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MPhil and PhD library and information science research in Pakistan: An evaluation



Purpose – The aim of this study is to provide an insight to international readers into the perspective of doctoral level research in Pakistan. The factors which led to the start of this program and difficulties encountered in this regard at different universities are discussed. Design/methodology/approach – The study is mainly based on review of the literature. Research theses approved at MPhil and PhD level are evaluated. Some information collected from Library and Information Science (LIS) schools through personal communication is also provided. Findings – The problems that did not allow success in the doctoral programs in LIS were: lack of encouragement by seniors in a real sense; low esteem for indigenous PhD degree in the eyes of fellow professionals; little or no impact of early recipients of the degree on profession; and non‐availability of financial assistance to the prospective candidates. Of the findings mention is made of: no fixed criteria for admission; the research topics do not concern the problems; and absence of proper supervision/guidance resulting in poor quality of thesis in most cases. Suggestions include: formation of a high level committee comprising senior library educators under the Higher Education Commission to work out problems and streamline the process; maintenance of close links with library schools in other countries, particularly in the English speaking world, which are interested in global librarianship. Originality/value – This paper is the only evaluation of postmaster level LIS education in Pakistan. The findings are useful for planners of LIS education at postmaster level in Pakistan as well as in other developing countries.
Library and
science research
Library Review
Vol. 56 No. 5, 2007
pp. 407-417
# Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/00242530710750590
Received 11 March 2006
Reviewed 31 March 2006
Revised 4 April 2006
Accepted 20 April 2006
MPhil and PhD library and
information science research in
Pakistan: an evaluation
Syed Jalaluddin Haider
Department of Library and Information Science, University of Karachi,
Pakistan, and
Khalid Mahmood
Department of Library and Information Science, University of the Punjab,
Lahore, Pakistan
Purpose The aim of this study is to provide an insight to international readers into the perspective
of doctoral level research in Pakistan. The factors which led to the start of this program and
difficulties encountered in this regard at different universities are discussed.
Design/methodology/approach The study is mainly based on review of the literature. Research
theses approved at MPhil and PhD level are evaluated. Some information collected from Library and
Information Science (LIS) schools through personal communication is also provided.
Findings The problems that did not allow success in the doctoral programs in LIS were: lack of
encouragement by seniors in a real sense; low esteem for indigenous PhD degree in the eyes of fellow
professionals; little or no impact of early recipients of the degree on profession; and non-availability of
financial assistance to the prospective candidates. Of the findings mention is made of: no fixed
criteria for admission; the research topics do not concern the problems; and absence of proper
supervision/guidance resulting in poor quality of thesis in most cases. Suggestions include: formation
of a high level committe e comprising senior library educators under the Higher Education
Commission to work out problems and streamline the process; maintenance of close links with library
schools in other countries, particularly in the English speaking world, which are interested in global
Originality/value This paper is the only evaluation of postmaster level LIS education in Pakistan.
The findings are useful for planners of LIS education at postmaster level in Pakistan as well as in
other developing countries.
Keywords Information science, Education, Research, Doctorates, Pakistan
Paper type General review
Library environment
Modern library services in the territories now constituting Pakistan began in 1915 with
the arrival of Asa Don Dickinson, an American librarian at the University of the
Punjab. His goal at the university, in his own words, was ‘to organize the university
library and to teach modern library methods to the librarians of the Punjab’
(Dickinson, 1915). The impact of this school was tremendous on successive library
developments throughout British India. The city of Lahore from 1915 onward became
the centre of library activities. Following independence, however, librarianship was
largely neglected in the face of more pressing problems.
The present library scenario is not impressive at all. There were 6,034 libraries in
1989, with a total collection of 13,354,500 volumes. The number and the types of
libraries are: one National Library (80,000), 22 university libraries (2,098,400), 435
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
college libraries (3,640,800), 331 special libraries (2,557,500), 281 public libraries
(2,190,800), 464 school libraries (905,400) and seven polytechnic and miscellaneous
libraries (Khurshid, 1990). Unfortunately, these figures have not been updated since
Compared to other typ es of libraries, t he university libraries are better placed with
respect to resources, organization and staff. However, presently there exists a climate of
stagnation and decline in university librar ies. The main factors responsible for this sad
state of affairs have been shrinking budgets and ever rising inflation, combined with
absence of competent manpower for top managerial positions, non-existence of
cooperative programs and limited application of technology in library operations.
There is no organized public library system. The exis ting public libraries, mostly
subscription libraries, are under the charge of municipal and social bodies. The
majority of these occupy temporary buildings and their holdings are mainly out-of-date
fiction books. Only a few are properly staffed and one seldom finds a qualified
librarian. The services of these libraries are quite limited and the main source of
income is regular grants from the annu al budget of the municipal body and
subscription charged to the public. This picture of public libraries could also be
attributed to the absence of public library legislation.
School libraries are in their embryonic stage. In fact, the school librar y development
has not attracted the attention of educational authorities. For this reason their
development has, for the most part, been sporadic. Only a negligible p ercentage of
schools under government control have a library. The librarian has either little or no
training in library science and the books in the collection are often outdated. Hence, the
library is handicapped by the lack of funds, staff and material. The defective education
system and the lack of children’s literature and library funds are the major constraints
in the development of school libraries. On the other hand, there are some excellent
school libraries in the priv ate sector.
The majority of special libraries are attached to government departments and
institutions or to universities and colleges. A far smaller number of such libraries have
be en set up in recent years by industries and firms. These libraries mainly concentrate
around the large cities and metropolitan areas. The collection of books in such libraries
is not large. Books and periodicals still form the largest segment of their collections;
non-print and audio-visual materials are almost non-existent. With respect to services
these libraries have not succeeded in freeing themselves from the tradition. The most
common and popular service provided by a specialist library is the listing of its current
Pakistan has been somewhat unfortunate in the establishment of a national library.
As early as 1949, the Liaquat National Library was established at Karachi, but the
scheme was dropped in 1964, when the country’s capital was shifted to Islamabad.
Until recently, there was not a national library in practical terms, but its functions were
carried out on a limited scale by the Department of Libraries, a subordinate
Dep artment of the Federal Ministry of Education. The National Library of Pakistan
came into existence in April 1999, with the shifting of meager collection of 100,000
volumes collected over the years by the Department of Libraries, to its newly
constructed building formally opened to the public on 24 August 1993. However, an
explanation of the functions of the National Library is still awaited.
Library and
science research
Library and information science (LIS) education: an overall view
At present, eight university library schools provide training facilities at the
postgraduate level leading to Bachelor and Master’s degrees in Library and
Information Science. The PhD program is available at the universities of Karachi,
Sindh, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Balochistan and Peshawar, and Master of Philosophy
(MPhil) is offered at Karachi, Sindh, Balochistan and Peshawar. Regional library
associations offer courses of short duration. Library Science is also available as an
optional subject at the higher secondary level. At the Universities of Karachi and
Punjab, Library Science is also offered as an optional subject at the BA level.
Despite progress in educating librarians and information specialists, Pakista n is
faced with problems in this sector. Of this, mention in particular could be made of the
poor quality of students entering the profession, the low intellectual content of
curricula, out-of-date faculty, dominance of trad itional teaching meth ods and dearth of
reading material and poor library and laboratory facilities (Haider, 1998).
What about the job and career development opportunities? Strangely enough, it is
estimated that only 10-15 per cent of 250 graduates turned out annually by the
country’s library schools succeed in finding employment in libraries. This low rate of
professional employment in the field clearly implies that there is a dire need for careful
planning to limit the number of graduates having similar qualifications and
In Pakistan, the mobility of librarians is very low because the life long empl oyment
habit is still very rigid. This me ans that librarians in Pakistan generally lack the
opportunities to develop their professional skill and knowledge to improve their
services by having variety of experiences.
PhD program
The PhD Program in Library and Information Science is a purely research program
based on the submission of a thesis on an approved topic. A candidate for admission to
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Library and Information Science must have a
good academic record with first or second class Master’s degree (50 per cent marks)
from a Pakistani or foreign university. The Higher Education Commission has also
made Graduate Record Examination, a type of multiple choice test aimed at testing
intellectual ability, as mandatory. The University of the Punjab requires a written test
along with an evaluation of the candidate in terms of his qualifications, publications
and experience (University of the Punjab, 2000). Any application to study for PhD/
MPhil must be accompanied by a research proposal. The rese arch proposal allows the
Board of Studies to accept the feasibility of the proposed research and to help identify a
suitable potential supervisor/guide. Students for the PhD degree are normally
registered for MPhil in the first instance and transfer to the PhD after one year if
progress is satisfactory. Quite contrary to the above the University of Peshawar has
designed its PhD program on the American pattern, requiring course work plus
dissertation (University of Peshawar, 2003).
The PhD program in itself aims to provide advanced as well as comprehensive
academic training for those who wish to pursue career in university teaching and
research. Doctoral study is fulfilled in a variety of ways through independent reading
and dissertation research, but also through interviewing and discussing the topic with
senior professionals, visiting libraries for observation and participating in conferences
and seminars. With an exception of the University of Peshawar, there is no fixed
curriculum for these programs.
First PhD program
The Department of Library Science at the University of Karachi was the first to start
this program in 1967, with the registration of M.A. Usmani, the deputy librarian of the
University, as the first candidate (Pakistan Library Bulletin, 1968). Between 1967 and
1971, four more students were admitted to this program. The topics chosen by the
candidates were: Growth of Periodical Literature in Pakistan: 1857-1957 (M.A.
Usmani); Evolution of the Calligraphy in the Muslim World (Matloob Husain); Libr ary
Investment and Intellectual Return (G.A. Sabzwari); Public Libraries: A National
Strategy to Combat Illiteracy in Pakistan (A.H. Akhter); Islami kutubkhane (Tr. Islamic
Libraries): 749 AD-1257 AD (M.A.H. Chishti) (Haider, 1978).
For all the five topics, Dr. A. Moid (1920-1984), the then Chairman of the Department
and the University Librarian was the director/advisor/sup ervisor. It may be added here
that Dr. Moid was one of the pioneers of the library movement in the country. He had
his MA (Library Science) from the University of Michigan and PhD from the University
of Illinois.
Out of the five students enrolled in this program only M.A.H. Chishti succeeded in
completing his thesis and was awarded the degree in 1981. The question arises as to
why this program did not succeed. So far no effort seems to have been made to find an
answer to this question.
In fact, there are scores of questions, which need to be answered in this regard. For
instance: What factors were responsible for the institution of the PhD program at the
University of Karachi? Was there a need for such an advanced program as early as
1967, when the profession was struggling for its recognition? Library Science was yet
to be recognized as an independent discipline by other academics on the campus, so
much so that even the Dep artment of Library Science was not fully constituted. It had
only two full-time teachers.
First PhD thesis
The first PhD degree in Library Science was awarded to M.A.H. Chishti in 1981 who
worked on Islami Kutubkhane: 749 AD-1257 AD (Tr. Islamic Libraries: 749 AD-1257
AD) under the guidance of Prof. Dr. A. Moid (Chishti, 1981). This is, in fact, the first
study of its kind after the work of Yusuf al, Ash (1967) on the subject. But this study
has remained so far unknown, primarily for its being written in Urdu. Even in Pakistan
it is unknown in professional circles, most probably for lack of publicity. The study
comprises 11 chapters. The first chapter, the introduction, is preceded by a prologue
that discusses the impo rtance of libraries as a cultural institution. Basically, this is a
historical study of the development of libraries under Mu slim rulers between 749 AD
and 1257 AD. The following chapter discusses the origin of libraries in general. The
third chapter is primarily devoted to development of libraries und er Abbasids and
their contemporaries, with brief mention of libraries under Fatimids of Egypt and
Umayyads of Spain. Chapters 4 and 5 cover perso nal libraries and corporate libraries,
respectively. Chapter 6 is completely devoted to the art of book making, but primarily
confined to developments in Baghdad. Classification and cataloguing are subjects of
the chapters 7 and 8, respectively. Chapter 9 discusses bibliography and its various
types. Administration is the heading of the chapter 10. Chapter 11 includes conclusion
and the findings. The last chapter is the bibliography.
Library and
science research
MPhil program at Karachi
There was complete silence for about ten years. This could be attributed to absence of
any impact of the first PhD degree either in the form of personal advantage to the
researcher or to his organization or to the profession. So muc h so that the thesis could
not find a place in the outline of the course, History of Books and Libraries, this has a
specific unit on Islamic libraries. As a matter of fact the Doctoral program suffered a set
back after the dep arture of Dr. Moid in 1973 to Nigeria on Foreign Service Leave as the
new leadership had its own priority. The lack of interest in continuing and
strengthening the PhD program on the part of Department was openly expressed in
certain quarters of the profession. In particular, with the migration of the cream of
manpower to the oil-rich countries the need for quality and highly qualified manpower
in LIS departments was perhaps felt more intensely. To counter the professional
criticism an MPhil program was institu ted by the Department in 1985, with the
objective ‘to introduce highly intelligent and experienced librarians and library school
teachers, having research aptitude, to methods of research and to encourage the
investigation of problems of librarianship’ (Haider, 1987). The candidates seeking
admission to this program must have passed MA in Library Science or MA in Library
and Information Science examination at least in 1st class with A grade in course work
on Research Methodology from the University of Karachi, or any other recognized
university of Pakistan or abroad. However, this condition was flexible in the case of
Library and Information Science teachers with three years teaching experience, and
five ye ars in the case of librarians working in a research/large library. The research
aptitude of the candidates was to be judged on the basis of their published articles in
library journals of repute. Also, the candidate was to be proficient in the English
language and should have proficient knowledge of one foreign language connected
with the subject of research. Above all, only four seats were made available. The
program was designed on the American pattern, cou rse work plus thesis, while
generally the MPhil and PhD programs in Pakistani universities follow the British
system, wherein research is primarily based on submission of a thesis, under the
supervision of a guide, on a topic approved by the Board of Advanced Studies. The
thesis when completed is examine d by at least two examiners, of which one must
be external, prior to its defense (University of Karachi, n.d.). In view of t he failure of
the program and perhaps more because of professional criticism, the university had to
change its regulations regarding eligibility for admission to MPhil in LIS, adopted on
22 August 1985, in August 1994 and asked the Department to ‘follow the same rules
for admission to MPhil as laid down by the university for other departments/centers/
institutes’ (University of Karachi, 1994).
Revival of doctoral program
In 1987, the program was revived because of the purely personal interest of Dr. Jameel
Jalibi, the then Vice-chancellor. So much so that he personally met each and every
faculty member of the Department and tried to convince them to seek registration
as a doctoral candidate. It was under this background that Nasim Fatima was
registered, and Dr. Jalibi was kind enough to agree to be her guide. The candidate was
awarded PhD degree in 1992 for her study Cataloguing of Urdu Manuscripts and
Standardization: Research, Analysis, Problem and Principles (Fatima, 2000). The study
was published in 2003 in its original form, with a brief Foreword by Jameel Jalibi.
The detail of MPhil/PhD level current research in progress at Karachi University is
given below:
(1) Malahat K. Sherwani, ‘Interactive role of information generating, handling and
disseminating organizations in Pakistan’’, Supervisor: Dr. Anis Khurshid
(2) Muneera Nasreen, ‘Information needs and information seeking behavior of
media practitioners in Pakistan’’, Supervisor: D r. Nisar Zuberi (PhD).
(3) Khawaja Mustafa, A model for network of health science libraries in Karachi’’,
Supervisor: Dr. Syed J. Haider.
(4) Syed Ataullah, ‘Digital library initiatives in Pakistan: a proposed digital library
model for the Aga Khan university’’, Supervisor: Dr. Syed J. Haider.
(5) Shamshad Ahmad, ‘Department of archives, government of Sindh: a study’’,
Supervisor: Dr. Nasim Fatima.
Islamia University, Bahawalpur
The PhD program at this university was institu ted in 1986. The first such degree was
awarded to Muhamma d Fazil Khan in 1991 for the study, Coordinated Planning for
University Libraries in Pakistan, completed under the supervision of Dr. Rafia Ahmad
Sheikh of Sindh University (Khan, 1991). The study, as its subtitle indicates, includes
problems, perceptions, prospects, organization and implementation. Based on
questionnaire survey method it is limited to public sector universities.
It may be added here that the university has been very liberal in registering
candidates for PhD degree. At least 11 candidates were registered between 1998 and
2003. Of these three are said to have completed their theses but no one succeeded in
obtaining the degree. The names of the candidates along with their topics of research
are available at:
University of the Punjab
Modern Library services in British India began in 1915 with the start of library course
at the University of the Punjab by Asa Don Dickinson, a pupil of Melvil Dewey. In fact,
this was the first course of its kind to be started outside the USA. This was a certificate
course of short duration. It was open to all irrespective of any other consideration until
1928, when admission was restricted to graduates. After the departure of Asa Don
Dickinson in 1916, the course was continued. However, the course remained suspended
between 1947 and 1949. It was revived in 1950, offering the same certificate course. In
1959 the course was raised to Postgraduate Diploma in Library Science. Master’s
program was instituted in 1974. In 1999 the Doctoral program was started.
The first PhD degree was awarded in 2004 to Khalid Mahmood for his study,
Alternative Funding Model for Libraries in Pakistan, carried out under the professional
guidance of this principal author (Mahmood, 2004). It could be rightly termed as the
first problem oriented PhD research in the country, which meets the international
To improve library services in Pakistan libraries need adequate finance, which is
not available at the moment from the traditional sources. This study is directed
towards finding alternative sources of funding. In chapter 1 a case on the significance
of the study has been well established by the researcher. The rational for such a study
is quite clear and well argued. Chapter 2 is a comprehensive survey of the literature on
the subject. Examples from developed world and developing countries, including
Pakistan, are of special significance from the point of fast cha nging economic scenario
Library and
science research
at the global level. All the references are relevant. Throughout it demonstrate s coherent
The researcher’s choice of methodology (Chapter 3) is both relevant and well
supported consid ering the topic of the thesis. The survey method, the popular method
of research in social sciences, was used. Data from 60 libra ries, having a minimum
collection of 25,000 volumes, was collected out of a population of 100 libraries of all
types. Forty-eight LIS professionals were also interviewed to collect data on various
aspects of library funding in Pakistan an d seek their suggestions for be tterment of the
Chapter 4 gives an impressive analysis of data collected through questionnaires and
interviews of library science experts. The analysis is thorough and well substantiated.
It is worth reading, interesting and has a lot of good points, making a case for
construction of a funding model. Based on the findings an Alternative Funding Model
for Libraries in Pakistan was developed in chapte r 5. Of special significance are the
comments of 21 international library experts. Of these mention should be made of
useful and scholarly comments of Prof. John P. Feather and Dr. Vladimir Zaitsev. The
qualitative analysis of the views of exp erts by the researchers shows his exceptional
Chapter 6 incorporates the conclusion and recommendations of findings related to
research questions set out in the first chapter deserve fullest consideration on the part
of library authorities and library administra tors.
The second PhD degree was awarded by the University of the Punjab to Kanwal
Ame en for her thesis entitled, Philosophy and Framework of Collection Management
and Its Application in University Libraries in Pakistan: An Appraisal in 2005. Like the
previous one this study too, was supervised, almost simultaneously, by this principal
author (Ameen, 2005).
The collection management has always been a key problem for libraries in this
country. Almost 90 per cent of reading and research material need to be imported from
abroad, particularly from USA and UK. But no comprehensive study to this effect was
ever done in the country. Chapter 1 is devoted to justify the need for the study. The
literature on collection management has comprehensively been surveyed in chapter 2.
Chapter 3 is a description of methods followed fo r this study. The survey method was
followed. Data from 30 university libraries established till 1996, were collected out of
population of 40 targeted libraries. Twenty librarians of 16 universities located in six
major cities of Pakistan were interviewed to collect data on various aspects of CM and
seek their suggestions for their betterment. At least five senior faculty members
of universities in Lahore, Peshawar and Islamabad were also interviewed. Why only
three cities were selected? And why the interview was limited to only five perso ns?
A satisfactory answer to these questions is not available.
The University of the Punjab has started a regular MPhil leading to PhD program in
University of Balochistan
The Department was established in 1981 with the institution of a Postgraduate
Diploma in Library Science of one year duration. In 1985, the Master’s degree program
was begun. The MPhil program through research was started in 1994. So far three
persons have been awarded MPhil degrees. Presently, one candidate is writing his
thesis. The first is about The Status of Copyright and Book Piracy in Pakistan by
Muhammad Ilyas (Ilyas, 1996). The second is a survey of Use of Academic Libraries in
Balochistan by Shamsa Mubeen (Mubeen, 1996). Both the theses were superv ised by
Me er Hassan Jamali, the then Chairman of the Department. The third is Public
Libraries in Balochistan by Khurshid Ansari.
In 2003, the PhD program was started and two candidates were registered initially.
Their names, topics of research and the names of supervisors are given below:
(1) Muhammad Ilyas, ‘Development and future ne eds of library and info rmation
science education in Pakistan’’, Dr. Iftikhar Khawaja/Dr. Khalid Mahmood.
(2) Khurshid Ansari, ‘Standards for public libraries in Pakistan’’, Dr. Sakina
Moosvi (Ilyas, 2005).
University of Sindh
The Department of Library, Information Science and Archival Studies traces its origin
when a certificate course in Library Science was instituted in 1965 at the initiative of
Dr. Muhammad Ali Kazi, the University Librarian and a scholar of repute. In 1966, this
course was upgraded to Diploma in Library Science, but it was at the undergraduate
level. These courses, in fact, gave impetus to the introduction of postgraduate diploma
in Library Science in 1970 and finally MA in Library Science in 1974 (Fatima et al.,
In 2001, the PhD program was instituted. So far five candidates have registered in
this program. Their names and topics of research along with the names of the
supervisors are given below:
(1) Nisar Ahmed Shaikh, A comparative study of provincial archives of Pakistan:
their impact on history, culture and research activities’’, Dr. Rafia A. Sheikh/
Dr. A.R. Butt.
(2) Khadija Ansari, A study of secondary school libraries in Sindh: standards and
evaluation criteria’’, Dr. A.R. Butt/Dr. Rafia A. Sheikh.
(3) Shireen Gul, ‘User satisfaction in the use of library and information services: a
comparative study of four university libraries in Sindh’’, Dr. Rafia A. Sheikh.
(4) Hashmi Akhtar Rind, ‘College librarianship in Sindh: a case study of
Hyderabad district’’, Dr. A.R. Butt/Dr. Rafia A. Sheikh.
(5) Manzoor Ahm ed Hajano, ‘Building library collection: a comparative study
of university libraries in Sindh policies and practices adopted’’, Dr. Rafia
A. Sheikh (Soomro, 2004).
Of these Nisar A. Subhpoto has completed his thesis and was awarded PhD (Subhpoto,
2005). This is the most comprehensive study of its kind in Pakistan. Jointly supervised
by Dr. Rafia Shaikh and Dr. A.R. Butt the study is a comparative study of four
provincial archives and the National Archives of Pakistan. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss the
situation of archives in Pakista n with particular reference to National Archives
followed by chapter 5 which is specifically devoted to provincial archives. Each
provincial archive department was discussed in terms of its physical facilities, budget,
personnel, acquisition, collection, arrangement system, facilities provided, preservation
and conservation, publications, training program and automation program.
Of the findings, mention in particular could be made of: (1) lack of recognition
with regard to importance of archives, (2) inadequate budgetary provision, (3) absence
of finding aids/tools, (4) non-existence of codes for organization of documents,
Library and
science research
(5) non-availability of trained manpower, (6) poor physical facilities, (7) non-utilization
of Information Technology.
The provision of a model archives act for the province of Sindh is of special
significance of the recommendations. This is a comprehensive draft which could be
helpful for other provinces in formulation of their acts. There are recommendations for
other aspects of archival administration and organization.
(1) Until recently, there had been no fixed criterion for admission to PhD programs.
Anyone with a good Master’s degree was eligible to seek admission. Of course
the candidate was supposed to have the approval of the chairman/head of the
department before submitting a formal application. However, there is a trend
towards standardization of admission procedures. The universities of Punjab
and Peshawar have already formulated regulations in this regard. The Higher
Education Commission has made GRE a mandatory requirement.
(2) Except one all the studies done so far do not concern problems. Topic s seem to
have been selected at the convenience of the candidates without giving
consideration to its usefulness for the profession. Even the topic is not clear at
times. Likewise, the title and sub-title of some studies create confusion.
(3) All the five studies suffered for lack of close supervision. Candidates had
difficulties to contact their supervisors as they reside in distant cities.
(4) Absence of a well established bibliography has been noticed in some theses.
Very little use of Western sources has been ma de in some cases.
(5) There is too much documentation in all the theses which makes the reader
uncomfortable. Almost every alternate line has been documented in some
(6) In the majority of cases, the introduction does not define the aims and means of
the study clearly. Likewise, the conclusion is not convincing in most cases.
(7) There is much to be desired so far as language is concerned. They suffer from
poor language and grammatical mistakes of all kinds. The narrative does not
flow well in some cases.
(8) Lack of uniformity in physical presentation has been observed. Even the two
theses submitted at the same university differ in formatting and general
Summary and conclusion
The Department of Library Science at the University of Karachi was the first to start
PhD program in 1967. So far, it has produced two PhDs out of ten candidates registered
in this program between 1967 and 2004. Why did the program not succeed? Of the
reasons in this regard mention in particular is made of: (1) lack of encouragement on
the part of seniors; (2) absence of respect for the indigenous PhD degree among
professionals in the country; (3) little or no impact of the product on the profession; (4)
unnecessary restrictions on prospective candidates with regard to eligibility; (5) non-
availability of financial assistance to the candidates.
The MPhil program star ted by the University of Karachi in 1985 did not succeed
either, primarily for not taking into consideration the librar y environment in the
country. It was instituted in haste just to counter the criticism on the Department in
some professional circles, regarding its PhD program. It may be added that not a single
candidate tried to seek admission to this program, which forced the university to
change the criteria for admission. However, no positive result was achieved.
The Islamia University at Bahawalpur has been quite liberal in admitting students
to its docto ral program. Perhaps it happ ened because the Department wanted to take a
lead over other universities.
The University of the Punjab, which suffered most because of immigration of its
faculty to oil rich countries for lucrative jobs, star ting from mid-1970s, took a unique
decision to start its doctoral program when three of its faculty members registered
themselves in 1999 with their Dean as supervisor and a subject expert as co-supervisor
from outside. Two of these candidates contacted this principal author for being their
co-supervisor, which was accepted. It was something of a deviation from the traditional
practice, but this did work. Both succeeded in obtaining the PhD degree within the
stipulated period of five years.
The University of the Punjab has started a regular MPhil leading to a PhD program
in 2005.
Two other universities have also started PhD programs. The Balochistan have
registered at least two candidates in 2003, and the University of Sindh has registered
five candidates. The Peshawar University has also made nec essary preparations for
launching of its doctoral program soo n.
Ameen, K. (2005), ‘Philosophy and framework of collection management and its application in
university libraries in Pakistan: an appraisal’’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of the
Chishti, A.H. (1981), ‘Islami Kutubkhane 133 A.H./779 A.D. 656 A.H./1258 A.D. In Urdu
(Tr.: Islamic Libraries: 779 A.D. To 1258 A.D.)’’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of
Dickinson, A.D. (1915), ‘Memoires’’, unpublished.
Fatima, N. (2000), Urdu makhtootat ki katalogsazi aur maiyar bandi. (Urdu: Tr. Cataloguing of
Urdu manuscripts and standardization), Library Promotion Bureau, Karachi.
Fatima, N., Mahmood, K. and Hashmi, N.H. (2004), Library and Information Science Research in
Pakistani Universities, Pakistan Bibliog raphical Organization, Karachi.
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Corresponding author
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... The Ph.D. graduates from PU joined other LIS schools and started Ph.D. programs in various LIS schools in Pakistan (Samdani and Bhatti, 2011). The review of LIS literature reveals that a few Pakistani researchers conducted studies related to LIS research produced by Pakistani LIS schools (Jalaluddin Haider and Mahmood, 2007;Naseer, 2011;Samdani and Bhatti, 2011;Sheikh and Jan, 2017). ...
... Over the past two decades, different individuals have made various efforts to examine the research productivity of LIS schools in Pakistan (Ameen and Warraich, 2014;Hussain et al., 2019;Jalaluddin Haider and Mahmood, 2007;Mahmood and Shafique, 2010;Samdani and Bhatti, 2011;Sheikh and Jan, 2017). Jalaluddin Haider and Mahmood (2007) evaluated Ph.D. research in LIS in Pakistan to provide an international reader with an understanding of Pakistani postgraduate LIS research. ...
... Over the past two decades, different individuals have made various efforts to examine the research productivity of LIS schools in Pakistan (Ameen and Warraich, 2014;Hussain et al., 2019;Jalaluddin Haider and Mahmood, 2007;Mahmood and Shafique, 2010;Samdani and Bhatti, 2011;Sheikh and Jan, 2017). Jalaluddin Haider and Mahmood (2007) evaluated Ph.D. research in LIS in Pakistan to provide an international reader with an understanding of Pakistani postgraduate LIS research. ...
The current study aims to examine doctoral research works produced by Pakistani universities in the field of library and information science (LIS). The study provides an understanding of the perspective of PhD level research in Pakistan and aims to determine developmental patterns, popular focused areas, current trends, and the most productive universities. The content analysis method was used to conduct this study. A self-structured questionnaire was used for the collection of data. A total of five universities were selected for the collection of softcopies of theses for this study. The information was gathered from department heads at five LIS schools in Pakistan. MS-Excel was used to analyze and present the data in the form of tables and charts to achieve the study’s objectives. The findings show that Pakistani LIS schools have produced a total of 62 PhD theses from 1981 to 2021. Steady development has been observed until 2010. However, the growth of LIS research has increased significantly during the last decade. The study has explored LIS research trends at the doctoral level and presents an agenda for future research to inspire potential LIS scholars. The findings are useful to improve research quality at the doctoral level for LIS scholars and faculty members of LIS schools in Pakistan and other developing countries.
... Mahmood and Shafique (2010) acknowledged that outstanding efforts were being made by HEC to promote the research culture in Pakistan. However, despite these efforts, various studies conducted in the current decade have painted a grim picture of the research culture prevailing in Pakistan (Ameen, 2013;Haider and Mahmood, 2007;Mahmood and Shafique, 2010;Naseer and Mahmood, 2009;Samdani and Bhatti, 2011). ...
... Ameen (2013) also identified that poor research culture, lack of critical and logical thinking and weak writing skills were serious obstacles to generating high-quality research in Pakistan and other developing countries. This was found to be true in social and medical sciences (Aslam et al., 2005;Haider and Mahmood, 2007;Khan et al., 2009). ...
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Purpose Researchers’ competencies are directly related to the quality and effectiveness of the research they produce. However, training opportunities for education and conducting research seem to be limited for the growing research culture in Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to assess the research-related training needs of postgraduate researchers (PGRs) of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative research approach was used to conduct the study using a questionnaire. Non-random sampling technique was used to collect the data from the postgraduate (MPhil/MS and PhD) researchers enrolled in the two well renowned Pakistani Universities. Findings Results of the study confirmed that PGRs were interested in developing their skills in various areas of a research project such as topic selection, research design and use of data analysis software. Findings also highlighted that respondents were interested in learning reference management tools for citing and managing the sources of information in their research work. Originality/value This is the first study, which investigated the training needs assessment of PGRs enrolled in two major Pakistani universities. The results may help in designing training programs, promoting a conducive research culture in the country and improving the quality of research being produced. This study provided a framework likely to be beneficial for quality enhancement cells, universities and organizations in organizing effective research training and development programs for researchers of Pakistan.
... The prime objective of the higher education system is to develop the ability of critical thinking that further subsidizes to create new spheres of knowledge (Iqbal, Mahmood & Iqbal, 2018;Ahmad, et al., 2020). Effective teaching of research methodology supports in conceiving innovative ideas, developing new disciplines and refining the existing theories of knowledge (Ullah & Rafiq, 2021;Haider & Mahmood, 2007). Quality education and research are considered as the backbone for sustainable development and economic strength in the competitive knowledge-based society (Meo, Almasri & Usmani, 2013;Laurie, et al., 2016). ...
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the research output and publications trends of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Pakistan for the last 42 years as observed in the Scopus database. IUB is the premier degree-awarding institution of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan and considerably subsidized their valuable share in national research growth. A quantitative bibliometric research technique was employed to enumerate the documents and their parameters. The publications record of IUB from 1980 to 2021 was retrieved on 2nd January 2022. The Microsoft Excel and VOSviewer software were used to appraise the dataset and presented the findings in tabular/graphic formats. The authors affiliated to IUB contributed the share of 2.52% in the national research growth of Pakistan with 6,209 documents and 62% of the documents were published in the last five years (2017-2021). The review papers and subscription-based documents gained more citations as compared to articles and open-accessed documents. The highest numbers of the documents were published on the subject area of "Agricultural and Biological Sciences" and about 15% of the documents were published in top-10 journals. Bahauddin Zakariya University was found on the top among the research collaborative institutions and China emerged as the top preference in the international research collaboration. The findings confirmed that a promising research growth has been explicit in the JIMP Vol.1 No.2 Haq, I. U (2021) 52 last decade. The outcomes of this study are significant for the IUB authorities and they can review their efforts to promote research culture. The findings of this paper would also serve as a benchmark for the future studies on IUB as well as the other universities of Pakistan.
... After having been suspended from 1947 to 1949, it restarted in 1950, and thereafter raised to the postgraduate diploma in 1959. This school started master's program in LIS in 1974(Haider and Mahmood, 2007). However, the master's program in LIS was first introduced in the country by the Department of Library and Information Science at the University of Karachi in 1956(Samdani and Bhatti, 2011). ...
This study aimed to explore library and information science (LIS) students’ satisfaction with information and communication technology (ICT) facilities at LIS schools in the Punjab, Pakistan. It also identifies the factors that motivated the students to use ICT and the benefits that they gained from the ICT. The study employed the quantitative research method to address the research questions. The quantitative data were collected from students of LIS schools in public sector universities in the Punjab, Pakistan. The findings suggest that although the students were required to use the ICT equipment to learn ICT skills as part of the LIS curriculum, most of the students used ICT tools at academic libraries and homes. The students were of the view that the use of ICT helped them develop ICT competencies. The majority of the students did not give opinions about their satisfaction with various ICT components at the schools. The outcomes of the study will help the LIS schools to upgrade and enhance their ICT facilities in order to enable students to develop ICT skills effectively and meet the job market needs in the current digital era.
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The main objective of the current study is to quantify the research productivity in Library and Information Science (LIS) Services produced by Pakistani authors during the period of ten years from 2011 to 2020. The retrospective research method by applying the bibliometric technique has been used. The data of the publications on LIS Services by Pakistani authors has been browsed from various online and print sources. The selected bibliographic parameters of publications were inserted in Microsoft Excel-2016 for data analysis. The findings have been presented in tabular and graphic formats. A total of 1,258 documents were identified, contributed by 3,110 authors including multiple counts with an average of 2.47 authors per document. As a distinct name, a total of 858 authors were recognized and the share of international authors was slightly more than one-fifth (21%). About one-third of the total documents were published in the last two years of the study. Eighty-three percent of the documents were the results of research collaboration and the two-author pattern was found the preferred authorship pattern. The majority of documents (91%) were published as journals articles, followed by conference papers, book chapters and books. The highest number of papers were published in Pakistan Library and Information Science Journal, followed by Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Sixty-four percent of the authors contributed in one paper each while 69 authors contributed ten or more than ten papers each. Dr. Rubina Bhatti, Dr. Kanwal Ameen and Dr. Khalid Mahmood were found the top-three most productive authors with 103, 94 and 77 publications, respectively. The introduction of LIS doctorate programs and the establishment of the National Digital Library of Higher Education Commission put a healthy impact on the growth of publications. There is a need to inspire the practicing librarians that they should come forward to contribute to the research progress to develop LIS services. 1
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The study aimed to evaluate the bibliometric research of Library and Information Science (LIS) research contributed by the authors affiliated with the University of Karachi (UoK), Pakistan. The dataset was limited to 22 years from January 2000 to December 2021 and a list of evaluated papers has been proved from various online and print sources. Google Scholar has been employed to access the record of citation(s). Ninety-two papers were identified with at least one author affiliated with the UoK on the subject category of LIS and these papers were cited 707 times. Two-author collaboration was found to be the preferred authorship pattern and the papers written in this pattern got a better citation result. A number of research articles' contributions have been found that female authors are more than male authors. Syed Jalaluddin Haider, Munira Nasreen Ansari and Farhat Hussain emerged as the most prolific authors with 26, 25 and 15 papers, respectively. The papers published in international journals got higher citations and about three-fourth of the papers were published in the top 11 sources which in found from these research. The subject dispersion revealed that LIS Education and Library Management were the favorite areas. The characteristics of the ten most cited papers revealed that 60% citations were gained by these papers. The findings of this paper support understanding the research trends in LIS at UoK. There is a need to accelerate the research activities, revisit the research policies and promote the research culture in the UoK.
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Computing programs are internationally available at different levels and nomenclatures. The popular levels in this regard are Bachelors and Master’s Degree. Internationally the Bachelors programs are commonly available as BS and MS program. Though UK and its follower countries the level and nomenclature are also called and popular as BSc and MSc programs. Worldwide Computing and IT programs are available only in science platform (except few countries that offers Master of Engineering/ Technology program). As far as Research levels are concerned most common are PhD and M.Phil. Though, among these, PhD is most common. However, it is worthy to note that M.Phil. Program is not offered and not so much popular in some countries. M.Tech by Research is considered as another program of research level offered to the B.Tech. / BE degree holders and in some cases MSc degree holders. In India, M.Phil. and PhD are available in IT and Computing fields for the science candidates, though engineering post graduate in related fields may also join the program. M.Phil. program in India is offered only at universities. In recent past, the number of private universities has been significantly increased and thus many of them are offer M.Phil. And many of those private universities offer the field of IT and Computing. The traditional M.Phil. Programs are concentrated on broad areas viz. Computer Science/ Applications. Though, a significant move was undertaken by the Srinivas University, Karnataka for offering subfields of IT. The paper discusses in detail of M.Phil. Program available in India with a special focus on specialized Cloud Computing, Big Data Analytics etc. Paper also tries to move into healthy educational policy related work for future potentialities.
Citation analysis means the analysis of the citation or reference which are available in reference section of the any research like journals article, reports, and MPhil, PhD theses or any communication, Citation analysis can be used as a tool for knowing reading habits of users in all field of knowledge. It is also helpful to librarian for understanding the interesting valuable literature of research scholar and to recognize the core journals of any field of knowledge. The primarily concerns of this research are to evaluate of the PhD theses which are submitted in the Pakistani library schools. The main objectives of the study were to reveal citations according to types of documents, to know geographical affiliation of publication, to find out authorship patterns and to know citation trends in journals. This study shows the worth of LIS research produced in Pakistan, trend of research in LIS community and which type of information format was popular among the LIS researchers. Total 1821 references were evaluated in this study. 374 Books were cited; the data showed that single author books were 258, co-authors 85 and multiple authors 31. 63 Theses were cited. 93 Websites were cited having different domains. 56 Conference proceedings were cited. 103 Reports were cited from different countries mostly used from USA (40.7%), Pakistan (33.9%) and France (4.8%). 1114 International Journal citation were found these journals were published different countries like USA, UK, Netherlands etc. The most cited journals were found JCR listed. In the case of Pakistani journals mostly from X and Y category journals, it means that Pakistani LIS researchers used high ranking references in their research.
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Objective: The study was aimed to scrutinize the research output of the Faculty members of Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak having PhD degree, from 2012 to 2019. Material and Method: Bibliometric approach was adopted to conduct this study.The study was delimited to the regular faculty members of Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak having PhD degree in their relevant field. Results:The results show that Dr. Saeed Ullah Jan is the most prolific authors with 41 publications followed by Dr. Anwar Khan with 40 papers. Department wise productivity shows that Department of Management Sciences is ranked high in research productivity with 63 publications, followed by Department of Library and Information Science (62). It was noted that the year wise research output during the study period was fluctuating. Recommendations:University should have to hire more PhD faculty and offer incentives for the promotion of research culture in this newly established University of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan.
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The purpose of this research study was to find the perceptions and practices of researchers who supervised the research scholars at the higher education level. It is the common complaint of the students that their supervisors do not cooperate and resultantly the research study does not complete quite well in time. A quality research approach was adopted for the purpose, and sixteen research supervisors were interviewed. Responses of the supervisors who were included in this research for finding problems the supervisors are facing in the process of research supervision at higher education level, data were collected through open-ended questions which were presented during personal interviews to supervisors from private and government universities, both from social sciences and from applied sciences. While the findings of this research show more than these problems which supervisors are facing. It is recommended that the supervisor's point of view should also take into consideration, and further researches should be conducted to analyses hidden areas of this process.
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Pakistan has to face a tremendous pressure from Western countries due to widespread book piracy. This study presents the results of a survey of the book trade regarding copyright and book piracy in the country. International conventions to which Pakistan is a signatory and national copyright law and its implementation are described. American views on the situation of copyright in Pakistan are summarized. The survey reveals that the high price of foreign books is the main cause of book piracy. Local publishers and booksellers are the major beneficiaries of book piracy. Suggestions are given to protect intellectual copyright in Pakistan. Concludes that measures to minimize book piracy will not be successful until books at low price are available for local readers.
Unplanned expansion of library education facilities has affected the quality of library manpower. Various constraints encountered by library schools in their effort to improve the situation are discussed and suggestions are offered. Bright students are not attracted to library schools because of low status according to librarians in the society. Traditional courses dominate the curriculum, with very little emphasis on computer and media courses. The existing faculty lacks competence for the teaching of courses relating to information technology. The teaching methodology is primarily characterized by traditional class-room lecture, supported by practical work. The existing facilities for conducting practicals are not satisfactory with few bibliographical and reference tools available together with a lack of equipment. The most recently published books are seldom available, while there is an absence of periodical literature. Continuing education is confined to the organization of courses in computer applications by the Pakistan Library Association and its branches. The distance education programme needs improvement in order to avoid further criticism. Both M.Phil. and Ph.D. programmes are still in their initial phases and are under scrutiny constantly by academics.
Updates the author's earlier surveys and offers historical comparisons. Considers all types of libraries in each province or region. At present there are 6,034 libraries in the country, holding 13,354,500 volumes. The most satisfying development has been in university libraries, which now provide 44 books per student. In the city of Punjab are found the largest of the nation's public libraries and the largest university library. A landmark activity of recent years has been the distribution of 4,373 "box libraries" to the villages. School libraries have been grossly neglected, and the author notes this as a major problem to be dealt with by government and the library profession. There is also need for a mechanism to clarify and update library statistics. Coordinated, cooperative collection development is called for to avoid a decline in library progress..
The development of university libraries in Pakistan is summarized, with a discussion of the current status of such libraries, including consideration of library organization, resources, organization of collections and cataloging, services to readers, library staff, and major problems. (Author)
published or submitted for publication
It presents bibliographic information on the master and doctoral theses submitted to six universities in Pakistan up to 2003. Although the compilers feel that this list is still not as comprehensive as it should have been, but it is first work of its kind in Pakistan and serves the purpose to a great extent. A total of 855 entries of theses are arranged under 16 subject categories. Web designing by Naveed ul Haq Hashmi.