Stakeholders in sustainable tourism and their role: applying stakeholder theory to sustainable development
Tourism Review 04/2007; 62(2):6-13. DOI: 10.1108/16605370780000309
Sustainability has become an important topic and concept in relation to tourism planning and development. For sustainable tourism development to be successful stakeholders must be involved in the process. The questions that should be considered though are: (1) who should be considered stakeholders in tourism development, and (2) how should planners and developers involve stakeholders in the development of tourism? In order to provide answers to these questions this paper investigated sustainable tourism development and how stakeholder inclusion and involvement are incorporated in the basic concept of sustainable tourism development. This investigation was accomplished by reviewing and drawing conclusions from the literature. The discussion includes thoughts from both management and public participation perspectives. So who should be involved in the sustainable tourism development process? Based on the definitions that are used for sustainability and sustainable tourism four distinct groups are identified; the present visitors, future visitors, present host community, and future host community.
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- "However, identifying stakeholders is a challenging task because stakeholder groups differ from destination to destination and their composition constantly changes (Timur & Getz, 2008; Elbe & Emmoth, 2014). For the purposes of this research, some contributions are especially relevant, i.e. those which underline: (1) the roles and characteristics of actors (Byrd, 2007; Currie, Seaton, & Wesley, 2009; Nilsson, 2007; Sheehan & Ritchie, 2005), (2) the relationship dynamics and strategic choices of the actors (D'Angella & Go, 2009; Robson & Robson, 1996; Sheehan, Ritchie, & Hudson, 2007; Timur & Getz, 2008), (3) the impact of tourism strategies and managerial choices on stakeholder groups (Byrd, Bosley, & Dronberger, 2009; Gu & Ryan, 2008; Simpson, 2008), and (4) stakeholders' views and perceptions (Franch, Martini , & Buffa, 2010; Tkaczynski, Rundle-Thiele, & Beaumont, 2010; Zehrer & Hallmann, 2015). "
ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the salient stakeholders of a destination by investigating the logics of actors affiliated to more than one stakeholder group. It is hypothesized that: (1) the logics of individuals who belong to two stakeholder groups are not simply located between the logics of the other individuals who belong to only one stakeholder group, and (2) an individual in an interlocking position has a different attitude but not a distinct logic in comparison with stakeholders belonging to only one group. The paper investigates these topics in tourism destination communities, i.e. multi-stakeholder systems where both resources and activities are divided among numerous actors. In many cases, the logics of individuals in interlocking groups cannot be simply described as a 'mixed' logic. A descriptive approach does not reveal any distinct logic, but some nuances suggest that interlocking stakeholders' attitudes differ from those of members of just one group. It is concluded that actors in overlapping positions have different attitudes because of their position (they understand and successfully interpret the identity of the different groups they represent), their salience (they feel obliged to have a clear opinion) and their structural function (they ensure constant adaptation to different issues and challenges by proposing solutions and innovations to their peers in their respective stakeholder groups). The research reveals the logics of key players, thus providing valuable contribution in terms of marketing, management and governance. The paper suggests a different perspective from the traditional stakeholder approach and new directions for the analysis of stakeholders' logics in community destinations.
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- "Within the context of small island tourism destinations, residents may choose to address tourism development proactively through tourism planning designed to manage growth and maintain subjective well-being (Jordan, 2015). Collaborative tourism planning has received significant attention as a way to proactively manage growth and development in a variety of destinations (Byrd, 2007). The collaborative tourism planning process allows for the many stakeholders in tourism destinations to consider tourism development and how their wellbeing will be affected by no, slow, or rapid growth (Jamal & Getz, 1995). "
ABSTRACT: This paper employed a case study method to examine how a tourism planning process was utilized to discuss resident and community subjective well-being. Sitka, Alaska, a small island community, embarked on a collaborative tourism planning effort as an activity to guide and manage tourism development, particularly development from nonlocal interests that was perceived by some as threatening well-being and quality of life. A general interview guide approach was used and 27 interviews with key informants conducted. The plan document was also consulted as a source of additional insight into the processes, the structure, and their interaction. The research focused on how subjective well-being was defined; how length of residency, livelihood, and role in the community influenced well-being; and how tourism development and concerns over well-being fueled tourism planning.
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- "This dynamism centered on empowerment is evident within the tourism literature as well, but the term empowerment has been often embedded in the broader literature on public participation, community well-being, and resident attitudes toward tourism (Buzinde, Kalavar, & Melubo, 2014; Byrd, 2007; Byrd, Cárdenas, & Greenwood, 2008). Examples of empowerment within the public participation literature include Byrd et al. (2008, p. 201) emphasis that " stakeholder involvement is a critical part of sustainable tourism development " and that " for sustainable tourism to be successful, stakeholders must be involved in the process " (Byrd, 2007). Byrd is not alone with this call for broad stakeholder inclusion in the tourism planning process. "
ABSTRACT: With the empirical research on resident empowerment in its infancy, this study sought to add to the scant literature by testing the cross-cultural validity of the Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale (RETS) within the town of Oizumi, Japan. Such a destination was chosen because it provided a culture vastly different from the original rural Virginia, U.S. sample across Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) performed on the Oizumi sample (n = 456) demonstrated that the RETS and its factors of psychological, social, and political empowerment were construct valid and shared the same psychometric properties originally found in Boley and McGehee's study (2014). These findings from the Oizumi, Japan sample support the international applicability of the RETS and provide managers with a valid tool for tracking the effectiveness of their marketing and management efforts aimed at increasing resident empowerment.
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