Article

A worldwide review of support mechanisms for car clubs

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Abstract

Car clubs have operated on a large scale only since 1987, when the first scheme began in Switzerland, although prior to that there were several smaller-scale projects. Schemes then spread to Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. More recently, car clubs have been set up in the UK, Denmark, Italy, and Sweden, and in Canada and the USA. These clubs have developed (and are still developing) in a number of ways. Some schemes are community-level schemes with only one or two vehicles, while others are national organisations with many thousands of members. And some schemes are run by volunteers and are non-profit making, while others are commercial ventures run by international companies. Despite such diverse beginnings, it is clear that the vast majority of schemes face similar problems in becoming established. One major barrier has been the lack of involvement or support from local and national Government. Given the potential benefits of car clubs to deliver environmental and social improvements to communities, this is somewhat surprising. As experience of car clubs spreads, this situation has begun to change and there are signs that Government attitudes across the world are becoming more enthusiastic to the idea of encouraging car clubs. This paper draws on the results of a state-of-the-art review, based on several face-to-face and telephone interviews, email communications, internet sites and existing literature to identify cases where such a change in attitude has occurred, how various levels of Government have translated this into action, and what lessons could be learnt from each example.

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... Start-up costs for car share providers has been a significant barrier. Car sharing only becomes financially viable when the car share vehicles are used intensively [4,7,27,28]. Relatively few car share systems are self-supported from user fees; most depend on financial assistance from government and private investors [4,29]. ...
... Relatively few car share systems are self-supported from user fees; most depend on financial assistance from government and private investors [4,29]. Public policy support has included start-up grants and guaranteed use of the service by central or local government agencies [28]. Private developers have invested in car share companies by incorporating car share into new developments, helping overcome parking constraints [28]. ...
... Public policy support has included start-up grants and guaranteed use of the service by central or local government agencies [28]. Private developers have invested in car share companies by incorporating car share into new developments, helping overcome parking constraints [28]. ...
Article
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New Zealand’s sprawling urban development and high levels of car dependency have resulted in significant environmental impacts, including increased carbon emissions and pollution. Car sharing can support sustainable transport patterns by offering an alternative to private vehicle ownership. Internationally, it has become increasingly popular but is still in the early stages of development in New Zealand. A survey of 356 Wellington residents and interviews with 13 car share stakeholders collected data on interest in car sharing and barriers facing the service in New Zealand’s capital. The results suggest that car sharing could become an important mobility option in Wellington and further policy support for car sharing could enable Wellington to take full advantage of its benefits.
... Achieving this would reduce Biggar CO 2 emissions by up to 2,958 tonnes. Car clubs and car pooling are alternatives that have been shown to operate successfully when environmental consciousness is high (Shaheen et al. 1998;Enoch and Taylor 2006). Increased provision of public transport is essential but must meet community needs to ensure bus occupancy rates are high so that CO 2 emissions per passenger-km are lower than cars (Enoch and Taylor 2006). ...
... Car clubs and car pooling are alternatives that have been shown to operate successfully when environmental consciousness is high (Shaheen et al. 1998;Enoch and Taylor 2006). Increased provision of public transport is essential but must meet community needs to ensure bus occupancy rates are high so that CO 2 emissions per passenger-km are lower than cars (Enoch and Taylor 2006). Reductions in CO 2 anticipated from the introduction of 2.5% biofuels into the UK vehicle supply mix on 15 April 2008 have not been considered. ...
Article
The objective of this research was to develop a community carbon footprint model that could be used to assess the size and major components of a community’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The town of Biggar aims to become Scotland’s first carbon neutral town. As expected for this rural community, car transport accounted for nearly half of the CO2 emissions, with natural gas and electricity consumption resulting in a further 24% and 12% of total emissions, respectively, and air travel being the last major component at 10% of emissions. An assessment was also made of the wind and solar resources of the town. One large wind turbine would provide the town’s electricity, while three to four turbines would be needed to offset all CO2 emissions. In contrast, offsetting by tree planting would require in the region of 2,000ha of trees.
... Public bicycle sharing schemes and car clubs have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape (Enoch & Taylor, 2006;Fishman, Washington, & Haworth, 2013). There are car clubs in over 1,100 cities worldwide (Shaheen, Martin, Cohen, & Finson, 2012). ...
... In some cases, when parking spaces are converted from general use to 'car share only', public bodies have levied a charge on car share operators to compensate for lost revenue (Shaheen et al., 2010). However, it has been argued that many schemes can only be economically viable given a particular blend of cultural, economic, political and transport contexts and that policy collaboration and support are necessary for shared transport to flourish (Enoch & Taylor, 2006;Parkes et al., 2013;Ricci, 2015). Promotion, marketing and provision of parking bays, signage and cycling infrastructure are all means through which policy support for shared transport schemes can be demonstrated (Moore, Rodriguez, Tokuhiro, & Wang, 2012;Pucher, Dill, & Handy, 2010). ...
Article
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Public bicycle and car sharing schemes have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape. Shared transport options have the potential to support social inclusion by improving accessibility: these initiatives could remove some of the barriers to car ownership or bicycle usage such as upfront costs, maintenance and storage. However, the existing evidence base indicates that, in reality, users are most likely to be white, male and middle class. This paper argues that there is a need to consider the social inclusivity of sharing schemes and to develop appropriate evaluation frameworks accordingly. We therefore open by considering ways in which shared transport schemes might be inclusive or not, using a framework developed from accessibility planning. In the second part of the paper, we use the case study of Glasgow in Scotland to undertake a spatial equity analysis of such schemes. We examine how well they serve different population groups across the city, using the locations of bicycle stations and car club parking spaces in Glasgow, comparing and contrasting bike and car. An apparent failure to deliver benefits across the demographic spectrum raises important questions about the socially inclusive nature of public investment in similar schemes.
... Increases awareness of problems resulting from transportation choice 6. Car club Offers shared vehicles that have to be paid only when used (Enoch & Taylor, 2006;Millard-Ball, 2005). 7. Car sharing/car pooling Where individuals share their private car for particular journeys (Enoch & Taylor, 2006;Millard-Ball, 2005). ...
... Increases awareness of problems resulting from transportation choice 6. Car club Offers shared vehicles that have to be paid only when used (Enoch & Taylor, 2006;Millard-Ball, 2005). 7. Car sharing/car pooling Where individuals share their private car for particular journeys (Enoch & Taylor, 2006;Millard-Ball, 2005). ...
... Several systems are running through the world, especially in Europe (Switzerland, UK, Germany, Netherlands), in Canada (Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City) and in the United States (Seattle, Portland, San Francisco area). In a worldwide comparative study, Enoch reports that most of the CSO are supported by the communities and the governments (10,11). Support actions are related to tax incentives, starting investment, provision of parking spaces, marketing and links with transit authorities, etc. Transportation object-oriented modeling In this paper, car sharing data is structured with the help of the Transportation Object-Oriented Modelling (TOOM) (12). ...
Article
Carsharing systems are gaining new members every month. However, few studies formally define the system and illustrate the systematic processing of administrative data sets to estimate indicators regarding both demand and supply objects. The first outcome of this research is the definition of the object model for a carsharing system. Rich transaction data sets, generally used for the production of monthly bills, are used to estimate indicators describing how the carsharing system is used in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada. Indicators describing the main objects of the system-members, trip chains (transactions), cars, and stations-are estimated by using continuous data. The demand object analysis focuses on the study of members and their trip chains using the shared cars. The analysis shows that carsharing members are younger than the overall population, with an overrepresentation of 25- to 39-year-olds. The persistency of active members within the carsharing system is estimated at around 60% after 4 months and 50% after 12 months. The supply-objects analysis focuses on the study of cars and stations. Spatial dispersion of members with respect to stations used and typical use of cars is illustrated over long periods. With the increase in the number of members, transactions, cars, and stations, carsharing organizations need to find new ways to manage growth and optimize their networks. A clearer understanding of how their systems are used will help them develop enhanced planning and modeling abilities.
... Research on the different areas of mobility management has been extensive: recently published studies have focused on travel plans (Rye 2002;Dickinson et al. 2003;Fujii and Taniguchi 2006;Bonsall 2009;Roby 2010), transportation of employees (Potter et al. 2006;Vanoutrive et al. 2010), land use planning in MM (Rye et al. 2010), carpooling (Enoch and Taylor 2006;Correia and Viegas 2011), assessment of MM measures in facilities (Miralles-Guasch and Domene 2010), travel behavior change (Cairns et al. 2008;Brog et al. 2009Stofer et al. 2009Bamberg et al. 2010), the impact of information on the quality of travel choice (Chorus et al. 2006;Chorus, Arentze, and Timmermans 2007), congestion charging (Eliasson 2008) and so on. Furthermore, many European cities have been implementing MM-measures and practices in an effort to reduce traffic congestion and improve urban transportation conditions. ...
Article
Mobility management (MM) has been among Europe's prevailing approaches for promoting and achieving sustainable transportation in urban areas, with considerable work undertaken by researchers and practitioners in this area during the past two decades. However, development of MM policies and measures in European cities does not follow an organized and consistent approach for planning, designing, applying and evaluating a comprehensive MM-system. In that context, the objective of this paper is to propose a scheme, based on quality management (QM) principles, that would aid cities in systematically developing and deploying MM-plans and MM–measures and therefore in successfully supporting sustainability in their transportation system. The developed Quality Management Scheme for Mobility Management (QMSMM) is an integrated process of four major steps – components (policy setting, planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating), structured in a feedback loop and supported by a set of quality criteria per step. The structure, components and elements of the QMSMM are presented in detail, along with supporting procedures for assessing a city's adaptation and compatibility with the scheme. Also, insights on a QMSMM demonstration to the MM-program of the city of Kortrijk, Belgium are offered.
... In the US, carsharing only appeared in the eighties and in contrast to European users the first adopters were more concerned with personal utility than social or environmental benefits (Lane, 2005. Nowadays carsharing has been implemented almost all over the world and its use is still increasing (Shaheen, et al., 1999, Barth, et al., 2006, Enoch & Taylor, 2006, Shaheen & Cohen, 2007. ...
Article
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The added-value of accounting for users' flexibility and information on the potential of a station-based one-way carsharing system: An Disclaimer: This is a version of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to authors and researchers we are providing this version of the accepted manuscript (AM). Copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof will be undertaken on this manuscript before final publication of the Version of Record (VoR). During production and pre-press, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal relate to this version also.
... Studies that have considered possible sustainable mobility transitions highlight the need for both technological and institutional changes (e.g., electric and fuel cell vehicles, customised mobility, teleworking, zoning policies) to achieve a radical reconfiguration of transport systems for sustainability (e.g., Kemp and Rotmans, 2004; Whitmarsh and Wietschel, 2008). Three main approaches to fostering sustainable transport can be identified (see also Nykvist and Whitmarsh, 2008): (a) improving efficiency and reducing the impact of vehicles (via improvements to existing vehicle technologies or development of new vehicle or fuel technologies) (Hamelinck and Faaij, 2006; Romm, 2006; Solomon and Banerjee, 2006);(b) using more sustainable modes of travel (via increased use of public transport, walking, cycling and car sharing) (Enoch and Taylor, 2006; Mont, 2004; Seidel, Loch and Chahil, Expert and Public Attitudes to Sustainable Transport Policies & Technologies 4 2005); and (c) reducing the need to travel (via urban planning, mobility management, lifestyle change and greater use of Information and Communication Technologies (Cairns, 2004; Niewenhuis and Wells, 1997; Schwanen et al., 2011). ...
Article
This paper investigates (a) attitudes to sustainable transport and how these differ between experts and non-experts, and (b) factors that influence these attitudes and their relevant importance in explaining why such differences occur. Attitudes of experts (N = 53) and British public (N = 40) were compared using open-ended questionnaires, attitude scales, analytic hierarchy process and preference ranking. Both samples prioritised reduction in transport demand in qualitative measures. In quantitative measures, however, experts preferred techno-economic measures while the public prioritised behaviour change and public transport improvement. Some options for sustainable transport also varied with individuals’ values, suggesting that expertise alone does not fully account for variation in attitudes. Different perspectives and values imply a need for a broader definition of expertise in transport policy-making, and that the public may not accept transport policies/technologies designed by experts – underlining the importance of early public engagement.
... Carsharing practices are depen- dent on higher density residential and commercial environments that are supportive of alternative transport (Bergmaier et al., 2004). Carsharing is a complement to other alternatives to the private automobile and only makes sense as part of a wider trans- portation package, in neighbourhoods where public transport, walking and cycling are viable options (Huwer, 2004;Enoch and Taylor, 2006;Goldman and Gorham, 2006). Higher residential and commercial densities, a well-connected and maintained active transport environment, a mix of uses, and constrained parking for private vehicles, all underpin carsharing because they construe the suite of transport choices and material environment required to complement it. ...
Article
Contemporary scholarship and policy emphasise problems with car use. Though there is a strongly held view that the system of private car use may be impossible to shift, in this paper we consider one mode of car-based mobility - carsharing - through which subtle challenges to the dominant regime are made. Carsharing is an emerging transportation industry in which drivers access a fleet of shared vehicles for short-term use. This paper pursues a conceptual and investigative exploration of the emergence and endurance of carsharing as an alternative mode and offers a number of novel insights into ways the private car system might be challenged. Using a practice based framework of analysis, we focus not on the various structures or agents influential in carsharing's relative success, but on the way carsharing endures as a routinely performed social practice. It reveals a wide range of mundane footholds for behavioural change, as well as demonstrates the profound complexity implied by any attempt to challenge, and change, deeply entrenched practices of day-to-day mobility.
... These cars are addressed especially to Vauban inhabitants and the cars park on district. Additionally, those residents who joined the car sharing association receive a one-year free pass for all public transportation within Freiburg and "BahnCard 50" a loyalty card offered by Deutsche Bahn, allow passengers to get 50% discount on standard rail fares (Enocha, Taylor, 2006 (Apel et al., 2001;Loose, 2001). The most important services like school, kindergartens, a farmer's market, a shopping centre, restaurants, cafes, are within walking distance. ...
Chapter
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Since the mid-1950's Freiburg im Breisgau has experienced big growth in both population (ca. 62%) and in the number of workplaces. This trend has been still present in the last two decades (ca. 17%) what is not common among German cities. The city must balance between rising number of cars caused by rising population and the quality of life which attracts new inhabitants and new investors mostly in high-tech. In attempt to alleviate growing demand on transport, the city extended the tram network and new lines have been constructed to serve areas of new settlement. It is a tool for making transport behaviours more sustainable and to keep low share of cars in the modal split and the tram lines are the backbone of the urban development, especially for new housing areas. The chance for the region is seen in using existing rail tracks for a development of a regional train network. The most important key to success is coordination of urban development and transport policies.
... There are other possible options, such as households who would otherwise own two cars owning only one and renting at times when they need two cars simultaneously or a different type of car, such as a large one for a family holiday. Support mechanisms for car club membership from around the world have been identified (Enoch and Taylor 2006): ...
Article
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The objective of this report is to consider the available evidence on the role of transport in increasing levels of physical activity, and so contribute to addressing the nation’s health problems caused by low levels of physical activity. Evidence on the links between transport and physical activity is examined, followed by examination of the effects of individual behaviour on physical activity. Whilst research on this topic has had some impact, there are a number on concerns about the approach, in particular the lack of evidence on long-term effects. Modifications to the built environment to increase physical activity are discussed: these need to be supported by other measures to be fully effective. The key relationship is between car use and physical activity. In order to increase levels of physical activity, it is necessary to reduce use of the car. Because so many households have adopted lifestyles that revolve around the use of the car, it is important to recognise that any policies to reduce car use must provide as much, or close to as much, accessibility as the car does. One way to do this is to shift the method of accessing cars from individual household ownership to a more flexible system of hiring or sharing cars. There would need to be a variety of supporting policy actions affecting transport and land use. It would be very useful to have a wide debate about transport modelling to ensure that the models represent travel and locational behaviour effectively, including factors that represent physical activity; the discussion should include the cost effectiveness of making changes to the existing modelling system. The implementation of the approach presented in the report could lead to significant improvements in the health of the nation and cost savings to the National Health Service.
... For other stakeholders, car-sharing reduces Carbon emission, and thus it is more friendly and sustainable to our environment. Due to the programs providing tremendous environmental and social benefits, Enoch et al. (2006) advocate governments should offer more incentives for car-sharing companies. In recent years, car-sharing has been encouraged by many governments' agencies. ...
Article
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This paper reports the experiences of business students at a public four-year institution through the transition to online instruction during the coronavirus pandemic. Specifically, this paper explores results of transitioning a face-to-face classroom to an online learning modality to finish the spring 2020 semester. Results from this study are important not only to the colleges of business but also to the other colleges, as interest in university communication and instructional delivery has universally changed to better serve students' needs. In this study, 75.8% of the students surveyed agreed or somewhat agreed that the university had communicated well with them about changes to their education due to the coronavirus. However, the levels of stress reported correlated with their degree of preference for instruction modality: Students with a stronger preference for in-person instruction are more likely to agree that they are stressed out. The correlation between a student’s confidence in online learning (that they can do well) and the stress of taking online courses is statistically significant. Additionally, male students expressed more confidence in studying online than female students. Senior-level students reported being less stressed out and had more confidence in online learning.
... Car clubs (in the UK) or US name 'car sharing' is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short period of time by the minute, by the hour as well as by the day [131]. ...
Thesis
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Increasing population in urban areas necessitates increasing levels of mix and modes of transportation, roads, land use, which all lead to pollution an d waste of all sorts. Usu- ally longer, wider and larger urban and interurban roads for moto rized vehicles lead to further increases in number of cars with fewer, usually single, people in them, forming an unavoidable basis of an unsustainable society and mobility . In order to achieve sus- tainable cities and economies, in addition to smart use of land, in telligent transportation systems, clean and green vehicles, it is vital to achieve social behavior al change for shift- ing our modes of mobility from motorized means to cleaner, greener, healt hier and more economic means such as walking, cycling, and public transportat ion. Economic, environ- mental, and social concerns about growth of traffic and congestion hav e caused several mega cities in the world and academics towards the investigations an d introduction of different policies and measures in urban areas. Among many policy opti ons, Travel De- mand Management (TDM) policies mainly aim to promote the sustaina ble modes and to increase an effective use of existing infrastructure by voluntari ly controlling the de- mand. With such circumstances, the objectives of this study are as fo llows: (1) to review existing academic, industrial, governmental and non-governmental literature to examine and understand various sustainable society, sustainable develo pment, sustainable mobil- ity concepts, mechanisms and policies developed and tested in other part s of the world; (2) to establish a framework of social behavioral change policies p articularly developed and tested for urban mobility and traffic; (3) to compare various m ega-cities on different indicators to better understand the case of Istanbul; (4) to evalua te potentials of TDM policies in Istanbul as well as to find out traffic congestion perception of the residents by conducting face-to-face surveys; (5) to determine current conditions o f traffic congestion in Istanbul for the projections of traffic conditions in the coming years of 2018 and 2023, with the help of determined potentials from the survey results under di fferent scenarios by using a micro simulation program PTV VISSIM. As a result of thi s study, it was revealed that the traffic conditions in Istanbul tend to become worse y ear by year, but it was also seen that the TDM policies offers noteworthy potential for i ncreased use of sustainable mobility modes and to help significantly reducing cong estion levels.
... Case studies illustrate a wide variety of ways these entities can help (Shaheen et al., 2004). Still, such help has been quite rare, in the main due to a lack of understanding of the documented positive impact that carsharing can have on mobility (Enoch and Taylor, 2006;Lane, 2005;Litman, 2000;Schuster et al., 2005), not only in large cities but also in small-and mid-size ones (Faghri et al., 2008). In a recent study by Sioui et al. (2010) describing a survey of the members of Communauto, a Montreal carsharing organization, it was concluded that a person who does not own a vehicle and resorts frequently to carsharing (5 days a week) makes 30% less trips than a person who owns a vehicle. ...
Article
In this paper, we present an optimization approach to depot location in one-way carsharing systems where vehicle stock imbalance issues are addressed under three trip selection schemes. The approach is based on mixed-integer programming models whose objective is to maximize the profits of a carsharing organization considering all the revenues and costs involved. The practical usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study involving the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal. The results we have obtained from this study provided a clear insight into the impact of depot location and trip selection schemes on the profitability of such systems.
... In de afgelopen jaren is er een opmars gaande rondom de deelfietssystemen. Er verschijnen wereldwijd steeds meer van dit soort systemen op verschillende openbare plaatsen zoals treinstations, vliegvelden en belangrijke gebouwen (Enoch & Taylor, 2006;Fishman e.a., 2013). Daarnaast zijn er ook systemen beschikbaar die niet met vaste locaties werken maar met een app, waarbij bijvoorbeeld beschikbare auto's in de buurt kunnen worden opgezocht. ...
Thesis
Deze masterproef is een onderzoek naar de succesfactoren en knelpunten achter de realisatie van verbeteringen aan een overstappunt. In de huidige literatuur en kennisbanken is veel informatie te vinden over wat reizigers graag willen terugzien qua voorzieningen en inrichting op overstappunten. Toch bestaan er locaties waarbij de voorzieningen (nog) niet op orde zijn. De kennis om deze locaties te verbeteren is wel aanwezig, maar blijkbaar lukt het toch niet om deze locaties te verbeteren. Door het bekijken van een tiental cases is achterhaald welke succesfactoren en knelpunten achter deze processen zitten. Overstappunten zijn belangrijke schakels binnen de ketenmobiliteit, zonder overstappunten zou overstappen niet mogelijk zijn. Zowel in het Europese en landelijke (Nederlandse en Vlaamse) beleid is ketenmobiliteit daarom onderstreept als belangrijk beleidsthema. De tien geselecteerde cases in dit onderzoek zijn geëvalueerd op basis van enerzijds het objectieve oordeel door middel van het opbouwen en toetsen van een checklist, anderzijds het subjectieve oordeel dat is gemeten via reizigersonderzoek bij de Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS) en tot slot het daadwerkelijke gebruik van het overstappunt met behulp van de data rondom in- en uitstappers (ook afkomstig van NS). Met deze informatie zijn vervolgens interviews afgenomen bij de gemeenten en NS Stations/ProRail om daar te achterhalen wat de succesfactoren en knelpunten zijn achter de realisatie van verbeteringen aan een overstappunt.
... The term 'carsharing' is well established in many German speaking countries and frequently used by the German scientific community (Loose et al., 2004;Petersen, 2013) as well as high quality newspapers (e.g., Schafflik, 2018), and public institutions (e.g., document on mobility in Austria from three Austrian ministries, BMLFUW et al., 2014). On the other hand, B2C carsharing companies are sometimes referred to as "car clubs" (Enoch and Taylor, 2006) or short term car rental (Koen et al., 2011)in English. When it comes to advertising, English words in general are common in German advertisements (Gerritsen et al., 2007) and the term "carsharing" is used by B2C companies such as zipcar to advertise their service in German speaking countries (Zipcar, 2018b), whereas on their British website zipcar state that "zipcar is a car club" and propose "car hire made simple" (Zipcar, 2018a). ...
Article
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Carsharing has been discussed as one of the most prominent examples of the sharing economy. The worldwide growth of services whereby consumers share access to cars rather than owning a car themselves could be a sustainable solution to environmental problems. However, first research indicates that consumers’ environmental concerns play a minor role for using a carsharing compared to financial considerations. Moreover, prior research on B2C carsharing services may not be applicable to P2P services. The current research addresses this gap by investigating the role of sustainability in B2C and P2P carsharing from consumers’ perspective. By applying quantitative as well as qualitative methods three studies show that consumers’ image of carsharing is “greener” than owning a car and that environmental concerns play a role when consumers decide to use P2P service over B2C services. However, interviews with carsharing users indicate that the sustainable impact of carsharing is rather perceived as a positive side effect than a main argument for carsharing. This should be considered by policy makers and marketers when promoting carsharing because of sustainable benefits.
... Autolib (was based in Paris, with only electric cars available for short-term rental, but collapsed when it ran into debt and the local government refused to compensate the company for any losses) This model has its origins in what used to be called car clubs. Car clubs began in Switzerland in 1987 and then spread to Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Canada, and the United States [48,49]. One difference, however, is that whilst Model 2 mainly encompasses one-way trips, the pre-Internet age car clubs required users to return the vehicle to the same location from which it had been accessed [3]. ...
Article
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Shared mobility or mobility in the sharing economy is characterised by the sharing of a vehicle instead of ownership, and the use of technology to connect users and providers. Based on a literature review, the following four emerging models are identified: (1) peer to peer provision with a company as a broker, providing a platform where individuals can rent their cars when not in use; (2) short term rental of vehicles managed and owned by a provider; (3) companies that own no cars themselves but sign up ordinary car owners as drivers; and (4) on demand private cars, vans, or buses, and other vehicles, such as big taxis, shared by passengers going in the same direction. The first three models can yield profits to private parties, but they do not seem to have potential to reduce congestion and CO2 emissions substantially. The fourth model, which entails individuals not only sharing a vehicle, but actually travelling together at the same time, is promising in terms of congestion and CO2 emissions reductions. It is also the least attractive to individuals, given the disbenefits in terms of waiting time, travel time, comfort, and convenience, in comparison with the private car. Potential incentives to encourage shared mobility are also discussed, and research needs are outlined.
... These alternatives may be more or less 'radical' from the current regime, depending on the extent of new infrastructure, technological development and behaviour change required, and therefore more or less compatible with regime interests (see Fig. 2). 2. Product-to-service shiftcultural, institutional and behavioural changes support new modes of transport utilisation to enable more efficient use of resources and energy; through a product to service shift in the car industry focusing on mobility services provision and brands [37]; through car sharing and car pooling in both communal and commercial form [59][60][61]; and through an increased use of public transport. 3. Mobility managementthis constitutes a more 'local and green' way of living with lower overall transport demand and resource consumption as a result of changes in values of quality of life and widespread institutional changes [39]. ...
Article
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A wide range of intractable problems such as polluting emissions, noise, accidents, resource depletion, and inaccessibility of amenities are associated with the current transport regime. Given the slow movement towards a more sustainable mobility system, more radical, systemic innovation – a ‘transition’ – is required. Broadly speaking, this may be achieved via three routes: technological change, modal shift, and reduced travel demand. Drawing on concepts from the transitions literature (e.g., [Geels, F.W.: Technological Transitions and System Innovations: A Co-evolutionary and Socio-Technical Analysis, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2005.]), we conceptualise each of these routes as a bundle of niche activities within an Area of Innovation, deviating to differing degrees from the current mobility ‘regime’. We present empirical evidence and indications of ongoing development of niches in these three areas within the UK and Sweden, and explore processes of co-evolution, divergence and tension within and between niches. Findings indicate recent market penetration of novel transport technologies, more advanced than modal shift or demand management activities; however, different transport technologies are more successful in each country. We also identify examples of a close relationship between development of radical vehicle/fuel technologies and provision of mobility services; and information technology as a driver in all three areas of innovation. We conclude that future innovation in transport depends on diversity, hybridisation, and co-evolution of niches. Finally, policy implications are discussed.
... Over the last two decades car-sharing services have sprung up across the globe (Shaheen et al. 1999;Enoch and Taylor 2006;Shaheen and Cohen 2007;Shaheen et al. 2009;Shaheen and Cohen 2013). From the traditional round-trip mode to the recent free-floating mode, users have enjoyed the increasing flexibility that car-sharing offers. ...
Article
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Car-sharing could have substantial benefits. However, there is not enough evidence about if more people choosing car-sharing would reduce private car usage or public transport demand. This work aims to bring forward some insights by studying short-term car-sharing choice behavior. A mode choice analysis is conducted first followed by a simulation analysis to evaluate modal substitution pattern. Policy implications are obtained in terms of the possible measures that could effectively bring down private car usage. The case study is Taiyuan-China; stated and revealed preference data are collected. Mixed nested logit models are developed to study the pooled SP/RP data. The analysis is conducted separately for a shorter trip case (2–5 km) and a longer trip case (more than 5 km) to examine if results would differ by distance. It is found that raising the cost of private car usage (travel cost, parking cost) should be prioritized for shorter trips since car is more difficult to be substituted when trip distance increases. Shorter trips also need such direct measures to help suppress the demand for private car when promoting a car-sharing service; otherwise car-sharing would attract more bus users instead. Longer trips need a more effective solution to bring down private car usage and that is discovered as making car-sharing service more appealing so that it can serve as a practical substitute to private car. A number of informative indicators (e.g. willingness to pay for travel time savings, direct and cross point elasticity) are also derived to enrich the findings.
... Local policies have been used as the primary explanans for geographical differences in sustainability transitions [5]. With regard to car-sharing, municipalities have developed information-related policy instruments to stimulate public awareness around car-sharing [46]. A typical example is the "Utrecht shares" campaign in which the Dutch municipality of Utrecht provided information about car-sharing in various media, which also received input of local car-sharing firms [47]. ...
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A geographical analysis of sustainability transitions allows one to better understand the emergence and upscaling of sustainable innovations. We first theorize about the spatial heterogeneity of regime, niche and landscape within the Multi-Level Perspective and then apply our framework to car-sharing adoption across all Dutch neighbourhoods. We distinguish between business-to-consumer and peer-to-peer car-sharing, which differ in terms of business model and greenhouse gas reducing impacts. For these two innovations, we demonstrate how the relation between niche innovation and the socio-technical regime of private car ownership affects adoption patterns. Our study can be read as a plea for full-fledged geographical analysis of sustainability transitions equally emphasizing the spatial heterogeneity of niche, regime and landscape.
... Одним из вариантов решения этих проблем становится внедрение модели совместного использования автомобилей на основе поминутной аренды, или каршеринга. Так, в ряде стран (чаще на уровне отдельных городов) правительства предпринимают стимулирующие меры для развития сервиса: субсидируются компании, развивающие соответствующие услуги, им предоставляются налоговые льготы, устанавливается льготная цена на парковочные места (Enoch, Taylor 2006). Комплекс технологий, лежащий в основе сервиса (парк автомобилей, имеющих специальное оборудование для отслеживания их местоположения и управления ими, мобильные приложения для поиска, аренды и разблокировки выбранного транспортного средства и др.), дает возможность пользователям получать преимущества использования личного транспорта и при этом избегать издержек владения им -расходов на эксплуатацию, амортизацию, хранение, страхование и налоговые отчисления (Shaheen et al. 2009). ...
... Most of the growth during the 1990s was in Europe, especially in Switzerland, Austria, the Netherlands and Germany, but the phenomenon is spreading quickly to the Americas, Asia and Australia (Shaheen et al., 1998). Some car clubs are not-for-profit organisations, but recently there has been a growth in commercial enterprises (Shaheen et al., 1998), some of which, such as the Edinburgh car club, require initial public funding (Enoch & Taylor, 2006). However, governments have been happy to support car clubs because there is evidence that net economic benefits of car clubs may even be higher than those from major road schemes (Fellows & Pitfield, 2000). ...
Article
Without questioning the fact that to achieve efficiency emitters should pay for the true costs of their actions (a core principle of economic policies such as pollution taxes), we find sufficient evidence in the literature to demonstrate that many other policy instruments can be used in combination with taxes and permits to ensure that the transport needs of the present generation can be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet any needs of their own. The policies and policy aspects considered in this paper broadly fall into three categories: physical policies, soft policies, and knowledge policies. All three aim to bring about changes in consumers' and firms' behaviour, but in different ways. The first category includes policies with a physical infrastructure element: public transport, land use, walking and cycling, road construction, and freight transport. We also consider the particular challenges for mobility in developing countries, and how these may be addressed. Soft policies, on the other hand, are non-tangible aiming to bring about behavioural change by informing actors about the consequences of their transport choices, and potentially persuading them to change their behaviour. These measures include car sharing and car pooling, teleworking and teleshopping, eco-driving, as well as general information and advertising campaigns. Finally, knowledge policies emphasise the important role of investment in research and development for a sustainable model of mobility for the future. The main findings can be summarised as follows.Physical policies An increase in the use of public transport, combined with a decrease in the use of private cars, can reduce traffic congestion and, more importantly, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as public transport generally causes lower CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre than private cars. Public transport fares are subsidised in most places, which can be justified by economies of scale and by the fact that public transport can reduce total road transport externalities. London, Singapore, Portland and Curitiba are all examples of good practice at government level, having achieved reliable, frequent and integrated public transport. Policies to increase public transport use must be part of an integrated policy. Integrated policy refers to integration across different modes of transport, different government objectives (such as the economy, health and the environment), considering the needs of different social groups, and coordinating action between the relevant government institutions. There is evidence that a lack of coordination can jeopardise the achievement of policy objectives. A sustainable model for transport policy also requires integration with land-use policies. These may be somewhat limited within the bounds of existing cities, but as cities grow and new cities are built, urban planners must put more emphasis on land use for sustainable transport in order to reduce congestion and CO2 emissions. Sustainable land-use policy can direct urban development towards a form that allows public transport as well as walking and cycling to be at the core of urban mobility. Walking and cycling, which improve general health and produce no tailpipe emissions, constitute an excellent alternative to motorised transport on short-distance trips within towns and cities. The policies which can incentivise walking and cycling include crime reduction to make streets safer, well-maintained and clean pavements, attractive street furniture, safe crossings with shorter waiting times, dedicated cycle paths, showers in offices, and lower speed limits, to name but a few. Road construction and expansion used to be seen as one of the most promising ways to reduce traffic congestion. However, in the mid-1990s, the issue was reassessed and it was found that building and expanding roads, increased, rather than decreased, congestion, and ultimately induced higher levels of travel demand. The reason for this is that the extra capacity reduces the general cost of travelling and the less expensive the travel, the more it will be demanded. Regarding freight modal shift, road transport is much more polluting than rail per tonne-km of goods transported and therefore a shift towards greater use of rail in freight transport is desirable. Inadequate infrastructure is the main obstacle preventing this modal shift taking place. Developing countries face great mobility challenges: rural areas are often extremely poorly connected to transport infrastructure, such that, in contrast to the situation in developed countries, the benefits of road construction can strongly outweigh the total costs (including environmental ones). The main challenge, however, is to develop a solution to the problems arising from the combination of urbanisation and motorisation. Integration of transport and land-use policy will be key to rising to this challenge.Soft policies Car sharing and car clubs can also potentially reduce CO2 emissions, although the aggregate reduction in congestion and emissions has not been measured with an adequate degree of precision in the literature. Teleworking and teleshopping can potentially reduce congestion and also CO2 emissions. However, the evidence for this reduction is rather mixed, as it is unclear whether these measures lead to overall reductions in road transport. Eco-driving campaigns aim to inform and educate drivers in order to induce them to drive in a fuel-efficient and thus environmentally friendly way. There seems to be some consensus in the literature that eco-driving could lead to reductions in CO2 emissions of around 10 per cent. Information and education policies have often been advocated as instruments which may affect behavioural change. We find in this paper that these types of measures are necessary, but not sufficient for behavioural change. Advertising and marketing may go a long way in changing peoples' behaviour. In California, for example, Kahn (2007) finds the "Prius" effect: the Toyota Prius is preferred by consumers relative to other similarly green vehicles, probably due to extensive marketing and celebrity endorsements. Family life changes are also found to trigger changes in behaviour ([Goodwin, 1989] and [Goodwin, 2008]). People whose lives are being changed by some important development (birth of a child, retirement, etc) tend to respond more to changes in the relative attractiveness of different transport modes. Advertising campaigns promoting a modal shift towards public transport, for instance, may thus be more successful if targeted at people in the process of important life transitions.Knowledge policies Research and Development is crucial for developing sustainable and low-carbon transport for the future, and it is essential that governments provide incentives to undertake R&D, so that new low-carbon technologies in the transport sector can be demonstrated and applied at a large scale. Finally, we consider the issue of policy combination and integration. There is evidence that the combination and integration of policies can lead to positive side-effects and synergies. Policy integration is crucial in order to rise to the challenges we face in moving towards a sustainable mobility model. We conclude that classical economic policies may be successfully combined with a number of policy measures discussed in this paper in order to achieve sustainability in transport.
... On the other hand, car sharing is a product of the transformation from resource-driven economy to service-driven economy. Its essence is to improve the utilization rates of automobile resources to ease the discrepancy between car ownership and traffic load capacity [9], helping facilitate urban sustainable development [10]. ...
Article
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The emergence and development of car sharing can not only satisfy people’s diverse travel demands, but also can bring a new solution to facilitate urban low-carbon and green development. With the increasing acceptance of car sharing, the market competition between car sharing and traditional taxis is becoming increasingly fierce. Therefore, we explore the advantages of car sharing to travelers compared with taxis. In this paper, we first use the GPS (Global Positioning System) trajectory data of car sharing orders to construct a comparative advantage model based on travel-cost. Then, we take Beijing as the research area to explore the travel-cost advantages of car sharing in terms of the time and space dimensions compared with taxis, through calculating the travel-cost of car sharing and using simulation to calculate that of taxis. The results of the comparison between car sharing and taxis from the perspective of travel-cost are as follows: (1) Compared with short trips, the travel-cost advantage of car sharing is relatively higher in medium and long trips; for travelers, the taxi has a higher travel-cost advantage when the travel time is either very long or very short. (2) On weekdays, it is more cost-effective to travel by shared cars for travelers before the rush hours in the evening, and the travel-cost advantage of using taxis is greater after the evening peak. (3) Compared with weekdays, it is more cost-effective to travel by shared cars on weekends wherever travelers are living in the main urban areas or in the remote suburbs. It is suggested that relevant departments should understand the travelers’ preference and analyze the influence mechanism of other various factors on the market demand for car sharing as per the focus on the market on the travel-cost advantages of car sharing, so as to promote the healthy and sustainable development of urban shared transportation.
... Research was carried out on the habits of members of Yuko, it aims to determine how car sharing schemes can benefit society and can this impact on the concept of car shedding. These types of services have operated on a large scale since 1987 when the first scheme began in Switzerland, although there had been some smaller-scale projects before this (Enoch and Taylor, 2006). Today there are many countries across the world where car sharing services have been set up, including here in Ireland where this project will focus on. ...
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The popularity of mobility sharing services across are growing rapidly around the world. Car, bike and scooter sharing services and movements towards the Mobility as a Service (MaaS) model have all shown the potential in these services to change how we think about mobility. The research presented in this paper examines the usage of a car sharing service in Dublin, Ireland. The research is divided into two parts, an analysis of booking data and a survey of Yuko’s members. A 22-month sample size from January 2017 to October 2018 (660 days) of data contains 7,944 individual car bookings from 1,446 accounts containing 2,006 individual users. A survey was also conducted of over 400 Yuko users to determine how users perceived the service and how and if using this service changed their mobility patterns. A cluster analysis was conducted on this survey data that identified to specific groups, which were mainly defined by their car ownership status. The research shows the more trips a user makes, the more likely they are to take quicker and shorter trips. Whereas those who rarely make a booking, make a longer journey when they do so. Some of the other findings were that users are generally young males, bookings tend to be much longer on the weekends and the majority of members do not currently own a car. It was found that members don’t use car sharing as a means of commuting, but as a way to get around for a variety of reasons outside of their regular commute. The findings of the paper show that only a small number of users had sold their car since joining the service, mainly because they did not own one to begin with.
... Traditional research methods to analyze and foster sustainable transport combine both qualitative and quantitative research supported mainly by questionnaires and statistical data [5]. The majority of approaches are focused on the use of more sustainable modes of transport [6][7][8] and on improving the efficiency and reducing the impact of motor vehicles [9][10][11]. Although online surveys have in the last few years been used [12], the most innovative are those nonintrusive methods based on analyzing the comments freely contributed in social media [13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
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Users voluntarily generate large amounts of textual content by expressing their opinions, in social media and specialized portals, on every possible issue, including transport and sustainability. In this work we have leveraged such User Generated Content to obtain a high accuracy sentiment analysis model which automatically analyses the negative and positive opinions expressed in the transport domain. In order to develop such model, we have semiautomatically generated an annotated corpus of opinions about transport, which has then been used to fine-tune a large pretrained language model based on recent deep learning techniques. Our empirical results demonstrate the robustness of our approach, which can be applied to automatically process massive amounts of opinions about transport. We believe that our method can help to complement data from official statistics and traditional surveys about transport sustainability. Finally, apart from the model and annotated dataset, we also provide a transport classification score with respect to the sustainability of the transport types found in the use case dataset.
... To stimulate the development of car sharing, incentive measures are being taken in some countries: subsidies, tax incentives, and preferential price for parking spaces (Enoch and Taylor, 2006). The support of the Moscow government is of tremendous importance in the development of car sharing in Moscow (according to Kirova I V and Rostova D V 2019 Moscow car sharing: yesterday, today, tomorrow Economics and business: theory and practice 3-1 (In Russ.)), namely, the subsidizing of leasing and credit payments, provision of benefits for using paid municipal parking lots. ...
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Car sharing is one of the fastest growing sectors of the shared consumption economy. The paper examines the current trends and prospects of car sharing in Russia and analyzes the factors that impede the development of this service. According to the results of the study, the popularity of car sharing among Russian users, as well as indicators characterizing the development of the market (transaction volume, number of trips, fleet size, etc.) has been growing rapidly over the past five years. The car sharing market is concentrated in the Moscow metropolitan area and has a high degree of monopolization. The number of users and the size of the car sharing fleet are still insignificant in comparison with the number of car owners and with the fleet of personal cars. The most significant factors hindering the development of car sharing include a lack of user awareness, difficulties with renting a car within walking distance, user concerns about possible car damage, technical failures, personal data leakage, as well as a lesser sense of privacy, safety and comfort compared to personal cars. The elimination of the identified negative factors (increasing user awareness, improving the availability of car sharing, etc.) will contribute to a more rapid development of car sharing.
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Carsharing is a vehicle sharing service for those with occasional need of private transportation. Transportation planners are beginning to see great potential for carsharing in helping to create a more diversified and sustainable transport system. While it has grown quickly in the US in recent years, it is still far from the level where it can deliver significant aggregate benefits. A key element to the potential growth of carsharing is its ability to provide cost savings to those who adopt it in favor of vehicle ownership. This research seeks to quantify these potential cost savings. The costs of carsharing and vehicle ownership are compared based on actual vehicle usage patterns from a large survey of San Francisco Bay Area residents. The results of this analysis show that a significant minority of Bay Area households own a vehicle with a usage pattern that carsharing could accommodate at a lower cost. Further research is required to indentify how these cost savings translate to the adoption of carsharing. KeywordsCarsharing–Travel behavior–Vehicle usage patterns–VKT–Sustainability
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Carsharing is an innovative travel alternative that has recently experienced considerable growth and become part of sustainable transportation initiatives. Although carsharing is becoming increasingly a popular alternative transportation mode in North America, it is still an under-researched area. Current research is aimed at better understanding of the behavior of carsharing users. For every member, a two-stage approach microsimulates the probability of being active in any month using a binary probit model and given that a particular member is active during a month, the probability of that member using the service multiple times using a random utility-based model. The model is estimated using empirical data from one of the largest carsharing companies in North America. The model estimates reveal that the activity persistency of members is positively linked to previous behaviors for up to 4 months, and that the influence of previous months weakens over time. It also shows that some attributes of the traveler (gender, age, and language spoken at home) impact his or her behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Technological change is a central feature of modern societies and a powerful source for social change. There is an urgent task to direct these new technologies towards sustainability, but society lacks perspectives, instruments and policies to accomplish this. There is no blueprint for a sustainable future, and it is necessary to experiment with alternative paths that seem promising. Various new transport technologies promise to bring sustainability benefits. But as this book shows, important lessons are often overlooked because the experiments are not designed to challenge the basic assumptions about established patterns of transport choices. Learning how to organise the process of innovation implementation is essential if the maximum impact is to be achieved - it is here that strategic niche management offers new perspectives. The book uses a series of eight recent experiments with electric vehicles, carsharing schemes, bicycle pools and fleet management to illustrate the means by which technological change must be closely linked to social change if successful implementation is to take place. The basic divide between proponents of technological fixes and those in favour of behavioural change needs to be bridged, perhaps indicating a third way. © 2002 Remco Hoogma, René Kemp, Johan Schot and Bernhard Truffer.
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In recent years, shared-use vehicle systems have garnered a great deal of interest and activity internationally as an innovative mobility solution. In general, shared-use vehicle systems consist of a fleet of vehicles that are used by several different individuals throughout the day. Shared-use vehicles offer the convenience of the private automobile and more flexibility than public transportation alone. These systems are attractive since they offer the potential to lower a user's transportation costs; reduce the need for parking spaces in a community; improve overall air quality; and facilitate access to and encourage use of other transportation modes such as rail transit. Shared-use vehicle systems take many forms, ranging from neighborhood carsharing to classic station car models. Given the recent proliferation in system approaches, it is useful to establish a classification system or framework for characterizing these programs. The classification system presented here outlines key program elements that can help policy makers and practitioners characterize and evaluate various aspects of this rapidly evolving field. Further, it helps researchers analyze and compare the various models, including their similarities, differences, and benefits. A shared-use vehicle classification system is provided that describes existing and evolving models; examples are provided of each. It is argued that carsharing and station car concepts can be viewed as two ends of a continuum, sharing many similarities, rather than as separate concepts. Indeed, many existing shared-use vehicle systems can be viewed as hybrid systems, exhibiting key characteristics of both concepts.
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Shared-use vehicle services provide members access to a vehicle fleet for use on an asneeded basis, without the hassles and costs of individual auto ownership. From June 2001 to July 2002, the authors surveyed 18 U.S. shared-use vehicle organizations on a range of topics, including organizational size, partnerships, pricing, costs, and technology. While survey findings demonstrate a decline in the number of organizational starts in the last year, operational launches into new cities, membership, and fleet size continue to increase. Several growth-oriented organizations are responsible for most of this expansion. The authors explore several factors that challenge shared-use vehicle growth, such as high capital investment (or start-up costs), dramatic insurance rate hikes, and scarcity of cost-effective technologies. The authors conclude that while early niche market findings are encouraging, the ability of this emerging sector to actualize its total environmental, economic, and social goals may be limited without the collective support of private industry (e.g., automakers, insurance providers, technology producers); public agents (e.g., transit and governmental agencies); and shared-use vehicle programs. Indeed, public-private partnerships and cooperation among shared-use vehicle providers may play a key role in addressing insurance and technology costs and assuring the long-term viability of this market.
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Car-sharing organizations (CSO) have recently spread throughout central European cities and currently have 20000 members. They lower individual fixed costs of car availability change the incentive structure of private vehicle use by transforming nearly all costs into variable costs. A survey of all current Austrian CSO members is used to identify the characteristics significant of members. A procedure is proposed to quantify urban local market segment potentials and is applied to two residential areas. The net impact of CSOs depends on how the new incentive structure changes mobility behavior. A controlled experiment of voluntary new members was carried out to compare pre-membership and membership trip structure and modal split. Results indicate a substantial reduction of aggregate private vehicle mileage. While the share of trips by car is constant, changes in trip length are observed, with there being different changes for households which previously owned a car and those which did not. Combining behavior impact with market segment size results in the quantification of emission reduction and car ownership reduction (land use demand) due to car-sharing, which is a decentralized demand-side transport policy.
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Two years into the introduction of City CarShare in San Francisco, California, nearly 30% of members have gotten rid of one or more cars, and two-thirds stated that they opted not to purchase another car. By City CarShare's second anniversary, 6.5% of members' trips and 10% of their vehicle miles traveled were in carshare vehicles. Matched-pair comparisons with a statistical control group suggest that, over time, members have reduced their total vehicular travel. Because carshare vehicles tended to be small and fuel-efficient, per capita gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions among members also appeared to go down. Suppressed travel likely reflected a combination of influences: reduced car ownership, more judicious and selective use of cars for particular trip purposes, and multiple-occupant carshare trips. Carsharing, however, has also enhanced mobility and allowed members to reach more destinations in and around San Francisco conveniently and to do so more quickly. Because it widens mobility choices and offers a resourceful form of automobility, carsharing is a welcome addition to the urban transportation sector in cities such as San Francisco.
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Car-sharing organizations (CSO) have recently spread throughout central European cities and currently have 20000 members. They lower individual fixed costs of car availability change the incentive structure of private vehicle use by transforming nearly all costs into variable costs. A survey of all current Austrian CSO members is used to identify the characteristics significant of members. A procedure is proposed to quantify urban local market segment potentials and is applied to two residential areas. The net impact of CSOs depends on how the new incentive structure changes mobility behavior. A controlled experiment of voluntary new members was carried out to compare pre-membership and membership trip structure and modal split. Results indicate a substantial reduction of aggregate private vehicle mileage. While the share of trips by car is constant, changes in trip length are observed, with there being different changes for households which previously owned a car and those which did not. Combining behavior impact with market segment size results in the quantification of emission reduction and car ownership reduction (land use demand) due to car-sharing, which is a decentralized demand-side transport policy.
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Travel Plans have been a key element in the UK Government's strategy for reducing car use. However, although they have been adopted by the Government's own departments and other parts of the state sector, any policy mechanisms to encourage the “widespread voluntary take-up” of Travel Plans in the private sector have so far been relatively low key. This paper examines how commercial sector organisations are currently encouraged to help change their employees’ travel behaviour in the UK. It then draws on experience from across the world to identify four mechanisms through which Government and local authorities might make travel plans more widespread than currently, namely information and exhortation, regulation, subsidy and fiscal reform.
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The article presents the results of a German research project, where recommendations for the synthesis of public transport and car-sharing/car clubs are given. In order to determine effects and factors of success of combined services, the adoption process, the mobility behaviour and customer satisfaction were investigated within the context of model projects in two German cities. The results prove that car-sharing is suitable as a supplement to public transport.
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