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Abstract

Examines social capital as a theoretic construct with the potential to enhance our understanding of public relations contribution to the organizational bottom line. There are three classes of outcomes: increased and/or more complex forms of social capital, reduced transaction costs, and organizational advantage. Like economic capital, social capital is not always used wisely and can produce negative consequences for actors.

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... Trust, social interaction and collective identity are important conditions. Social capital constitutes the benefits obtained from both bonding and bridging ties [19], and wisely using these conditions and connections give a potential to reach information and knowledge resources that are beyond resources of an individual [20]. In information science, social capital has been used as a conceptual framework for studying relational factors associated with the choice of people as information sources [21] and how social capital can assist information and communication technology (ICT) capacity building and poverty reduction [22]. ...
... Social capital has been showed to support and develop successful organisations through improving organisational knowledge sharing and development of trust. There is a mutual relationship between social capital and efficient knowledge sharing while social capital connects an individual to knowledge resources, sources that have insights and know-how that are needed for decision-making or problem solving [1,2,20]. However, existing social capital does not automatically bring advantages and access to information and knowledge sources. ...
... Social capital is most often divided into three dimensions when studied in connection to knowledge work in organisations [5,18,20]. The dimensions explicate structural, relational and cognitive factors, and will also be the aspects linked to information literacy in this study (see sections 4.1-4.3). ...
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Human resources and intellectual capital are best utilised through an ongoing interaction between individual and social processes. Still there is a research gap of empirical multilevel studies, focusing both on individual and organisational aspects of knowledge processes. To fill this gap, this article reports on a quantitative study, where the relationship between information literacy and social capital, representing the individual and social contexts affecting organisational knowledge processes, is explored. Structural equation modelling-based analysis of 378 employees working in different companies in Finland demonstrated that information literacy supports all three dimensions of social capital at workplace. Strong information handling skills enable better access to knowledge beyond the resources of an individual, that is, social capital. The results of the study contribute to a better understanding of how to manage human resources and the information and knowledge processes that employees are expected to be involved in.
... anthropologie, sociologie, économie) (Griffith et al., 2006). Ainsi, il en découle que c'est un concept multidimensionnel (Hazleton et Kennan, 2000). Comme d'autres études qui ont traité des relations entre client et fournisseur, nous retenons la conceptualisation du capital social par Nahapiet et Ghoshal (1998). ...
... Ces liens représentent la manière spécifique dont les acteurs sont liés (Inkpen et Tsang, 2005). Ce sont les éléments fondamentales et basiques de la communication entre les acteurs au sein de la collaboration (Hazleton et Kennan, 2000). Si Nahapiet et Ghoshal (1998) se sont focalisés sur la présence des liens structurels, d'autres auteurs ont quant à eux mis l'exergue sur la puissance de ces liens (Matthews et Marzec, 2012;Tsai et Ghoshal, 1998). ...
... D'autre part, l'un des facteurs importants du capital structurel est la connaissance par les individus des canaux d'informations appropriés à utiliser pour communiquer (Hazleton et Kennan, 2000). En effet, des canaux d'informations bien développés provoquent des liens structurels abondants et puissants, et améliorent en conséquence la densité de la collaboration (Hoffman et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
Le Développement de Produits Nouveaux (DPN) est un processus qui s’appuie sur les connaissances et les informations. En ce sens, les Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) peuvent potentiellement redéfinir les résultats du DPN. Cette thèse s’intéresse à la collaboration client-fournisseur en DPN, reconnue comme une source majeure d’innovation, et cherche à étudier en quoi l’usage des TIC favorise son succès. Suite à l’étude des manquements de la littérature, cette problématique est détaillée pour explorer (i) les problèmes limitant l’usage efficace des TIC, (ii) le rôle du capital social (i.e. capacités collectives issues des relations entre les individus) comme antécédent de cet usage, et (ii) la contribution de cet usage au succès de la collaboration (i.e. qualité de la collaboration et performance des projets collaboratifs). A cet égard, un modèle conceptuel, fondé sur la théorie de gestion par les ressources, est développé grâce à des preuves issues de la littérature. Afin d’évaluer ce modèle, une méthodologie mixte (qualitative et quantitative) est employée. Dans le cadre de la méthode qualitative, des études de cas sont menées en deux temps, sous la forme d’entretiens. Des études de cas exploratoires sont effectuées auprès de responsables des TIC d’un leader du petit électroménager et d’un autre du secteur ferroviaire, et auprès d’acteurs projet d’un fournisseur automobile. Ensuite, des études de cas approfondies sont menées auprès d’acteurs projet de 3 fournisseurs du leader ferroviaire précité. L’analyse croisée des cas souligne des tendances dans les problèmes limitant l’usage efficace des TIC. Elles concernent la nature des problèmes (techniques, liés aux acteurs projet et la collaboration, ou au niveau organisationnel), le type de fonctionnalités des TIC (PRM: gestion de projets et de processus, KM: gestion des connaissances, ou CW: travail coopératif), mais également la perspective explorée (responsables des TIC côté client versus acteurs projet côté fournisseur). En outre, suite à un focus sur la perspective fournisseur, le rôle des dimensions du capital social (cognitive, structurelle et relationnelle) comme antécédents de l’usage efficace des TIC est mis en avant, plus particulièrement pour les fonctionnalités PRM et KM. Par la suite, une méthode quantitative est appliquée, sous la forme d’une enquête auprès d’acteurs projet, cette fois-ci côté client, qui sont membres d’une association centrée sur le DPN, et d’un réseau d’anciens étudiants en génie industriel. Les données collectées sont analysées par différentes méthodes statistiques. D’une part, les régressions linéaires multiples permettent de valider les effets directs positifs (i) variant des dimensions du capital social sur l’usage efficace des fonctionnalités PRM et KM, (ii) d’importance égale, de l’usage efficace des trois fonctionnalités des TIC sur la qualité de la collaboration, ainsi que (iii) de l’usage efficace des fonctionnalités KM sur la performance des projets collaboratifs. D’autre part, la technique du bootstrapping permet de vérifier les effets indirects de chacune des fonctionnalités des TIC sur la performance des projets collaboratifs, à travers le rôle de médiateur porté par la qualité de la collaboration. Finalement, des analyses multi-groupe sont appliquées afin de souligner la différence dans la contribution de l’usage efficace des TIC, sous différentes conditions de l’intégration des fournisseurs en DPN (moment d’intégration et responsabilité dans la conception). A la lumière de ces résultats, des recommandations et des exigences sont formulées quant au développement et à l’usage des TIC. L’idée est de permettre un usage efficace dans le cadre de la collaboration client-fournisseur, notamment à travers la considération du capital social dans cet usage.
... Outside of ECF, social capital is considered a multidimensional construct with three dimensions: cognitive, relational, and structural (Coleman, 1988;Hazleton & Kennan, 2000;Liu, Ghauri, & Sinkovics, 2010;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998;Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998;Wellman et al., 1988). A multidimensional construct helps in considering how different dimensions influence cooperation and information sharing between the involved actors (Inkpen & Tsang, 2005). ...
... This dimension is related to actors' strategic decisions (Grant, 1996;Kogut & Zander, 1996) and it benefits from shared vision or common values (Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998). Shared values in an organization are based on sharing language and meaning (Berger & Luckman, 1991;Göksel & Aydıntan, 2017) that in previous studies have been found at the core of the cognitive dimension (Göksel & Aydıntan, 2017;Hazleton & Kennan, 2000;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998;Rass, Dumbach, Danzinger, Bullinger, & Moeslein, 2013;Yang & Farn, 2009). ...
... Shared meaning embodies the "meaning and understanding that individuals or groups have in common" (Zheng et al., 2014: 491) and is sometimes compared to the communication dimension that lies in the exchange of information and the identification or solution to problems through sharing between the parties (Hazleton & Kennan, 2000). It derives from a shared language and narrative used to assign knowledge and enhance social capital (Coleman, 1988;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998;Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998). ...
Article
This research explores how social capital, in the multidimensional perspective using cognitive, relational and structural dimensions influences equity-crowdfunding (ECF) performance considering both the number of investors engaged and the funds collected. Our results demonstrate that cognitive dimensions in part affects ECF performance, in fact shared meaning has a little positive impact on both funding collected and the number of investors, while shared language has a negative effect on the investors involved. Both obligation and trustworthiness (relational dimension) positively influence ECF performance. Regarding the structural dimension, social network ties has positive effects on ECF performance, while social interactions has a positive impact on funding collected. The research contributes to the current literature on ECF and highlights new factors affecting ECF performance. The study has implications from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The study findings will be relevant for entrepreneurs, platforms managers and policymakers and offers avenues for further research.
... Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998), conceptualize a three-dimensional model of social capital and propose three pillars or dimensions -cognitive, structural, and relational. Building on Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) framework, Hazleton and Kennan (2000) replaced the cognitive dimension with a communication content dimension, concluding that this provides significant theoretical explanatory power of how relationships contribute to other forms of capital. More recently, Saffer (2016) operationalized the communication dimension of social capital within a networked environment, using relationships as a unit of analysis, and found that shared meaning influenced the creation of social capital. ...
... A qualitative, interpretive approach (Jelen-Sanchez, 2017; L'Etang, 2011) was used to structure the research design to explore and understand the connection between community engagement and a specific resource dimension of social capital-relational capital. Studies that focus on one category, construct, or dimension of a communication-based relationship contribute to understanding the value that emerges from the outcomes of those relationships (Hazleton & Kennan, 2000). A number of authors have also used dimensional approaches to studying social capital (See, for example, Bonanno, 2018;Hazleton & Kennan, 2000;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998;& Saffer, 2016). ...
... Studies that focus on one category, construct, or dimension of a communication-based relationship contribute to understanding the value that emerges from the outcomes of those relationships (Hazleton & Kennan, 2000). A number of authors have also used dimensional approaches to studying social capital (See, for example, Bonanno, 2018;Hazleton & Kennan, 2000;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998;& Saffer, 2016). Following the lead of Hazleton and Kennan (2000), and Saffer (2016), this study focuses on the relational dimension of social capital, specifically as it relates to the outcomes of community engagement. ...
Article
In this study, we provide evidence of the theorized connection between community engagement and the development of social capital, and the perceived value or worth of relationships among organizations and stakeholders. Using thematic analysis to understand the policy and practice frameworks of community engagement in Australian local government organizations, our analyses reveal two different types of community engagement—relational and episodic—each of which has the potential to contribute to relational dimension of social capital. The study introduces and develops new thinking around the ideas of episodic and relational engagement within the context of community engagement, and their respective contributions to the development of relational capital. Recognizing and identifying episodic and relational community engagement as separate phenomena allows researchers and practitioners to understand the theoretical dimensions of community engagement as a framework for practice.
... There have been intellectual efforts by well-known scholars to examine relational patterns among organizations (Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1988;Tsai and Ghosal, 1998;Leana and Van Buren, 1999;Paxton, 1999;Gargulio and Benassi, 2000;Hazleton and Kennan, 2000;Kostova and Roth, 2003;Bueno et al., 2004) but, most relate to positive ties and right way of networking to gain advantages out of such connections. A group of theorists and researchers who focused on intraorganizational level network dynamics claim that negative ties among organizational participants may have more explanatory power than positive ones for such outcomes as job satisfaction, organizational attachment, causes of conflicts (Labianca et al., 1998;Labianca and Brass, 2006;Venkataramani et al., 2013). ...
... However, none indicates that there should be negative interactions involved in the relational rivalry. The mainstream research about organizational networks (Granovetter, 1973;Bourdieu, 1986;Burt, 1992;Coleman, 1988;Tsai and Ghosal, 1998;Leana and Van Buren, 1999;Paxton, 1999;Gargulio and Benassi, 2000;Hazleton and Kennan, 2000;Kostova and Roth, 2003) has mostly been interested in the combination of network patterns and possible benefits of positive relations. While various researchers tapped the explanatory power of negative networks with a series of micro-level studies (Labianca et al., 1998;Labianca and Brass, 2006;Venkataramani and Dalal, 2007;Oldroyd et al., 2008;Grosser et al., 2010;Ellwardt et al., 2012;Venkataramani et al., 2013), the dark component of social relations among actors mostly remained untouched. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims at developing a conceptual framework for the networking behaviour of firms having relational and non-relational competitive interactions. Initially the question of how negative ties change the meaning of competition for the rival firms was discussed and then how these types of interactions can change possible networking preferences of organizations were theoretically estimated. Design/methodology/approach This study suggests that relational rivalry is closely linked with negative ties and even the emergence of strong positive ties among firms is viewed as a consequence of dyadic negative interactions. Different types of competitive conditions were classified under non-relational and relational categories. Findings Not applicable. Originality/value A majority of the studies on interorganizational networks are mostly concerned with positive tie formation patterns and the consequences of these interactions. However, there is limited number of macro-level studies, which realized explanatory potential of the negative interfirm relations. Negative interorganizational relations may also make significant contributions to the discipline of economic sociology.
... There have been intellectual efforts by well-known scholars to examine relational patterns among organizations (Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1988;Tsai and Ghosal, 1998;Leana and Van Buren, 1999;Paxton, 1999;Gargulio and Benassi, 2000;Hazleton and Kennan, 2000;Kostova and Roth, 2003;Bueno et al., 2004) but, most relate to positive ties and right way of networking to gain advantages out of such connections. A group of theorists and researchers who focused on intraorganizational level network dynamics claim that negative ties among organizational participants may have more explanatory power than positive ones for such outcomes as job satisfaction, organizational attachment, causes of conflicts (Labianca et al., 1998;Labianca and Brass, 2006;Venkataramani et al., 2013). ...
... However, none indicates that there should be negative interactions involved in the relational rivalry. The mainstream research about organizational networks (Granovetter, 1973;Bourdieu, 1986;Burt, 1992;Coleman, 1988;Tsai and Ghosal, 1998;Leana and Van Buren, 1999;Paxton, 1999;Gargulio and Benassi, 2000;Hazleton and Kennan, 2000;Kostova and Roth, 2003) has mostly been interested in the combination of network patterns and possible benefits of positive relations. While various researchers tapped the explanatory power of negative networks with a series of micro-level studies (Labianca et al., 1998;Labianca and Brass, 2006;Venkataramani and Dalal, 2007;Oldroyd et al., 2008;Grosser et al., 2010;Ellwardt et al., 2012;Venkataramani et al., 2013), the dark component of social relations among actors mostly remained untouched. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study suggests an alternative method to mall managers and investors that might be helpful to find an ideal tenant mix. Paths of 700 customers in a super-regional shopping mall were determined and their interactions were analyzed by using network analysis techniques. Interaction patterns of the visitors among stores according to the frequency of visits and educational levels were compared. The findings highlight emergence of different patterns between groups.
... H8, which predicted a positive relationship between SC and KSB, was supported at p < 0.001 (b = 0.75, t = 13.87). Employees may use the network to share and update their knowledge through working abroad, consistent with Hazeleton and Kennan (2000), Kraimer and Wayne (2004) and Shay and Baack (2006). If expatriates are capable of sharing while being on assignments abroad, they will perform better than in their home country. ...
... In addition, the results also showed that organizational support impacts strongly expatriates' knowledge sharing in organizations (Mahon et al., 2014). Moreover, the results also show that SC has a significant effect on the LG of employees in organizations (Hazeleton and Kennan, 2000), and that SC has a significant influence on IP (Gold et al., 2001;Arora, 2002). Chuang et al. (2016) also showed that employees with updating their learning capability to rapidly accumulate SC tend to more deeply understand the internal processes of MNCs. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of expatriate’s social capital and knowledge sharing on multinational companies’ (MNCs) financial performance, with a specific focus on the influence of trust, commitment, organizational support and the four elements of balanced scorecard (BSC). Design/methodology/approach A quantitative questionnaire survey was conducted using expatriates of MNCs in Taiwan as the respondents. Findings Trust and organizational support are significant predictors of knowledge sharing and social capital, which further facilitate their influence on learning and growth, customer satisfaction, internal process improvement and financial performance of MNCs. Besides, social capital serves as an accelerate agent to promote the influence of trust on knowledge sharing, and customer satisfaction serves as a catalyst on the influence of learning and growth and internal process on a firms’ financial performance. Practical implications This study provides a clear articulation of the role of knowledge sharing on the financial performance and its moderation effect on the elements of BSC. Trust and organizational support are essential for knowledge sharing and expatriates’ social capital. The roles of social capital and knowledge sharing are critical for expatriates to be success in the overseas market places. Originality/value Since the evidences regarding expatriate performance rarely integrate the variables of social capital, knowledge sharing and BSC into a more comprehensive framework, the results of this study can be an important reference for academicians to do further validation. These results are also critical for practitioners to develop dispatching policies for the expatriates in the oversea market places.
... Ihlen goes on to describe these as institutionalization capital, economic capital, knowledge capital, social capital, and symbolic capital. Social capital in particular is frequently discussed in public relations (e.g., Hazleton & Kennan, 2000;Ihlen, 2005;Luoma-aho, 2009); we turn to look at this and social interaction in the next section. ...
Chapter
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As public relations has grown in social importance, the need to understand what it does to and for society has become even more pressing. For a discipline that traditionally has defined itself as being applied, meeting this need requires pulling on different theoretical approaches. More specifically, sociological theory or social theory is needed to grasp how public relations functions at the micro, meso and macro level. This chapter groups and showcases some of the research that has been conducted in four broad categories: related to social change, social forces, social interaction and/or social conflict and power.
... Relationship capital is created and utilized through the ongoing maintenance of connections based on trust, commitment, and reciprocity. When scientists experience fairness and mutual trust in scientific research cooperation, they will repeatedly generate or maintain this behavior, producing meaningful communication (9) and enabling the exchange of resources (10), which affects research productivity. Lan et al. (11) found that most researchers from sample colleges believed that each element of the scientific research cooperation atmosphere had a "very large" or "large" impact on scientific research cooperation. ...
Article
Background: In the context of globalization of science and technology, multidisciplinary cooperation plays an important role in enhancing national scientific research strength. Many countries issue policies and reports to promote the implementation of interdisciplinary research. Colleges play a central role in knowledge generation and scientific inquiry and thus frequently contain a variety of scientific research organizations. With rapid advances in science, large-scale scientific research cooperation across disciplines and institutions is increasingly common. Many factors can affect the performance of research collaboration, and the implementation paths of some key factors remain unclear. In addition, no standardized collaboration system has been established in relevant research. Further studies on interdisciplinary scientific research cooperation will be particularly valuable for improving the efficiency of resource allocation and increasing the level of academic research. Here we explored the "joint effect" of various influencing factors on interdisciplinary collaborative research in colleges and the "interactions" among these factors. Methods: With stratified-cluster random sampling, 358 researchers from 181 research teams at 6 colleges across China were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. We used fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to analyze data to obtain more insight into the status quo of interdisciplinary cooperation among colleges. Results: The results showed that initiation and organization by an institution was a necessary condition for achieving high-performance scientific research collaboration. The performance incentive method of high-tech collaboration could be divided into four main paths: configuration organized by an institution; configuration organized by an institution, with high policy-based guarantees (PG); configuration organized by an institution, with high cooperation willingness (CW) and high cooperation ability (CA); and configuration organized by an institution, with high CW, abilities, and outputs. The drive mechanism of high performance in scientific cooperation could be divided into two types: organization-led and ability/willingness-driven. Conclusions: Only the integration of internal changes with the support of the external environment can ensure the stable development of multidisciplinary scientific research cooperation among colleges.
... The engagement dimension is considered a necessary condition for the use of information and social capital (Widén-Wulff et al., 2008). Engagements allow social capital to be used to achieve various organizational goals through communicative behaviors, such as information exchange, problem identification, behavior regulation and conflict management (Hazleton and Kennan, 2000). In other words, engagements are the main driver of SMC (Zhang et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Purpose Researchers, with the widespread acceptance of Web-based technologies by companies, have recently discovered a new type of social capital through these mass communication tools, but there is still limited knowledge about its formation. Therefore, this study specifically aims to conceptualize and validate brand social capital (BSC) by analyzing the role of the online brand community’s social media capital (OBCSC). Design/methodology/approach Research data was collected using a questionnaire with 39 closed-ended questions. Participants, among the 220 questionnaires distributed, only returned 140 acceptable questionnaires, indicating a response rate of 64%. The statistical population of the study included managers and employees of e-commerce companies active in social media in the field of B2C who introduce and sell their products and services on various types of social networking websites. This study performed data analysis using structural equation modeling with partial least squares. Findings The results showed that OBCSC has a positive and significant effect on the integration of brand knowledge, branding co-creation and sense of belonging to the brand community, and in addition, using the mediating role of these three variables, it also has a positive effect on BSC. This study rejects only hypothesis 8 among all the hypotheses formulated, which shows that the sense of belonging to the brand community has no significant effect on branding co-creation. Originality/value By conceptualizing a new phenomenon called BSC and how its conversion mechanism is, this research defines a specific and formulated path to better identify the results of the organizational use of social media. In addition, it significantly contributes to increasing managers’ understanding of the importance of online brand community activities in internalizing customer brand knowledge within the company and turning it into wealth.
... It includes relations of trust, reciprocity, common rules, norms and sanctions, and connectedness that are needed to maintain institutions, networks and groups (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998;Pretty and Ward, 2001;Leahey and Cain, 2013;Bizzi, 2015). Social capital theory places significant emphasis on social interactions, which come from the ability of actors to network, participate and effectively contribute within groups, resulting in more effective mobilisation and sharing of resources (Hazleton and Kennan, 2000;Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 2009;Cantner et al., 2010;Gelderblom, 2018). Social capital also encompasses the collective abilities and resources held within social networks (Huysman and Wulf, 2006;Letina, 2016). ...
Thesis
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The pervasiveness of threats posed by biological invasions presents significant challenges to human well-being, biodiversity conservation, and natural resource management, which has contributed to the growth of invasion science as a discipline. However, several studies have shown that the social-ecological complexity of invasions, the compartmentalisation of knowledge into disciplines and the lack of integrative research approaches, current invasion research has not informed management decision making effectively. Thus, to maximise the impact of research investments, there is a need to explore and evaluate how research informs management practices and processes linked to biological invasions. Accordingly, this dissertation outlines the state of invasion management-related research in South Africa, using the internationally recognised Working for Water (WfW) programme as a case study. Drawing on insights from science studies and evaluation research, a mixed-method approach is used to assess the processes, conditions and outputs associated with research produced under the programme’s auspices. The research comprised two areas of inquiry 1) the exploration of textual information (journal articles, grey literature, and their content), and 2) the social dimensions of research and decision making linked to invasion science and management, with a specific focus on collaborative relationships amongst scientists and decision makers. It sought to determine the extent to which published research aligned with the programme’s needs, research and management strategies. The research also aimed to identify effective ways for organising and producing knowledge relevant to decision making; and to provide insights into how the social dimensions, the people and organisations, their interactions and impact, have shaped research and decision-making processes. Findings suggest that there are significant gaps in the knowledge base particularly in relation to the social dimensions of biological invasions, which were poorly represented and aligned with the mandate and priorities set by the programme. This research showed significant deficiencies in knowledge management and the uptake of research funded by the programme, despite its potential relevance to decision making as evidenced by the recommendations presented in the research. Moreover, research produced under WfW’s auspices was authored by a handful of key researchers who fulfil a significant role in shaping research collaborations both across disciplines and institutions. The loss of these key individuals, including those involved in management-related decision making, would be detrimental to the stability of collaboration networks and research productivity. Finally, findings show that research productivity, collaborative relationships between scientists within and across research organisations, and between research and decision-making processes are positively influenced by collegiality and cooperation between actors, while increased competition and bureaucratisation in the workplace negatively influence research productivity. To address the shortcomings concerning the invasion research and management identified in this dissertation, efforts towards improving the relationship between researchers and decision-makers and building more resilient collaboration networks need to be implemented. Firstly, institutions must engage in and fund more targeted, long-term transdisciplinary or integrative research that incorporates appropriate structures that foster collaboration, knowledge coproduction and knowledge sharing. Secondly, systems and strategies for monitoring and evaluating research, including the use of bibliometric indicators, social network analyses and qualitative assessments, should be developed to ensure that research relevant to managing biological invasions is not lost to the decision-making process. Such an undertaking would in turn require the development of an integrated research strategy and action plan that accounts for both the knowledge management and the social processes underpinning research and decision making.
... La escucha es clave para generar las relaciones que están en la base del capital social (Hazelton y Kennan, 2000;Luoma-aho, 2013; Canel y Luoma-aho, 2019). ...
... Research cooperation based on trust between authors is achieved through the co-author network, resulting in meaningful communication and research results [73,74]. By examining the co-authorship network, it is possible to know what type of research cooperation network is formed between authors. ...
Article
The international conference on Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery (DaWaK) has become a pivotal place to exchange experiences and knowledge among researchers and practitioners in big data analytics. The conference has been essential to data warehousing and data analytics for the last 21 years (1999–2019). This study explored the knowledge structure embedded in the DaWaK Conference papers and examined the research trends over time. It also analyzed the performance of published papers, authors, and their affiliations and countries and visualized a collaboration network in DaWaK. We applied several text mining techniques, including co-word analysis, topic modeling, co-author network analysis, and network visualization. The study’s findings indicate that the core topics are data mining techniques, algorithm performance, and information systems. The popular topic trends are associated with database encryption, whereas the topics related to online analytical processing (OLAP) technology are in decline. The research metrics results demonstrate that the DaWaK papers were cited 6,262 times, with an h-index of 34 for the 722 DaWaK papers. The article titled “Outlier Detection Using Replicator Neural Networks” reached the most citations (177), and the most productive author was Bellatreche, Ladjel (15 papers). Nanyang Technological University is the most frequently mentioned as the author’s affiliation, the United States is the country with the largest number of authors, and the National Science Foundation was the largest funding agency that supported the DaWaK researchers. Moreover, the authorship network of Bellatreche, Ladjel is the largest collaboration network in the DaWaK scholar community. The outcomes of this study would be beneficial for comprehending the knowledge in data warehousing and the relevant cross-disciplinary areas of research and collaboration networks in this field.
... It generates the web of social relationships as nurtured with trust, reciprocity, sometimes cooperation guided through a certain set of informal values besides norms. The norms along with values make the cognitive components of social capital, social institutions, social roles, social rules, social access, social referrals, social timings, together with networks form the structural dimension of the social capital (Grootaert & Bastelaer 2002;Hazleton & Kennan 2000;Uphoff, 2000). The increase in strength of social capital is dependent upon the quality of the networks. ...
Article
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Social capital is manifested through the relationships and networks that the human species own. Further, it is strengthened with trust and reciprocity. It inculcates the value of helping each other based on the principle of 'Mutually Beneficial Actions'. Various actors and agents play their roles in producing the social capital, yet women play the most vital role in its production due to their domestic chores, more frequent engagement with family and neighborhood. Thus, it is an essential to know that if she takes an equivalent benefit from the social capital. The primary objective of the present research determines out the role of social capital in women's career planning. The informal social networks, family, friends, and neighborhood are selected to the social capital. In the meantime, 150 female respondents from the University of the Punjab were selected using the non-probability convenience sampling technique from the final year of the Masters and Bachelors program. The findings of the study showed as the positive relation of social capital with career planning.
... The concept of social capital is multidimensional (Hazleton and Kennan 2000;Nahapiet and Ghoshal 1998). The dimensions are cognitive, relational and structural social capital. ...
Article
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Equity crowdfunding (ECF) is becoming a convenient alternative instrument for investing in entrepreneurs’ projects in many countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the investor’s intentions toward ECF platforms in Saudi Arabia, where they have not been introduced until very recently. This context offers a unique opportunity to test the role of investors’ perceived trust in the context of ECF. The proposed framework builds on two critical layers: (1) trust in the platform (intermediary) and (2) trust in the fundraiser. Structured equation modelling was applied to examine the factors that affect investors’ trust and intentions. The framework was analysed using survey data from 216 users of Manafa, one of the largest ECF platforms in Saudi Arabia. Our findings showed that both fundraiser and platform trust have a significant effect on the investor’s intentions. In particular, trust in the platform substantially impacts the fundraiser’s trust, showing the importance of the fundraiser’s reliance on trusted institutions. On the other hand, to build investors’ trust, fundraisers must deliver high-quality information for their projects.
... Many studies suggested that social capital is a multidimensional concept (Coleman, 1998;Hazleton & Kennan, 2000;Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998). It operates on multiple levels and affect the quality of the relationships within communities (Michaelson, 1996;Minkoff, 1997) and consumption interests (Holt, 1997;Kozinets, 2002). ...
Chapter
The digital economy shows a challenging environment, and three main players have entered the arena (digital platforms, online communities, new technologies). The aim of this chapter is to provide a new multidimensional framework for exploring multiple signals. The study leverages the signaling theory, since signals help companies and sellers to mitigate information asymmetries. In the virtual context of the digital economy, credible and observable information improve the decision-making process of consumers. The work opted for a multidimensional framework and proposes that four types of signals (social network, social capital, certification, social identity) influence consumer behavior. Furthermore, the study suggests that also the interactions/combinations between these signals could affect consumer behavior. This contribution offers a conceptual framework without testing empirically the propositions; thus, it offers the opportunity of further research. This work has interesting implications for several actors of the digital ecosystem (firms, entrepreneurs, platform managers, consumers, etc.).
... Similar to social networks, social capital requires social interactions or transactions based on reciprocity, cooperation, and trust [40]. Building on Nahapiet and Ghoshal's model of social capital [41], which includes structural, cognitive, and relational dimensions, Hazleton and Kennan [42] substitute a communication dimension in place of a cognitive one, emphasizing the essential nature of communication in the social capital model. ...
Article
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Agriculture is an essential component of food security, sustainable livelihoods, and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Smallholder farmers, however, are restricted in the number of crops they can grow due to small plot sizes. Agriculture inputs, such as fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides, and improved seed varieties, could prove to be useful resources to improve yield. Despite the potential of these agriculture technologies, input use throughout much of SSA remains low. This paper aims to better understand the process of innovation diffusion through information and interaction processes at the individual, social network, and community levels. A total of 203 participants were surveyed using a semi-structured interview method in four rural communities located in the Mbale, Lira, Kabale, and Masaka districts of Uganda. Participants were asked about their access to information technologies, information sources via social network ties, level of engagement in the local community, and agricultural input use. Results indicate households with higher levels of information access through cell phone use and weak-tie information sources are more likely to use inputs. Significant findings also include the interactional effect of cell phones and weak ties on fertilizer adoption. This research could inform policy makers of cost-effective methods of disseminating agriculture information and encouraging innovation diffusion.
... The meso-level study invokes Burt's (1992) idea of bonding and bridging social capital. While the former is crucial to organizations' internal communication (Hazleton & Kennan, 2000), the latter assists achieving organizational CSR (Jin & Lee, 2013). At the micro-level, Bourdieu's (1986) notion of social capital as fluid resources exchangeable for other economic (e.g., money), cultural (e.g., qualifications) and symbolic (e.g., legitimacy) capital is widely cited. ...
Article
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Social capital has emerged as a promising theoretical approach to understanding political influence in the public relations literature. However, the rationale of using social capital to influence corporate government relations in authoritarian societies is indistinct. To remedy this, we integrate Bourdieu’s (1986) and Lin’s (2001) social capital theories to explore how applying a variant form of social capital (e.g., guanxi) might shape corporate government relations in authoritarian China. A multi-method, qualitative approach was employed involving 44 interviews, participant observation and document review. The findings highlighted an underexamined “vertical” dimension of social capital (i.e., links with authority in a hierarchy), which enables corporations to exercise agency over the pre-existing and often vague regulatory environment. This study adds a new perspective to social capital with hierarchical guanxi that enriches our understanding of guanxi-based political influence in Chinese corporate government relations.
... Robert Putnam (2000, p. 19) defines social capital as "connections among individualssocial networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them." Social capital is formed by repeated interactions over time and continuous communication to promote exchange of information, identify problems and solutions, and manage conflicts (Fukuyama, 2000;Hazleton & Kennan, 2000). Social capital helps individuals appreciate increased access to information, skills, and power and socially promotes civic engagement and participation (Portes, 1998;Putnam, 2000). ...
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Drawing on qualitative interviews with residents in Seochon Village, South Korea, this study investigates the conditions by which residents could develop community attachments and could therefore lead to collective action to safeguard the village. The results of this study suggest that the common identities of residents as parents of children in the village; social capital promoted by activities, events, and shared spaces; and the cultural capital of highly educated activists in organizations have interactively played a role in fostering residents’ attachment to Seochon and thus in facilitating collective actions to negotiate with the local Jongno-gu district office.
... Ekonomik eylemin sosyal ilişkilere yerleşik olduğu fikri birçok değerli ağ araştırmacısının (Burt, 1992;Etzkowitz, Kemelgor ve Uzzi, 1992;Grannoveter, 1985;Greve, 1995;Gulati, 1995;Swedberg ve Granovetter, 1992;Uzzi, 1996;Uzzi, 1999;Uzzi ve Lancaster, 2004), örgütler arası düzeyde çalışmalar yapmalarına neden olmuştur. Bir diğer neden ise ünlü sosyologlar Bourdieu (1983) ve Coleman'ın (1988) sosyal sermaye kavramına popülerlik kazandırmasından sonra, örgütsel sosyal sermayenin kuramsal olarak inşa edilmesine yönelik gösterilen entelektüel çabadır (Bueno ve diğerleri, 2004; Hazleton ve Kennan, 2000;Kostova ve Roth, 2003;Nahapiet ve Ghoshal, 1998;Paxton, 1999;Tsai ve Ghosal, 1998 Gray, 1998;Marineau, Labianca ve Kane, 2016;Oldroyd, Hendron ve Labianca, 2008;Sparrowe, Liden, Wayne ve Kramier, 2001;Venkataramani ve Dalal, 2007;Venkataramani, Labianca ve Grosser 2013;Xia, Yuan ve Gay, 2009) incelendiğinde; genellikle örgütsel davranış alanının iş tatmini, bağlılık, işten ayrılma niyeti, güdüleme, liderlik, çatışma yönetimi, örgütsel öğrenme, grup dinamikleri ve olumsuz ilişkiler gibi popüler konularıyla ilişkili olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. ...
... Ekonomik eylemin sosyal ilişkilere yerleşik olduğu fikri birçok değerli ağ araştırmacısının (Burt, 1992;Etzkowitz, Kemelgor ve Uzzi, 1992;Grannoveter, 1985;Greve, 1995;Gulati, 1995;Swedberg ve Granovetter, 1992;Uzzi, 1996;Uzzi, 1999;Uzzi ve Lancaster, 2004), örgütler arası düzeyde çalışmalar yapmalarına neden olmuştur. Bir diğer neden ise ünlü sosyologlar Bourdieu (1983) ve Coleman'ın (1988) sosyal sermaye kavramına popülerlik kazandırmasından sonra, örgütsel sosyal sermayenin kuramsal olarak inşa edilmesine yönelik gösterilen entelektüel çabadır (Bueno ve diğerleri, 2004; Hazleton ve Kennan, 2000;Kostova ve Roth, 2003;Nahapiet ve Ghoshal, 1998;Paxton, 1999;Tsai ve Ghosal, 1998 Gray, 1998;Marineau, Labianca ve Kane, 2016;Oldroyd, Hendron ve Labianca, 2008;Sparrowe, Liden, Wayne ve Kramier, 2001;Venkataramani ve Dalal, 2007;Venkataramani, Labianca ve Grosser 2013;Xia, Yuan ve Gay, 2009) incelendiğinde; genellikle örgütsel davranış alanının iş tatmini, bağlılık, işten ayrılma niyeti, güdüleme, liderlik, çatışma yönetimi, örgütsel öğrenme, grup dinamikleri ve olumsuz ilişkiler gibi popüler konularıyla ilişkili olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. ...
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... The first measure is more associated with the relational dimension of social capital (i.e., the level of trust, group identification, and the quality of social ties and networks), whereas the second measure is more related to the structural dimension of social capital (i.e., the channels and opportunities through which interaction can take place) (Widén-Wulff & Ginman, 2004). While especially relational social capital is used to explain economic outcomes (e.g., Guiso et al., 2008;Guiso, Sapienza, & Zingales, 2011;Knack & Keefer, 1997;Temple, 2001), it is believed that structural social capital is an important prerequisite and foundation for the deployment of other social capital dimensions (Hazleton & Kennan, 2000;Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998) and that the evolution of trust and norms are long-run outcomes of social interactions and networks (Croll, 2004). Moreover, recent research shows that employers often use personal networks and referrals to hire new employees (e.g., Calvó-Armengol & Jackson, 2004;Dustmann, Glitz, Schönberg, & Brücker, 2016;Topa, 2011). ...
Article
We propose a regression-adjusted matched difference-in-differences framework to estimate pecuniary and non-pecuniary returns to adult education. This approach combines kernel matching with entropy balancing to account for selection bias and sorting on gains. Using data from the German SOEP, we evaluate the effect of work-related training, which represents the largest portion of adult education in OECD countries, on individual social capital and earnings. As the related literature, we estimate positive monetary returns to work-related training. In addition, training participation increases participation in civic, political, and cultural activities while not crowding out social participation. Results are robust against a variety of potentially confounding explanations. These findings imply positive externalities from work-related training over and above the well-documented labor market effects.
... Social capital is also seen as important in that it can contribute to the bottom line of an organization. It may lead to increased and/or more complex forms of social capital, reduced transaction costs, and organizational advantage in the form of, for instance, increased BOURDIEU 20 productivity and efficiency (Hazelton Jr. & Kennan, 2000). To research an organization's social capital, it may be possible to pose several questions drawing on Bourdieu and other writings on social capital (e.g., Lin, 2002). ...
... The structural dimension refers to the overall patterns of connections between actors, that is, it relates to an individual's ability to make connections to others within a community; these connections can help to reduce the amount of time and investment needed to obtain information (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998). Interaction ties are seen as the fundamental proposition of structural social capital, which provides access to resource and information (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998;Hazleton and Kennan, 2000;Koka and Prescot, 2002). In this case, social relationships are established through interaction ties that can reduce the amount of time and investment necessary to gather information and knowledge (Tsai and Ghoshal, 1998). ...
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Social capital plays a significant role in understanding online community relationships in the marketing field. However, the construct of social capital has not been studied in the context of consumer-initiated online brand communities (COBCs). This paper develops a model of social capital in COBCs as a higher order reflective latent construct having four first-order dimensions. Responses of 353 members from 35 Volkswagen COBCs in China were obtained and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. The data supports our model of social capital in COBCs, providing a greater understanding of social capital in COBCs that will help Chinese marketers utilise COBCs more effectively. https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1YGNZ98SGa~mW
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The purpose of this article is to examine the level of social capital and global citizenship in Taiwan. In this study, we argue that high social capital and political self-efficacy promote the outcomes of global citizenship. We review the development of global citizenship education policy and its association with social capital and political self-efficacy. Based on the nationwide survey dataset collected from Taiwanese universitiy students, we carefully examine the relations between social capital, political self-efficacy, and global citizenship. We adopt a multiple mediation analysis with a bootstrapped method to validate our conceptual research model. The results show that there are significant positive relationships between the nine observed variables (i.e., social trust, social proactivity, political self-efficacy and six global citizenship outcomes). In addition, our findings of mediation analysis reveal that social capital, indicated by social trust and social proactivity, indirectly affects the five outcomes of global citizenship through political self-efficacy, except for the outcome of global environmental sustainability. In light of the empirical results, this article also discusses the implications of global citizenship education policy and the formation of sustainable global citizenship.
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When mass collaborations face situations that are not readily resolvable, just like traditional organizations, they need to form task forces to address these complicated problems. Referred to as temporary organizations, small, task-focused, time-bound, agile groups, these task forces exist in organizations and corporations to address situations outside of existing procedures. Temporary organizations can be created in online platforms, like mass collaborations, to serve a similar purpose, as existing policies and procedures cannot address all situations that arise during collaboration. Given that mass collaborations are people-driven, informal, and voluntary, this study explores the impact of the dimensions of social capital on the success of online temporary organizations, exploring its structural, relational, and cognitive aspects. We suggest that participants’ access to social capital and their willingness to exercise it lead to a greater likelihood of success.
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The success of social networking sites relies on members’ continuous use. We replicate a study evaluating the relationship of continued-use intention to the success of social networking sites to determine whether the results obtained with a US sample can be generalized to the South Korean context. Using two culturally distinct samples, we demonstrate limitations to the generalizability of the original study’s findings and important constructs influencing continued-use intention across cultural boundaries.
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This paper considers cognition and institution as social capital. Its starts from the freedom of Economic report. It was noticed that the core tenants of the freedom of Economics are deeply embedded in the core tenants of social capital which also has strong linkages to culture. Culture also relates to the mind of the people and their way of thinking, by setting the framework within which all interactions that take place can be viewed as crucial elements underlying the lives of people in the larger social existence. Quantitative indicators of culture and institutions as social capital were imputed from the World Value Survey and were considered in the four countries under consideration, it was noticed that trust among Latvians though may take time but once given, is very strong. This same cannot be said for Lithuania, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. This can explain to some extent trust in public institution and high rate of economic growth in Latvia than the other countries.
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OBJECTIVES: The high turnover rate of nurses has been a matter of debate among scholars. Nurses’ social interaction patterns and the social structure they are situated within may provide clues about possible causes of their high turnover intentions. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of negative and positive ties on the intention of turnover among nurses. DESIGN & SETTING: A hybrid research methodology was used. Social network analysis was used to reveal the positions of the nurses (n = 126) in the positive and negative networks. A statistical model was formed with varying types of centrality measures, intragroup conflict, and intention to leave variables. The data was collected from all the nurses working in a special branch hospital. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The findings of the study clearly indicate that negative interactions directly and indirectly affect the intention to leave, and the nurses demand professional support from their colleagues. The findings also show the existence of a fragmented social structure among nurses, which suggests the increased importance of brokerage roles. Managers should closely monitor the negative interactions among nurses, and they need to use conflict management techniques frequently to reduce hostile relations in the business environment. Managers should especially seek ways to increase altruistic tendencies among colleagues because nurses demand professional support ties more than friendship relations.
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The cultural, economic, and nutritional importance of rice led many countries to investigate how domestic rice production can meet current and future demands. In rice production, the role of social capital and personal networks of producers compared to biophysical and economic assets, are less well understood even though case study analyses routinely indicate that they play an important role in production efficiency and sustainability. Using data from rice farmers in the Philippines, we sought to understand the role of social capital on farm productivity, technical efficiency, and the adoption of sustainable practices. Through social network analysis and structural equation modeling, we show the accumulation of social capital resources exhibits a positive impact on farm technical efficiency and the adoption of technology for water conservation. The results offer a different frame of reference for policymakers developing new approaches for sustainable rice production in terms of how dynamics between farmers may ultimately attain national and global sustainability goals.
Thesis
Sozialkapital kann den Erfolg von Unternehmen und die Gesundheit von Mitarbeitenden erhöhen. Das Ziel der Forschung dieser Arbeit ist es zu überprüfen, ob anhand bestimmter Indikatoren ein Mehr an individuellem Sozialkapital abgeleitet werden kann. Der für diese Arbeit gewählte Indikator ist das Maß der aktiven Hobbytätigkeit. Die Fragen, welchen auf den Grund gegangen wird, sind, inwiefern eine aktive Freizeitgestaltung individuelles Sozialkapital erhöht, ob das Maß der freiwilligen Organisationsbereitschaft innerhalb des Hobbys eine Rolle spielt und inwiefern diese Faktoren eine Auswirkung auf das vertrauensbereite und reziproke Verhalten der Teilnehmenden hat. Um die Forschungsfragen zu beantworten, wurde eine quantitative Studie zur Erforschung des individuellen Sozialkapitals von HobbyistInnen an der Zielgruppe der Live-Action-RollenspielerInnen durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Studie zeigen klar, dass ein aktiv ausgeübtes Hobby und eine aktive Organisationstätigikeit als Indikatoren für erhöhtes Sozialkapital dienen können. Außerdem werden eine außerordentlich hohe Prosozialität sowie verschiedene Faktoren, die das langfristig reziproke Verhalten beeinflussen können, nachgewiesen.
Conference Paper
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The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among ethical leadership, internal social capital and knowledge sharing. In the theoretical framework, the concepts of ethical leadership, internal social capital and knowledge sharing were explained and in the empirical part of this study, firstly the research model based on the relationships among the variables addressed was established and hypotheses were formulated. Data were gathered through question forms from a total of 147 employees of a retailing sector firm in Erzurum which has 11 branches. In the light of the primary data obtained from the company, considering a number of control variables, it was tested with regression analysis. According to the results of the analyses, ethical leadership has been shown to have a positive effect on information sharing and internal social capital. In addition, it has been determined that internal social capital has a significant positive effect on information sharing, and it has been shown that internal social capital has part mediating effect on the relationship between ethical leadership and information sharing.
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Purpose The paper examines the role of learning through social capital on the internationalisation process of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) based within extreme contexts. The study focuses on the Palestinian pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach The inductive, exploratory research used in this study adopts a case study approach. Data derived from semi-structured in-depth interviews held with senior management and companies' founders were analysed using content and thematic analysis techniques. Findings The findings suggest that accumulated learning by SMEs seeking international expansion is enhanced with stronger social capital ties and networks through structural, relational and cognitive mechanisms. Serendipity and liability effects enabled modes of foreign entry with higher degrees of commitment than efficacy-related factors. Practical implications The Palestinian pharmaceutical industry presents a benchmark for other industries in comparable developing economy contexts. This study elucidates the important interrelationship between social capital and learning for SMEs seeking to expand internationally; the findings have implications for regional policymaking in developing economy regions. Originality/value The case study investigation focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and SMEs operating within the extreme context of Palestine, thereby contributing insights in an area of management enquiry that is under-represented in the extant literature.
Chapter
Nowadays it seems to be widely accepted that a multinational company has many different environmental, economic or social impacts on a territory. Moreover, every region has the right to aim to achieve sustainable development. For those reasons, this work proposes a tool based on the territory’s intangible assets. This tool allows the management of the sustainable development of a region where a multinational company has located, paying special attention to the way that this type of company can influence the development of the region.
Chapter
Nowadays it seems to be widely accepted that a multinational company has many different environmental, economic or social impacts on a territory. Moreover, every region has the right to aim to achieve sustainable development. For those reasons, this work proposes a tool based on the territory’s intangible assets. This tool allows the management of the sustainable development of a region where a multinational company has located, paying special attention to the way that this type of company can influence the development of the region.
Preprint
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The monograph examines the impact of various dimensions of social capital on cooperation. It also aims to identify and explain the effects of performance orientation and learning orientation on the elements of social capital. A research model was based on goal orientation and social capital theory. A critical literature review on cooperation, social capital, and goal orientation was conducted, and the foundation for research was built. Findings suggest there is a positive impact of learning orientation on social capital. However, there is no significant influence of performance orientation on any element of social capital. Furthermore, the study confirms the value of social capital in explaining cooperation. Along with these findings, the integration of goal orientation theory and social capital theory in the cooperation context is a significant contribution to the research.
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Freedom of expression is considered as one of the fundamental issues of the contemporary socio-political world. It has divided the society into two major groups; one is the follower of infinitive freedom and other wants some limits up on it. Definitely, Western thought is the representative of unbounded freedom of speech whereas Islam chooses the second one. Islamic concept of freedom of expression has various moral and legal bindings but in western perspective, only nominal legal restrictions exist, because revealed ethics are not concern of the western thought. These legal restrictions are meant to protect freedom of expression and individual rights and not to curb the acts of civil and religious defamation. Hence, these legal constraints are insufficient because the freedom of speech is unlimited and legal restrictions are either partial or nonexistent. In spite of presence of laws, the so-called racial discrimination and religious defamation have become the most dangerous and lethal weapon against minorities in the West, especially blasphemy of the Holy Prophet (SAW)has become a painful trend and cheap hobby under the banner of freedom of speech. In this regard, the limitless freedom of expression and its link with blasphemy of the prophet (SAW) has become one of the major conflicting issues between Islam and the West. In this study the efforts are made to examine the freedom of expression from Islamic and western perspectives and its link with blasphemy and religious defamation from the western side.
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Purpose The paper takes stock of accumulated knowledge on factors impacting the success of online crowdfunding (CF) campaigns while suggesting opportunities for future research development. Design/methodology/approach A Systematic Literature Review of 88 academic papers published between 2010 and 2017. Papers were collected from four academic databases and published in 65 different journals. The review addresses issues related to theory, methods, context, findings and gaps. Overall, the paper presents an analysis of 1,718 associations between 111 aggregated independent variables (from 927 variables) with six main aggregated success indicators. Findings Most research involves quantitative analyses of public data collected from reward-CF platforms. More research is required in equity, lending, donation and other CF contexts. Existing studies are mostly anchored in theories of signaling, social capital and elaboration likelihood. There is a need for wider conceptualization of success beyond financial indicators. And based on aggregated summaries of effects, the paper suggests a series of CF success models, while outlining an agenda for future research. Research limitations/implications Studied phenomenon is in its early days of existence, and hence biased by the circumstances of a new industry. Moreover, the current review only covers published journal articles in English. Practical implications Findings of factors impacting campaign success can inform fundraisers in building campaigns, as well as platforms in adjusting systems and services toward responsibly enhancing campaign success. Moreover, identified gaps can inform on what has not been sufficiently documented and may be a source of competitive advantage. Originality/value A comprehensive review of research on CF success factors at factor level, a coherent agenda for future research development and a series of evidence-based models on most prevalent factors impacting CF success by CF model.
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Article
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The Dure community is a traditional meeting and collaborative effort for solving tasks and issues in rural farming villages in Korea. Recently, the South Korean government has tried to revitalize Dure communities to develop tourism businesses in local provinces. Tour Dure projects aimed at revitalizing local communities and promoting sustainable economic development have been operating since 2013. Tour Dure producers, as change agents, play a critical role in the Tour Dure projects. The purpose of this study is to reveal the producers’ roles in realizing community-based tourism (CBT). Using partial least squares structural equation modeling, this study analyzes the relationship between the producers’ role and social capital in local communities and the subsequent impact on residents’ innovativeness and life satisfaction. The results show that the producer’s role is important in creating social capital, improving innovativeness, and, as a result, residents’ life satisfaction. The present study suggests further implications for academics and policy makers focused on sustainable CBT.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to probe how reward-based crowdfunding campaigns accomplish their goal by adopting the theoretical constructs of social capital dimensions: structural, cognitive and relational. Design/methodology/approach The approach used is a design model for concluded campaigns in a Mexican crowdfunding platform, which determines social capital from operating social networks (Facebook and Twitter). By using this model, the associations between the dimensions are revealed, verifying how social capital flourishes during the campaign and how it alters the campaign’s outcome. Findings The findings demonstrate how social interaction through a wide social network (structural dimension), shared vision and values among entrepreneurs and their potential funders (cognitive dimension), and the development of trustworthiness within the campaign (relational dimension) boost the probability of achieving the crowdfunding goal. Research limitations/implications The results inform researchers on how social capital is forged from social networks during a crowdfunding campaign. However, the method must be validated with other crowdfunding models and other social network platforms commonly used by campaign creators. Practical implications Contributions from this paper include tools (design model and evaluation method) associating theory with the crowdfunding mechanism, complementing previous work. Crowdfunding providers, as well as campaign creators, have now an approach to appraise social capital and obtain the desired goal. Originality/value In addition to providing much-needed research on the current state of crowdfunding, this paper analyzes the link between practice and theory, which can be valuable in confining the mechanism to an accurate theory and ensuring the theory’s longevity.
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The impact of social capital on the success of crowdfunding in Uganda
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Religiosity of an individual is depicted through the participation in congregational events. Such participation encourages production of social capital. Informal networks like family, peers and neighborhood are important production sources of social capital and are also prime sources to introduce religious teachings. The sources of social capital and religiosity are same. Therefore, the current paper examines the role of social capital in developing religiosity among youth. The qualitative study was conducted using purposive sampling. The sample is comprised of educated youth of Lahore. Twenty five in-depth interviews and 3 FGDs were conducted from an educational institution. The data analysis was done through themes and narratives. The findings suggest that the culture, environment and family are important contributors in the production of religiosity. Moreover, the labeling plays vital role in encouraging or discouraging religiosity. Conclusively the religious practices have lost spirituality and are becoming more superficial day by day.
Article
Research on carsharing focused mainly on the technical and organizational aspects, and the entrepreneurial and managerial dimensions were little discussed. Our work on innovation focused on a major carsharing operator to understand the mechanisms behind its success. Through the use of Grounded Theory, we have developed a framework of analysis showing the importance of the entrepreneurial and managerial dimensions in the design, implementation and deployment of the service thanks to the resource mobilization capacity, the capacity for innovation, and the role of a strong social capital. The conditions of emergence of the carsharing solution throughout the creation process of the network actor are reinforced by the conditions of creation of the family business social capital: stability, interactions, enhancement of the common heritage, influence on partners, network closure and joined vision on standards promoting innovation.JEL Codes: O32
Chapter
A significant constituent of knowledge making in expert organizations are the knowledge sharing practices within which knowledge is both disseminated and created. These practices give access to information sources and are based on individual networks. This means that individual and team-based motives to knowledge sharing are prerequisites in expert work to be able to create a common understanding of work processes and individual’s role in these processes. Knowledge-sharing practices are also very much bound to organizational culture and traditions. In the understanding of knowledge making it is important to take individual, group and organizational perspectives into account. This chapter draws a broad picture of how knowledge making is enacted through knowledge sharing and knowledge creation practices in expert work.
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Data on market relations between a large population of corporations and investment banks are used to study the organization-market interforce-the pattern of direct market ties between a firm and its banks. Forms of interfaces range from a long-term, exclusive tie (the relationship interface) to many short-lived, episodic ties (the transaction interface), with hybrid forms between the two poles. Contrary to widespread belief, the article finds that strong relationships still exist. Transactions interfaces are rare. Most firms use hybrid interfaces. A firm's interface is conceptualized as the intentional result of its efforts to reduce dependence and exploit power advantages. Observed interfaces are shown to be related systematically to various power-dependence concepts, including resource intensity (number of transactions and dollar amounts raised), criticality (the availability of resource alternatives), power asymmetry between a firm and its main bank, organization size, standardization of exchange, and ...
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This research focuses on creating a theory of the "organizational advantage," a new concept identified within business and management. Using social capital research as a foundation for this theory, three of the study's objectives are identified: 1) incorporate different aspects of social capital to identify three common dimensions; 2) explain the role of each dimension in the process of creating and exchanging knowledge; and 3) maintain the belief that organizations are capable of creating extraordinary amounts of social capital on all three dimensions. Additionally, the relationship between social capital and intellectual capital is explored, as is the impact of this relationship upon a firm's perceived organizational advantage. In order for exchange and combination of resources to occur as a means of creating value, the research identifies three necessary conditions, including the opportunity for exchange and combination to occur, the expectation that exchange and combination generates value, and the motivation that exchange and combination in some way will be productive. This research further identifies a fourth condition, combination capability, as a significant factor in value creation. Due to social capital's influence upon the conditions needed for exchange and combination, social capital aids in the creation of intellectual capital. The research further hypothesizes that a firm's ability to create and utilize social capital contributes to performance differences among firms. Several limitations are identified, including omission of the negative impact of social capital upon a firm and the costs associated with creating and preserving a firm's social capital. The findings of the study are generalized to other institutional situations, and areas for future research are identified. (AKP)
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This paper reviews the origins and definitions of social capital in the writings of Bourdieu, Loury, and Coleman, among other authors. It distinguishes four sources of social capital and examines their dynamics. Applications of the concept in the sociological literature emphasize its role in social control, in family support, and in benefits mediated by extrafamilial networks. I provide examples of each of these positive functions. Negative consequences of the same processes also deserve attention for a balanced picture of the forces at play. I review four such consequences and illustrate them with relevant examples. Recent writings on social capital have extended the concept from an individual asset to a feature of communities and even nations. The final sections describe this conceptual stretch and examine its limitations, I argue that, as shorthand for the positive consequences of sociability, social capital has a definite place in sociological theory. However, excessive extensions of the concept may jeopardize its heuristic value.
Chapter
Most scholars will agree that the coneept of Image, as it applies to Public Relations, is imprecise and vague. It is vague in the sense that, like definitions of public relations, there are many different definitions of image which reflect different theoretical orientations. A number of authors in this volume seek to articulate varying viewpoints on which approach shows more promise for public relations.
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Journal of Democracy 6.1 (1995) 65-78 As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by Robert Putnam, "Bowling Alone." You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of democracy. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state. To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America, the United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually "civic" (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work. "Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition," he observed, "are forever forming associations. There are not only commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types -- religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America." Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks. Some of this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful "network capitalism" of East Asia. Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible "industrial districts" based on networks of collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton. The norms and networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy. Although all these regional governments seemed identical on paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs -- these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity...
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In the eighteenth century a Great Transformation began--a transformation rooted in even earlier times and still in progress today. This transformation is characterized by the decline of primordial institutions based on the family as the central element of social organization and the replacement of these institutions by purposively constructed organization. Sociology is itself a product of this transformation, and the stages in the Great Transformation are mirrored by changes in the central foci of sociological theory and research. The decline of primordial social organization has been accompanied by a loss of informal social capital on which social control depended before the transformation. The design of purposive organization is necessary to compensate for this loss; this design is an emerging central focus for sociology. I introduce an example, "bounties on children," to illustrate this point.
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Die drei Zustande des kulturellen Kapitals. Der Begriff des 'kulturellen Kapitals' wurde entwickelt in Hinblick auf die Erhellung und Darlegung ungleicher schulischer Performanzen; dabei wurde der Akzent von Anbeginn auf die klassen-spezifische ungleiche Verteilung der zur Aneignung kultureller Guter (z.B. Kunstwerke) notwendigen Instrumente gelegt. Die in inkorporiertem Zustand, d.h. in der verinnerlichten Form einer standigen und dauerhaften Disposition (Habitus) vorliegenden Eigenschaften des kulturellen Kapitals sind praktisch darauf zuruckzufuhren, das es sich dabei um eine an das Individuum gebundene Form von Kapital handelt : seine Akkumulation erfordert Zeit, ein soziales Gut, das nur schwer kraft Vollmacht zu erlangen ist; es erfordert personliche Investition; seine Akkumulation ist begrenzt durch die biologischen Grenzen seines Tragers, etc. Diese als persongebunden wahrgenommenen besonderen Eigenschaften, die zu den Vorteilen des Erbes noch den Schein des Angeborenen und die Tugenden des Erworbenen hinzufugen, lassen das inkorporierte kulturelle Kapital gerade in Zeiten, da die direkten und sichtbaren Formen der Weitergabe tendenziell der gesellschaftlichen Achtung als illegitim verfallen, als legitimstes Mittel der Weitergabe des Erbes erscheinen. Die kulturellen Guter (Bucher, Bilder, Maschinen), kulturelles Kapital in objektiviertem Zustand, sind zwar sofort vermittelbar und in ihrer Materialitat formlich aneigenbar, doch unterliegen die Bedingungen ihrer spezifischen Aneignung den gleichen Gesetzen der Weitergabe wie das inkorporierte kulturelle Kapital. Schlies1ich kann das kulturelle Kapital auch in institutionalisierter Form als schulische Titel vorliegen, die wie Geld gegenuber den jeweiligen Titeltragern relativ unabhangig sind. Diese in Zertifikaten und Diplomen niedergelegte und gesicherte Form des kulturellen Kapitals ermoglicht nun die Thematisierung der gesellschaftlichen Funktionen des Bildungssy stems und erlaubt dariiberhinaus, die Beziehungen zwischen Bildungs- und Wirtschafts System praktisch zu erfassen.
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The paper questions the common view that share price increases of firms involved in hostile takeovers measure efficiency gains from acquisitions. Even if such gains exist, most of the increase in the combined value of the target and the acquirer is likely to come from stakeholder wealth losses, such as declines in value of subcontractors' firm-specific capital or employees' human capital. The use of event studies to gauge wealth creation in takeovers is unjustified. The paper also suggests a theory of managerial behavior, in which hiring and entrenching trustworthy managers enables shareholders to commit to upholding implicit contracts with stakeholders. Hostile takeovers are an innovation allowing shareholders to renege on such contracts ex post, against managers' will. On this view, shareholder gains are redistributions from stakeholders, and can in the long run result in deterioration of trust necessary for the functioning of the corporation.
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