Vol. 59 No. 4, 2010
# Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Received 24 September 2009
Reviewed 19 October 2009
Revised 27 November 2009
Accepted 5 December 2009
Changing research scenario in
Pakistan and demand for
research qualified LIS
Department of Library & Information Science, University of the Punjab,
Lahore, Pakistan, and
Department of Library & Information Science, The Islamia University of
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the changing scenario of research in Pakistan and
the status of demand and supply of library and information science (LIS) professionals with research
qualifications to fill the leadership positions in Pakistan.
Design/methodology/approach – Government reports and websites were reviewed and telephonic
contacts made with LIS faculty and senior librarians.
Findings – The paper finds that research activities are rapidly increasing in Pakistan, while there is
a wide gap between demand and supply of LIS professionals with research qualifications.
Originality/value – The researchers have furnished some recommendations for filling the identified
Keywords Librarians, Info rmation profession, Research, Pakistan, Information science, Doctorates
Paper type Viewpoint
Education is central to development and a key to successful survival in the information
and knowledge society. It is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty
and inequality, and lays a foundation for sustained economic growth. World Bank
(2009) has stressed that education plays a significant role in building human
capabilities and accelerates economic growth through knowledge, skills and creative
strength of a society. It also creates awareness, tolerance, self-esteem and confidence
which empower people to defend their rights. A framework for knowledge-driven
growth requires education systems to imp art higher-level skills to a rising share of the
workforce, foster lifelong learning for citizens and promote international accreditation
of a country’s educational institutions. Sadlak (2006) has pointed out that through the
setting up of science parks, instructional programs related to local economies and joint
ventures resulting from applied research, higher education institutions have become
the nuclei of economic development at the regional and national levels. In our modern
‘‘knowledge-dependent economy’’ the university is the only place where it is possible to
undertake on a large scale of all kinds of rese arch – basic, applied, historical and
reflective academic disciplines as well as interdisciplinary, international and inter-
cultural research. Consequently, number of offshoots in which academics and/or
universities are participating is steadily increasing.
This study is an attempt to review the rapidly changing scenario of research
in Pakistan and the status of demand and supply of library and information
The current issue and full text archive of this jou rnal is available at
science (LIS) professionals with research qualifications to fill the leadership positions
Problem statement, objectives and methods
Because of government initiatives the higher education sector in Pakistan has started
its journey towards success. There is an obvious increase in research activities within
higher education sector. On the other hand the status of rese arch and development in
LIS profession still appears to be stagnant. It is assumed that there is a wide gap in the
supply of LIS professionals with research qualifications to cope with the challenges of
new scenario of research. Keeping these assumptions in view, this paper aims to
review the current scenario of research in Pakistan and initiatives taken by the
government to boost research;
estimate demand for LIS professionals with research qualification in Pakistan;
review the cur rent supply of such professionals; and
to give recommendations to enhance the supply.
The following methods were used to achieve the ob jectives of this study:
Review of reports and websites of government agencies
Documents and websites of Pakistan Ministry of Education and the Higher Education
Commission (HEC) were thoroughly reviewed to get an understanding of the current
scenario of higher education and research in the country, government initiatives to
boost research activities and their impact on research output. The websites of librar y
schools were also consulted to get information on their research programs and
Telephonic conversation/discussion with LIS faculty and senior librarians
Selected senior faculty at all LIS schools were tel ephonically contacted to secure
updated info rmation on research programs, number of research degrees issued,
number of current research students and number of filled and vacant faculty positions.
They also provided information on problems and suggestions regarding research
programs. Chief librarians of ten large universities and five public and special libraries
in different cities were also contacted to assess demand for LIS professionals with
Higher education and research scenario in Pakistan
The higher education system in Pakistan does not perform well. It is relatively of tiny
size – only 3.7 percent of the 18-23 age group – participates in higher education. Even
though enrollment in bo th public and private institutions is increasing rapidly at
approximately 30 percent per year, the gross enrollment ratio does not compare well
with its competitors such as India (7 percent) and Malaysia (12 percent). There are
deficiencies in the quality of both skills and research output of the sector. Few of
Pakistan’s public sector universities are ranked among the world’s top 500 universities.
The numb er of faculty members having PhD degrees is low at 25 percent. The pass
rates of undergraduates are also low and international recognition of qualifications is
limited for most universities (Pakistan, 2009). In this scenario, Azam (2007) has
mentioned that quality assurance in higher education is supposed to be inbuilt in the
system of educa tional institutions. The government has acknowledged officially that
no Pakistani university is ranked in the top 100 universities of the world. This fact
reveals an urgent need of measures to improve quality in higher education. A viable
quality assurance mechanism is essentially required in Pakistan to change and
improve the quality of output and efficiency of the higher education learning systems.
Pakistan (2009) has identified the following as key issues to be addressed by the higher
poor standard of faculty and lack of training/capacity building;
low enrollment in higher education;
minimal relevance of higher education to national needs and lack of
compatibility to international standards;
low quality of research and lack of relevance to national requirements; and
poor governance of universities.
Faculty and staff
An institute of higher learning is distinguishe d by the quality of its faculty. Faculty
members are the key determinants of the quality of education, and regrettably, an area
where Pakistani universities are par ticularly weak. It is estimated that only about
25 percent (of 46,000þ university facul ty) of the current faculty members hold PhD
degrees, whereas the holding of PhD degrees is universally considered to be an
essential pre-requisite for imparting quality education (HEC, 20 05-10). Task Force on
Improvement of Higher Education in Pakistan (2002) has identified that current
emoluments are grossly inadequate to recruit and retain good quality faculty and staff.
Emoluments should be de-linked from the Government’s basic pay scales, and should
be appropriate for recruitment and retention of quali ty teachers and staff. Provision for
in-service training is a critical requirement for improved performance.
Poor funding for research
Universities in Pakistan require significantly more financial resources than the cur rent
allocations. Funding from the Federal Government to all public sector universities for
recur rent costs in 2001-2002 was Rs. 2.9 billion (salarie s, 75 percent; utilities, 8 percent);
in addition, the developmental grant was Rs. 0.4 billion. The allocation for research
was Rs. 0.04 billion, 1.2 percent of the total grant. The self-generated income of
universities was approximately Rs. 3.2 billion. Thus, the total funds available were
about Rs. 6.5 billion (Task Force on Improvement of Higher Education in Pakistan,
As it is evident from Table I that against 1-2 p ercent research allocation in the
recur ring budget in Pakistani universities, we see that about 10.2 percent of public
universities’ and 7.8 percent of private universities’ budget in the USA was spent on
Comparison of research
funding in the USA and
Pakistan as a percentage
of total university
Public sector Private sector Public sector Private sector
10.2% 7.8% 1.06% Nil
Source: The Nation (1997)
Research remained a low rriority area in all fields
Research and higher education institutes in Pakistan have not been able to produce
people equipped with research and logical thinking. There are no incentives for faculty
to engage in research in Pakistani universities and research has little impact on their
careers. The university system does no t reward, either materially or in terms of
prestige, faculty with superior research credentials. Faculty pay str uctures are fixed
and do not depend on performance. In addition, universities lack suitable
administrative structures to facilitate efforts by faculty members to attract research
money. Moreover, there is no direct monetary benefit to a university when a faculty
member obtains funds for research. The university is not reimbursed for use of its
premises, facilities and utilities for carrying out a research project. Also, there is no
clear mechanism for the protection of intellectual property developed in the
universities (Boston Group, 2001; Task Force on Improvement of Higher Education in
Pakistan, 2002). Another reason of inadequate quality comes from the lac k of
specialization among universities; as public universities compete in offering the widest
variety of disciplines and spread their scarce resources too thinly. Universities in the
private sector, on the other hand, have tended to specialize in market-oriented
disciplines like IT, management sciences and business, and there are complaints, in
this sector as well, about their quality. The scale, quality and institutional
arrangements of the sector are insufficient to support innovation in the economy or
attract high flows of foreign capital to its skill base (Pakistan, 2009). As a result of this
mismanagement in the higher education secto r, universities of Pakistan produced only
2,000 PhDs in 60 years (HEC, 2005-10).
Isani (2001) has mentioned that traditionally, Pakistani universities have been
contented to undertake basic research. However, societal and economic demands call
for an entrepreneurial role of universities. Generally, the research effort is muc h below
the desirable level. Isani has stressed that a new orientation of university research is,
therefore, needed. According to Arfan (2005), the following additional prerequisites are
ne eded for quality of research in higher education:
motivated, adequately facilitated researchers working within research-friendly
researchers aware of available resources and opportunities to be exploited;
researchers aware of national needs and priorities focused at national self-
reliance and foreign exchange revenue generation;
industries based on research and innovation – close partnership with researchers
– mutually beneficial relationship;
internationally reputed patent services at the researcher’s door step;
research needs and services readily accessible;
research-based education, research and innovation-aimed education;
institutional commitment to excellence in research – money meant for research
must be spent on research; and
release of research grant as desired by the researcher.
Initiatives by HEC to boost up the higher education sector
It is evident from the above review tha t higher education in particular suffered a lot.
Fortunately, however, things started taking an extraordinary turnaround, sparked by a
combined force of a re-conceptualized and reinvigorated HEC under its new leadership.
HEC created an esprit de corps between various universities of the country and led
them through a process of transformation to achieve a level of excellence in higher
education comparable with that of contemporary sister institutions elsewhere in the
developed world (Rehman, 2008). A few initiatives by HEC may be specifically
nar rated here to help the audience fully grasp their impact.
Endorsement of quality in education and research
The generation of new knowledge and efficient dissemination of existing knowledge is
a key responsibility of institu tions of higher learning. To support the conduct of wo rld
class research, more than 20 central rese arch laboratories have been established in
major universities of the country. The flagship Competitive Research Program has
funded over 333 research programs following a comprehensive peer review process.
The University Linkage Program has been launched to promote enhanced
international research collaboration by linking departments in Pakistani universities
with their counterparts in leading research universities abroad. Through a
collaborative arrangement with the British Council, 50 such linkages have been
initiated between Pakistani and British universities (Rahman, 2007). Moreover, HEC
plans to enhance the number of PhDs up to 20,000 by 2015 (HEC, 2005-10).
Foreign Faculty Hiring Program. To cater for the immediate needs of qualified
personnel in the public sector universities, HEC has initiated a Foreign Faculty Hiring
Program to recruit highly qualified faculty members from abroad, both on short- and
long-term appointments. So far over 270 foreign faculty members have participated in
this program, about 140 of whom are engaged under the long-term scheme of one to
five years (Rahman, 2007; HEC, 2005-10).
Faculty Development Program. With a dual objective of increasin g institutional
capacity and enhancing local research activities, HEC has initiated the ‘‘Faculty
Development Program.’’ The objectives of this program are:
to increase the percentage of faculty members holding terminal degre e
to provide opportunities for the enhancement of qualifications of existing faculty
members to PhD or equivalent;
to enhance number of faculty members having advanced qualifications in higher
education institutions in fields of relevance;
to provide greater incentives to attract talented individuals to careers in higher
to provide training for faculty members on modern pedagogical skills and
techniques (HEC, 2009).
Besides the indigenous and foreign scholarships for PhD, in-service teachers have be en
supported through one- and three-month faculty development training modules
focused on improvement in pedagogy, enhancement of communication and computer
skills, advanced assessment methodologies and enhancement of subject knowledge.
More than 340 faculty members have benefited from this program, which aims to train
all active faculty members during the next three years. An additional 430 faculty
members have attended short-term subject-specific training sessions to upgrade their
skills relevant to their chosen fie ld. Additional master’s training courses, conducted at
the HEC over the p ast two years, have trained more than 2,500 university teachers
Foreign and indigenous scholarships. Key programs include the Indigenous
Scholarship Program, under which so far 2,000 scholarships for doctoral studies have
been awarded with steps to ensure international standards of quality. Under the Foreign
Scholarship Program 821 scholarships have been awarded to students to pursue master
and PhD degrees abroad. A $250 million project to further fund 2,000 students for study
abroad has been recently approved by the Government of Pakistan. The largest
Fulbright Scholarship Program in the world, costing $150 million, has also been
launched with US assistance, under which 640 students will study in top American
universities. Another 500 students will study in Australia under the Australia Pakistan
Scholarship Program. Additionally, a program to fund Post Doctoral Fellowships has
been successfully completed, placing more than 255 scholars for 9-12-month fellowships
in premier academic and research institutions abroad (Rahman, 2007; HEC, 2005-10).
Table II presents a brief overview of HEC initiatives in terms of their output.
Increase in funds and material resources
HEC has increased its funding for research and development projects. More incentives are
provided not only to the PhD scholarship holders but to their supervisors as well. It has
also initiated cash awards for good performance such as ‘‘Best teacher award.’’ This project
provides monetary as well as self-esteemed incentives to a teacher of universities and
degree awarding institutions through awar ds and certificate. The national recognition of
the contributions made by them will act as catalyst for others to enhance their ef forts in
the fields of teaching and research (HEC, 2007). Besides these cash awards and
acknowledgements, HEC has provided better material resources to facilitate the research
activities . The examples include Digital Library and Pakistan Research Repository.
Digital library. Affo rdable access to scientific and technological research
information is widely recognized as critical in supporting the needs of the indigenous
education and research sector. The Digital Library program of HEC is the cornerstone
of its information and communication technology (ICT) strategy. Access to the
resources is online, and has predominantly been set up through IP verification,
allowing users within institutions to be authenticated automatically for easy access to
full-text services from any terminal on their local area network. For content that is not
available through these resources, the HEC has, through PERI, established an
agreement with the British Library for document delivery of articles from international
journals directly to scientists in universities who submit requests for access (Said,
2006). Digital Library has launched ebrary and McGraw Hill Collections to provide
around 50,000 online books in addition to more than 23,000 journals that have been
made available through the Digital Library Program. The e-books support program
will allow researchers to access most of the important text and reference books
electronically in a variety of subject areas (Digital Library, 2009).
HEC initiatives and their
HEC initiatives No.
Indigenous scholarships 5,000
Post doctoral fellowships 700
Approved PhD supervisors 1,800þ
Foreign faculty hiring program 300þ
Pakistan Research Repository. Pakistan Research Repository is an ongoing project of
the HEC to promote the international visibility of research originating out of institutes
of higher education in Pakistan. The aim of this service is to maintain a digital archive
of all PhD and MPhil theses produced indigenously to promote the intellectual output
of Pakistani institutions. It provides a free, single-entry access point to view the
manuscript of research executed, and distribute this information as widely as possible.
The repository currently has made the full-text of over 3,000 PhD theses available in
high-quality digitized fo rmat (Pakistan Resea rch Repository, 2009).
Stability in financial policies
The absence of consistent and cohesive financing policy unnecessarily creates chaos
and confusion to various arenas as higher education system embraces high level of
government machinery and functionaries in the country. It is observed that the
spending on higher education declined by nearly 20 percent, from 0.5 of GDP in 1990-
1991 to only 0.3 per cent (Pakistan Human Condition Report 2002, 2003). It was
realized by the authorities that the funding for higher education in Pakistan is very low
as compared to other countries and thus reaffirmed that this would be raised from the
current 0.39 to 2.0 percent of the GNP by 2010. These references clearly suggest that
the financin g policy on higher education will practically remain consistent in the days
to come (Rahman, 2007). Uprety (2008) has suggested that HEC should allocate its
budget in a scientific way for equilibrium among all sectors: scholarship for faculty
development, research, science , information and technology, etc.
Impact of HEC initiatives on research output
The research output has increased steadily over the past few years; the percentage of
publications has doubled from 2003 to 2004. The Digital Librar y program has been
functioning in Pakistan since 2003, so it is likely to have played some part in the
acceleration of research output. Users have greater access to electronic resources, there
is more knowledge sharing, and better incentives are being provided by the HEC so the
figures presented in Table III are expected to continue upwards over time (Said, 2006).
According to the Institute of Scienti fic Information (USA), the total number of
publications appearing in 8,000 leading internationally abstracted journals indexed in
the Web of Science produced out of Pakistan in 2005 was 1,259 articles, representing a
41 percent increase over the past two years, and a 60 percent increase since the
establishment of HEC in 2002 (Rahman, 2007). Moreover, a review of the above cited
reports reveal that HEC sent 2,669 PhD scholars abroad up to 2007-2008, while 3,237
PhD scholars are studying in local universities under indigenous scheme. Similarly,
Pakistani universities produced 613 PhDs in 2008 as compared to 420 in 2007. These
indicators reveal a three times increase in research output within five years.
Research output from
public and private-sector
Year No. of research articles published Percentage increase Total
2001 513 513
2002 576 12 1,089
2003 639 10 1,728
2004 781 22 2,509
Research programs at LIS schools
Research is a part and parcel of librarianship. The role of librarians is very important
in the promotion of research. They can play this role effectively by helping researchers.
Therefore, they themselves should be good researchers. Contrarily, the current
situation of librarianship is not encouraging to survive in the changing research
scenario in Pakistan. Research has been at low priority among librarians, which has
created a wide gap. Ansari (2007) mentioned that altho ugh a course on research
methodology was included in the Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS)
curriculum in all library schools but the results were not satisfactory. Librarians are
lagging behind in their research skills. She has suggested that writing research thesis
should be encou raged in library schools. Working librarians should also write on LIS
topics and they should learn advanced techniques of data collection and analysis.
According to Haider (2008), due to the failure of our universities to promote research,
libraries play an insignificant role in the academic progress of our universities.
At present, eight university library schools provide training facilities at the
postgraduate level leading to Bachelor and Master’s degrees in LIS. The PhD program is
available at the universities of Karachi, Sindh, Bahawalpur, Punjab and Baluchistan, and
Master of Philosophy (MPhil) is offered at Karachi, Sindh, Baluchistan and Peshawar.
Until recently, there had been no fixed criterion for admission to PhD programs. Anyone
with a good Master’s degree was eligible to seek admission. However, there is a trend
towards standardization of admission procedures. The universities of Punjab and
Peshawar have already formulated regulations in this regard. The HEC has made
Graduate Record Examination (GRE) a mandatory requirement (Haider and Mahmood,
2007). Khalid Mahmood stressed that through their MPhil and PhD programs, the
Department of Library and Information Science, University of the Punjab is trying to
create a team of LIS researchers in Pakistan who will be equipped with modern
techniques of research to fill the gap (Ansari, 2007).
Demand for faculty positions in LIS schools
Currently, 71 faculty positions are a vailable in eight LIS schools of Pakistan. The following
are the criteria for the appointment of LIS faculty positions in universities of Pakistan:
15 years’ experience.
15 research pap ers.
(2) Associate Professor:
Ten years’ experience.
Ten research papers.
(3) Assistant Professor:
MPhil with four years’ experience
Master (first division).
Table IV shows the faculty positions filled and vacant in ei ght library schools of
Pakistan. It is amazing to mention that of the ten positions for professor, only three are
filled, while no p osition of associate professor is currently filled at any LIS school.
These positions are vacant due to scarcity of PhD qualified persons. The table presents
the status of positions in public sector only, while private sector LIS schools are not
included in this analysis.
Demand of LIS professionals for senior positions in libraries
Senior positions of librarians are available in national, academi c, public and special
libraries of Pakistan. Following is the criteria for the appointment of chief libraria n:
A review of related documents/websites and telephonic discussion with the LIS
professionals reveal that currently 124 universities and degree awarding institutions
are offering research programs. Moreover, about 100 large public and sp ecial libraries
(R&D organizations, medical colleges, S&T research centers, etc.) have positions for
chief librarians. These positions are vacant or are temporarily filled by non-PhD
persons. According to Ameen (2006), MLIS regular educational programs train junior
and middle-level managers and do not prepare library professionals for leadership
roles. Whereas, it is their prime responsibility to develop future professionals with the
leadership capabilities needed to meet the upcoming professional challenges. There is
no awareness yet in this direction in the concerned quarters. In this scenario, Anwar
(2008), Ameen (2006) and Bokhari (2004) have rightly pointed out that this is the time to
reflect on our own situation. As the profession of LIS is becoming more demanding day
by day, so in today’s world we have no choice but to be open, creative and enterprising
in our outlook. They have also stressed on the enhancement of academic qualification
of LIS professionals and faculty.
Supply of LIS professionals with research qualifications
A review of the efforts towards the supply of LIS professionals for these leadership
positions reveal that currently only 15 PhD and eight MPhil degree holders are
available in the market to fulfill the great amount of demand. Similarly, only 32
students are enrolled for PhD and 48 for MPhil degrees. Table V shows the status of
LIS research degree holders, while Table VI shows the status of research students at
different LIS schools (public sector) of Pakistan.
Table IV .
Faculty positions at LIS
Faculty positions Filled Vacant Total
Professor 3 7 10
Associate professor 0 7 7
Assistant professor 23 4 27
Lecturer 20 7 27
Total 46 25 71
What is needed to enhance the supply
Review of the current filled and vacant positions in library schools and libraries reveal a
gloomy picture and a wide gap in demand and supply for leadership positions. Keeping
this analysis in view, following recommendations are made by the researchers:
Motivation is the most important factor that is required to boost up the research
culture among the LIS community. For this purpose the following steps can be helpful:
awareness about benefits of doing research;
motivation of faculty with research qualification to supervise research; and
motivation of librarians/LIS fresh graduates to take admission in research
degree prog rams
Research background is another factor that can be supportive in this regard. F or this
purpose better research training should be provided at Master’s level. Courses on ‘‘Research
methods’’ should be taught by faculty with r esearch qualification. The students should be
given resear ch based assignments and thesis should be compulsory at Master’s level.
Non-availability of funds is one of the major obstacles in creating research culture in
the LIS field. The universities and the HEC should enhance their research budget.
Dep artment of Libraries, Govt. of Pakistan and library foundations can provide funds
for the promotion of LIS research. Foreign funding can also be a good source and for
this purpose LIS community should explore and establish international linkages.
Guidance should be provided by the qualified professionals in writing the project
proposals for seeking research funding.
Cur rent research
LIS Schools PhD MPhil
University of the Punjab 9 10
Islamia University of Bahawalpur 8 13
University of Karachi 2 13
University of Sindh 8 11
University of Baluchistan 2 0
University of Peshawar 0 1
Studying in foreign universities 3 0
Total 32 48
LIS research degree
Status PhD MPhil
Working 8 8
Retired but working on contract 3 0
Retired 4 0
Total 15 8
Qualified faculty and supervisors are another key element for the promotion of
research culture. Faculty sharing can be a good step in this direction. Research
qualified faculty members should be exchanged among the LIS schools at national and
international level. For creating the research culture at LIS schools of the country, LIS
faculty members should be given admission in research programs on priority bases.
Publication of research
Research publications ar e an important indicator to assess the research output. It is found
that only two research journals Pakistan Library and Information Science Journal (PLISJ)
and Pakistan Journal of Library and Information Science (PJLIS)areavailableinthe
market to accommodate the research output at national level. To fill this gap, more LIS
research journals should be initiated by LIS schools, large libraries and commercial
publishers. To enhance the quality of the research output, these journals should be pe er
reviewed and fulfill the HEC criteria for their approval. Experienced professionals should
provide guidance to their peers and juniors for publication in international and LIS
journals with impact factor. Conference proceedings should also be published with the
approval of HEC.
There should be appropriate incentives for both advisor and the advisee. LIS
professionals should be granted with study leave and research scholarships. On the
completion of successful research, they should be awarded with promotion, advance
increments, cash awards and paper publication fee. Travel grants should also be given
for not only conference paper presentation but for attending such conferences as well.
For the development and promotion of research culture among the LIS community,
conferences, seminars and workshops should be arranged regularly. Other steps i.e.
faculty exchange program, students’ visits/exchange, association of LIS faculty,
association of research students and discussion groups/blogs for LIS researchers can
also be helpful for the promotion of research culture.
For the quality assurance of research-related activities, following steps can be helpful:
There should be a standard criteria for admission and degree requirements of the
research programs; students/professionals with good academic career should be
encouraged for such programs; admission test/interview should be conducted for such
programs ; there should be extensive course work, and com prehensive examination;
candidates should maintain good grades in all exams; these programs and their
assessment should be supervised by HEC-approved supervisors; examiners for the
evaluation of research thesis should be appointed from advanced countries; there
should be a condition of publication of research articles (in HEC approved international
journals) before the award of the degree; quality of the research programs shou ld be
assessed by HEC and concerned universities; and there should be an Accreditation
Council (Pakistan Library and Information Council) at national level.
Material resources are another important element for the promotion of research activities.
These resources may include ICT equipment and software; high-speed internet
connectivity; books; research journals and indexing/abstracting databases, etc.
Research has remained low priority in Pakis tan’s education system si nce its inception.
This attitude has casted its dark shadow not only on LIS but on other disciplines as
well. In recent years, HEC has made remarkable efforts to overcome this disappointing
situation and has promoted the research culture in Pakistan. Although HEC initiatives
for the promotion of research activities have shown a light of hope in this darkness,
since more consistent efforts are needed in this regard. It is evident from the above
analysis that research qualified LIS professionals are the need of hour to cope with this
changing research culture. The current status of supply and demand of LIS
professionals with research qualifications reveals a wide gap. This gap should be filled
with clear focus on enhancing the number of research qualified LIS professionals in the
country not only for filling the leadership positions and uplifting of LIS profession but
for the promotion of research culture in Pakistan as well.
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