage field study support the scheme for consumers and nonconsumers of a flu inoculation.
Article
A purely operational approach to providing customer service measures the speed of the service in terms of how long the customer actually waits prior to being served. A more appropriate method. perhaps, is to deal directly with the issue of customer service by measuring customer satisfaction with the wait. In this paper a model is developed which integrates the marketing perspective of customer satisfaction and the operations management perspective of customer waiting time. With this model, the goal of the service manager is to provide an acceptable level of customer satisfaction in lieu of a maximum acceptable average waiting time, which is the current practice. This new approach to defining customer service raises several interesting managerial issues in the design and staffing of a two-stage (or, for that matter, a multi-stage) process. For example, is a customer equally satisfied waiting the same amount of time before each stage in the process? If not, what type of strategy does the service manager employ in assigning workers to each of the stages? In order to address these issues, a major portion of this paper focuses on the definition and measurement of customer satisfaction. The application of the model to a real world situation is illustrated using empirical data collected in a two-stage fast food operation. The results indicate that the speedy acknowledgement of customer arrivals into the system, that is, the prompt taking of customer orders, is more important to the customers than is the time waiting for their orders to be processed. In other words, a customer's wait prior to entering the first stage of the system impacts on customer satisfaction much more than the wait prior to entering stage two. The conclusion from this analysis is that in a sequential, multi-stage process, management should design and staff the system so that the shortest wait for the customer occurs prior to the first stage.
The Psychology of Waiting Lines The Service Encounter
  • D Maister
Maister, D., " The Psychology of Waiting Lines ", in Czepiel, J.A., Solomon, M.R. and Surprenant, C. (Eds), The Service Encounter, Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Co., Lexington, MA, 1985.
On the Efficiency of Shared Resources in Queuing Systems
  • D R Smith
  • W Whitt
Smith, D.R. and Whitt, W., " On the Efficiency of Shared Resources in Queuing Systems ", Bell Systems Technology Journal, Vol. 60, January 1981, pp. 39-57.