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Purpose Marketing and consumer researchers have only recently been able to put videographic methods into their data collection and research representation toolkits. This paper provides an overview of these methods and offers some guidelines for their use. Design/methodology/approach We offer an overview of videographic methods that illustrates the considerable choice and diversity offered to budding videographers. With examples from different kinds of marketing and consumer research, from academia as well as marketing research practice, we survey, critique, and make recommendations about some of the best ways to use this method. We also promote current and existing venues for distributing videographic work. Findings We find videographic methods full of promise and in the early introduction growth stage in marketing and consumer research. Combined with decreases in the cost and availability of digital recording media, videography is ready for prime time. Originality/value Much observational data have been to a large extent “left on the table” because there have been no convenient, reliable, and cost‐effective ways to capture and analyze them and build them into our research theories and representations. In this paper, we present an overview and a set of detailed examples that help to develop, systematize, and begin institutionalizing videographic methods in consumer and marketing research. The result is consumer and marketing research more attuned to the lived realities of everyday consumption, and a broadened research toolkit to capture and expressively present these realities.
Videography in marketing and
consumer research
Russell W. Belk
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Robert V. Kozinets
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Purpose Marketing and consumer researchers have only recently been able to put videographic
methods into their data collection and research representation toolkits. This paper provides an
overview of these methods and offers some guidelines for their use.
Design/methodology/approach We offer an overview of videographic methods that illustrates
the considerable choice and diversity offered to budding videographers. With examples from different
kinds of marketing and consumer research, from academia as well as marketing research practice, we
survey, critique, and make recommendations about some of the best ways to use this method. We also
promote current and existing venues for distributing videographic work.
Findings We find videographic methods full of promise and in the early introduction growth stage
in marketing and consumer research. Combined with decreases in the cost and availability of digital
recording media, videography is ready for prime time.
Originality/value Much observational data have been to a large extent “left on the table” because
there have been no convenient, reliable, and cost-effective ways to capture and analyze them and build
them into our research theories and representations. In this paper, we present an overview and a set of
detailed examples that help to develop, systematize, and begin institutionalizing videographic
methods in consumer and marketing research. The result is consumer and marketing research more
attuned to the lived realities of everyday consumption, and a broadened research toolkit to capture and
expressively present these realities.
Keywords Information research, Visual media, Ethnography, Data analysis, Qualitative research
Paper type Technical paper
When Robert J. Flaherty left to film the first videographic classic, “Nanook of the
North” in June 1920, he and his team carried 75,000 feet of film, a Haulberg electric light
plant and projector, two Akeley cameras, and a printing machine on a journey that
required six weeks of travel by rail, canoe, schooner and dog sled. Today’s digital
revolution in video technology would have significantly lightened Flaherty’s load. It
has affected everyone from the home photographer documenting a child’s birthday
party to the state of the art film producer like George Lucas. In the past decade, the cost
of being able to produce broadcast quality video has plummeted while the
technological possibilities have exploded. Equipment to shoot and produce digital
video has become substantially smaller, better, and more user-friendly. Technology
has made it possible for the home desktop or laptop computer-owner to edit video, add
special effects, and prepare finished products for distribution via videotapes,
CD-ROMs, DVDs, or internet streaming. In terms of both marketing research and
consumer research, an array of possibilities has blossomed and more innovations will
undoubtedly emerge in the years ahead.
The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available at The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
Qualitative Market Research:
An International Journal
Vol. 8 No. 2, 2005
pp. 128-141
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/13522750510592418
At the same time that the production side of videography has mushroomed, demand
shows a revolution of rising expectations by consumers and clients raised on
television, used to ever-more sophisticated film effects, and having rapidly grown
accustomed to using the computer as a portal into the worlds of information,
entertainment, buying, selling, working, and communicating, with an increasing
reliance on images in each of these spheres of activity. In education, as well, the
importance of visual material and electronics has rendered the blackboard an
increasingly quaint relic of the past. When Nissan recently hired John Schouten and
Jim McAlexander to conduct research on brand community among owners of its
vehicles, the corporation insisted that the finished product be video only, with no
accompanying written material. This is no longer an uncommon request among
companies attuned to the power and impact of video-based research.
In this paper, we will explore emerging types of videographic research in marketing
and consumption, as well as consider some of the special problems and opportunities
such research presents. We will consider both video-based data collection and
distribution methods. Because technology will continue to rapidly change in these
areas, we will address general considerations rather than hardware-, software-, and
technology-specific applications.
Video-based data collection (production)
As of this writing, the authors have hosted the first two annual Association for
Consumer Research Film Festivals and will host the third in 2004. Between us we have
conducted videographic workshops in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.
And we have both produced and edited a variety of video-based research projects over
the past 20 years. During the course of this work, we have used or encountered a
variety of video data collection methods. In this section, we will discuss some of the
most basic uses of video in marketing and consumer research individual or group
interviews, naturalistic observation, and autovideography and also discuss some
hybrids and emerging techniques.
The most basic use of video and still the most common is to video tape individual or
group interviews. These can either be conducted in a research facility or focus group
room or in a field setting. Videotaped interviews offer a powerful advantage over the
more conventional audiotapes or field-noted interviews. Body language, often
considered to be at least as important at communicating meaning as oral language is
captured in video, but not in audio. Proxemics, kinesics, and other kinetic forms of
body expression can also be captured. Once captured, these data can be subsequently
coded and analyzed.
There are some powerful drawbacks, as well. First, when used without
supplementary footage, such “talking heads” video fails to take full advantage of
the medium. Second, the camera can prove an unwelcome hindrance to the formation of
interviewer-interviewee rapport. Shoving a camera in a person’s face is both unnatural
and obtrusive. It constantly reminds them that they are being interviewed, which is not
always desirable. However, some partial solutions are possible. The use of a tripod can
place a camera at a physical distance, which makes the interview situation more
comfortable. In addition, the filming of an interview should be fully explained to the
informant to help discharge any negative emotions that they might attach to it, and
perhaps even to reframe it as complimentary. Finally, when conducted in another
Marketing and
culture using another language, confusion can easily ensue. To address this problem,
we have sometimes arranged facilities so that the language in which the interview is
conducted is recorded on one audio channel, while a simultaneous translation is
recorded on another audio channel. If interviews will later be subtitled, this makes
syncing the subtitles to the appropriate video material much easier. It also makes it
possible for the video to be understood by speakers multiple languages, something we
shall see can also be facilitated by certain post-production techniques. Multiple
cameras, remote wireless microphones, and sound mixers make this dual-language
method feasible.
The second common use of video in research is to record naturalistic observations.
In recording naturalistic observations, the videographer is more interested in capturing
what people do rather than what they say about what they do. For instance, Belk (2004)
studied international tourist photography by videotaping tourists making
photographs and videos at a variety of tourist venues. Similarly, Kozinets (1999)
videotaped consumers dancing, drumming, and performing rituals at the 1999 Burning
Man festival. Because cameras and camcorders are ubiquitous at such sites, the
researcher does not stand out and is generally taken as just another tourist. Likewise
Monnier and Gulas (2004) followed a Wally Byam Caravan Club of Airstream travel
trailer owners on their joint trips across several US states.
Many variants to the naturalistic observation use are possible. Because those being
observed continue to be available over a long period of time in such research, it is
possible to use still and video material that has been shot previously in order to
conduct visual elicitation by having them respond to watching their earlier behaviors
(Heisley and Levy, 1991; Rook, 1991). A variant of observing a single group as it moves
from site to site is to study a single consumption phenomenon, like collecting, over
multiple sites, as was done with “the Consumer Behavior Odyssey” (Wallendorf and
Belk, 1987).
Another common use of video in marketing and consumer research is to attempt to
understand the consumer’s viewpoint by literally attempting to capture it onscreen.
This autobiographical or autovideographical technique, which has some advantages
over researcher-conducted observation, involves simply “giving the natives the
camera”. One example of this technique is a video project by Sunderland et al. (2003) in
which college students were given camcorders to take along on their evenings out in
order to document their drinking behaviors and those of their companions. In a related
project in the same video, pickup truck owners were given camcorders to record the
uses they made of their trucks. Without the presence of a researcher, informants are
often more spontaneous and self-directive in their behaviors, showing what is
important to them rather than the researchers. A high level of candor and the presence
of natural rather than researcher-elicited behavior is the goal of such self-ethnography.
In a retrospective application of this sort of self-ethnography, Rook (1985) obtained
home movies and videos of Christmas celebrations from a sample of informants. By
making copies of these home-mode documentaries (Chalfen, 1987), a variety of
Christmas-related behaviors can conceivably be studied, including gift-giving rituals,
holiday de
cor, feasts, and celebrations. Sammy Bonsu has likewise gathered a
collection of funeral videos made for or by surviving family members in Ghana. Here,
the videos potentially aid in later visual elicitation and in gaining an insight into rituals
that may otherwise be difficult to talk about at the time or to later recall in detail.
A larger effort to gather home-mode videos as well as industrial and promotional films
is being coordinated by “film archivist” Prelinger (1996,
A compromise between unobtrusive researcher observation and autovideography is
collaborative videographic research. A study of the new black elite in Zimbabwe was
jointly conducted by Belk and the MBA students of Africa University (2000). These
executive MBA students were themselves a part of the group being studied, which
aided in gaining access and trust. By interviewing and observing those they knew,
they had advantages that the researcher would have taken much longer to gain by
himself. The method is not perfect, however, as conspicuous self-presentation by these
friends was always a possibility. Whereas self-ethnography presents another truth
than that of the researcher, collaborative research involves a negotiation between the
researcher and those studied.
While observations are often obtrusive, unobtrusive observations are also used[1].
Some experimental work is underway in New Zealand using a small hidden camera in
a baseball cap worn by consumers who have agreed to have their shopping patterns
studied. At a cooperating shopping mall, these shoppers go about a shopping trip of
approximately an hour, with the camcorder recording their movements and
interactions. The pragmatic lines between unobtrusive and obtrusive videographic
observation can be quite fine, however. While both shoppers and mall management are
aware of the recording, the unobtrusive nature of the recording raises ethical questions.
Other shoppers and clerks are not aware of the camcorder and thus may be recorded
without their permission. In addition, shoppers who forget about the unobtrusive
camera need to remember to turn it off in dressing rooms, banks, and other sensitive
areas. This is less of a problem in public settings than in private locations like a mall.
When using videographic methods that involve concealed cameras for research
purposes, it is of the utmost importance that good research ethics protocols be
followed. We strongly caution academic researchers to consult with their Institutional
Review boards while planning such research.
One study has used a combination self-ethnography and semi-unobtrusive
measures by placing video cameras in the VCRs of several consumers (Brodin and
Ritson, 2004). Using picture-in-picture technology, the study was able to record not
only the consumers watching television, but also the television content they were
watching at any given moment. Like the New Zealand shoppers, it appears that those
in the study sometimes forgot about the recording being made and engaged in a
variety of intimate behaviors on-camera even though they previously gave their
informed consent to be videotaped. Short of video surveillance tapes (whose quality is
often moderate and which raise additional ethical concerns), this may be about as close
as we can come to a fly-on-the-wall perspective on mass media consumption in
naturally occurring situations.
Although little research has thus far been done using interactive video and
computer-mediated communication using a web videocamera, it is likely that there are
numerous untapped potentials for this sort of technology, as well. Because it is
interactive, immediate, yet less obtrusive than having a cameraperson or camera crew
present, it may be possible to gain access to information that is difficult to come by in
other ways. For example, in one of the many video chat forums available online, people
could reflect on the possessions in their offices and their meanings, the books on their
shelves, the videos in their home libraries, or the foods in their pantries. The workings
Marketing and
of their computer hardware and software, the music they are listening to, and the
clothes they are wearing should be relatively easy to study in this way, as well.
Gathering self-presentational visual data from individual web sites and BLOGs is
another potentially rich way of gathering consumer-initiated data and overlaps with
netnographic studies (Kozinets, 1998, 2002). For example, a number of newly wealthy
Chinese young people have begun to maintain online records of their brand
consumption in a variety of areas including clothing, music, film-going, watches,
computers, computer games, and more (e.g., www. and They show and
give accounts of what they like and dislike about their latest acquisitions, some have
even gone to the extreme of photographing their meals before they eat them and
posting them on their BLOGs. A number of these sites, while in Chinese, also have
bulletin boards where others leave comments and questions on the consumption
patterns of the sites owner, often comparing their own experiences.
There are also large numbers of individual webcams publicly available (some of
them on pay-per-peek pornographic web sites). In the same way, Brodin and Ritson’s
(2004) informants acculturated to the presence of video cameras in their VCRs, these
24/7 webcams offer relatively unobtrusive observation of individual and group
consumer behavior. For example, the Earthcam web site offers
links to a huge array different webcams. These webcams can allow researchers to
observe and record video of consumption in public places like clubs, festivals,
restaurants, beaches, resorts, on city streets, and in universities, in private
consumption venues such as people’s garages, kitchens, and other rooms, and in
ways that focus upon children, pets, computers, and much more. As consumer research
meets reality TV meets the unblinking internet eye, researchers gain access to a world
of video and data that simultaneously raises exciting potentials and significant ethical
dilemmas. Here, we encounter elements of Dziga Vertov’s mechanical eye and Jeremy
Bentham’s panopticon as famously analyzed by Foucault (1977), except that the
observed is now exhibitionist rather than either candid specimen or prisoner. In some
ways, this is similar to the exhibitionistic do-it-yourself performances observed by
Kozinets et al. (2004) at ESPN Zone, which they theorized was an “obverse panopticon”
While technologies will no doubt produce other possible video production
opportunities in the future, the basic set of possibilities are either “perspectives of
action” or “perspectives in action” (Snow and Anderson, 1987). Perspectives of action
involve people talking about behavior. For certain topics like consumer ethics, this may
be the only readily available means to gather data. The videotaped use of projective
techniques and metaphors may be ways to go beyond these constructed accounts
however (Belk et al., 2003; Zaltman and Coulter, 1995). Perspectives in action instead
record behavior rather than accounts of behavior. For many topics, a combination of
both approaches is superior to using either by itself. Thus, Kozinets (2001) studied
fans’ activities at Star Trek conventions by both videotaping and participating in some
of the fan behaviors enacted there, and also by talking to participants about the
meaning of their activities[2], consumption, and productions.
In summary, videographic data can be collected by videotaping group or individual
interviews, by engaging in naturalistic observation, by using autovideography (where
informants videotapes themselves and their lived experiences), by engaging in
collaborative videographic research, by using concealed camera methods, and by
taking advantage of opportunities to use interactive video and computer-mediated
communications. We have briefly outlined some advantages and concerns with these
methods. Once these videographic data are collected, a variety of analytic tools can be
marshaled to code and categorize them. Videographic analysis follows the basic
principles of interpretive analysis, from grounded theory building to hermeneutic
cycling. Video analysis can happen holistically, or take place through a very formal
frame-by-frame procedure. Once the data are analyzed, the actual presentation of the
film is planned. In the next section, we turn our discussion to the preparation of the
videographic film that the researcher produces and distributes.
Video-based data dissemination (post-production and distribution)
One of the more compelling advantages of video presentation is the ability to engage
the audience with a multi-sensory set of materials that ideally make it easier to gain not
only a cognitive knowledge about something, but also a more emotional and “resonant”
(Sherry and Schouten, 2002) knowledge of the experience of something (Belk, 1998). At
the first two ACR Film Festivals, focal topics of videos, besides those already
mentioned, have included art festivals, food and eating, American Girl dolls, tattooing,
Macintosh computer enthusiasm, extra large clothing purchases, sex aids, advertising
sabotage, swap meets, soccer fans in Europe and Asia, peace movements, publicity
surrounding a kidnapping, home comfort, dance, consumer illiteracy in Japan,
women’s consumer roles in Greece, market relations in India, Chinese funeral practices,
US Civil War reenactments, Olympic souvenir consumption, spiritual experiences in
the American desert, and fashion consumption in Nazi concentration camps. As this
rich array of topics suggests, the possibilities for marketing and consumer research
using video are endless. However, as Thompson, 2003 (personal communication)
recently observed, videographer’s attraction to dramatic and intriguing topics cuts
both ways, in that it might reinforce stereotypes that interpretive research is mere
“entertainment” or journalism and not scientific or rigorous.
We observed an interesting and perhaps telling phenomenon at the 2003 Film
Festival. The nonvideo presentations on topics related to the videos often made it a
point of verbally citing the videos. More than mere academic inter-referencing, the tone
in which these citations were offered suggests that while the verbal presentation was
apologetically about something, the videos were the real thing that they were about.
That is, there appears to be a certain facticity about a video that somehow appears to
be more real than mere words about the same phenomenon. There is both testimony to
the power of video here and a certain danger that video may be engaged more
passively and acceptingly than other types of presentations.
This elision of the post-production process for video seems to carry over from the
suspension of disbelief that we have learned to apply to films and television in our
lifetimes of watching these media. Yet it is important to realize that the editing,
sweetening, titling, scoring, and other enhancing that goes on in the editing process is
capable of telling many “truths”. Even the cuts, dissolves, and bits of music that are
usually added to a video can do much to determine its emotional impact on the viewer.
The intentional portrayal of a particular truth (or set of truths) is as present in a
videography as it is in all research. But adding the visceral effects of music, pacing,
sounds, imagery, and color adds to research an entirely new dimension of unconscious
Marketing and
emotional manipulation. An account of these processes is outside of the scope of the
present paper, but it is clear that as audiences we need to develop a critical visual
literacy in the same way that we now critically review a paper or study we encounter in
print, even though we sometimes lack the ability to control the pace of the video
presentation (Heisley, 2001; Oswald, 2003).
While television journalism and documentary filmmaking continue the positivist
pretense that the visual cannot lie and presents facts and the truth, documentary
filmmakers, television editors, and video ethnographers all know that they are telling
stories, creating (hopefully compelling) visual collages, and attempting to dramatically
shape audience reactions. There is no such thing as a neutral image that is simply there
as a fact, especially after the substantial creative winnowing that must take place in
editing. Nor is the person with a camera a non-intrusive fly on the wall. Rather, the
video ethnographer and editor is most often closer to being an artist and storyteller
(Chatman, 1980; Lothe, 2000). Some of us are better at this than others, but these are
skills that can be learned and improved.
Epistemologically, most ethnographic filmmaking is distinguished by its forced
break from positivist or pseudopositivist pretensions of objectivity. Thus, there are
typically no “methods” sections in a videography, and the narrative flow of the
videographic project is intended to engage an audience that is asked to suspend
its disbelief in the reality of what is shown and to absorb the story being
presented. But audiences are not naive and uncritical. A video will show more
quickly than an academic paper if the evidence is weak, the questions are poor,
the informant is uncomfortable or less than open, or the action is stilted. And an
audience can identify sympathetic and non-sympathetic characters, including not
only the subjects of the video, but the videographer, as well. By forcing the
ethnographer to think about the audience reaction, videography challenges us to
perfect our craft and not only gather good material, but also treat it in a
compelling fashion. This challenge as well as the technical possibilities of
videography and editing are more apt to summon creativity than most non-visual
academic and managerial reports and papers. It is our hope that videographers
will use this creativity to find new ways to see and to challenge and subvert the
positivism and pseudo-positivism that still dominate consumer research.
We now turn to consider some more concrete aspects of videographic distribution.
Two basic formats for disseminating video material may be labeled local access (e.g.
CD-ROM, DVD, videotape) and distributed access (e.g. television broadcast, internet
streaming). Local access media usually offer higher quality, better control of access to
material and its pace, order, and sometimes control over language, view, and content.
While web-based access can offer some of these options, as well, in addition to
updatability and links to other related material, at the present time there are
compromises in quality (in terms of lower frame rates, lower resolution, and smaller
screen size) in streamed video material. With nonlinear media like CD-ROM, VCD,
DVD, and web-based streaming, there is potentially far greater user customization. For
example, rather than a linear flow of a program from start to finish, the user may
access more detail on a particular theme or watch more of an interview with a
particular informant. Of course, the producer must arrange material so that this is
possible, but there are many possibilities that are becoming increasingly easy to
incorporate in nonlinear media.
For example, in the CD-ROM of Menzel’s (1994) “Material World” study of the
possessions and consumption lives of families in 30 countries, the user may access a
variety of types of information. For each family there is a “family album” containing
still photos and video clips of the family. There is also a photo of the family and their
possessions arrayed in front of their home. The user can highlight items in a list and
see them highlighted in the photo or see what they mean to the family based on their
interviews. Alternatively, the viewer can choose to see accounts of the country and its
characteristics, a photographer’s account of the time spent with the family, or the
family’s responses to a questionnaire about their lives. Or the viewer can see
comparisons of the families in different countries in numbers, graphs, or photos
focused on bathrooms, kitchens, foods, pets, music, schools, transportation, birth rates,
nutrition, or leisure activities. The combination of sights, sounds, music, videos, and
still photos can all be accessed in the order the viewer wishes for the country or
countries they wish to consider.
Harvard Business School is now producing and selling “multimedia cases” on
CD-ROM. For example, their “Microsoft Office 2000” case presents videographic
interviews with key project team members, and live links to relevant web sites. Their
“Building Brand Community on the Harley-Davidson Posse Ride” multimedia case
presents rich videographic data on the biker community and its communal gatherings,
in essence taking viewers along for a simulated posse experience. Their “Mountain
Dew” case provides video of a number of advertisements, as does the INSEAD Fidji
With DVD even greater possibilities exist. Multiple language tracks, multiple views
of the same action, “director’s cut” comments on the presentation video, and
simultaneous viewing of multiple scenes, mean that the possibilities are limited only by
the filmmaker’s imagination. For example, it would be possible to show the bargaining
behavior between the buyer and seller negotiating an automobile sale at the same time
that we hear a voice-over by either party describing the bargaining tactics, they were
using and what was going on in their minds at the time (based on visual elicitations
later conducted with both parties separately)[3].
Imagine a DVD or web-based presentation of a research project that could currently
be put together from a project involving the reception of men to a print advertising
campaign for Kama Sutra brand condoms in India. As Mazzarella (2003) discusses this
recent campaign, it marks the first condom appeal stressing pleasure rather than safety
and was introduced after years of free distribution of rather thick and unappealing
condoms by the Indian government. The Kama Sutra campaign featured suggestive
poses by attractive men and women in their underwear, along with quotations from the
Kama Sutra and the slogan: “For the pleasure of making love”. How is this forthright
and highly sexual campaign being received in conservative India? The research is done
and we turn to the computer on our desk to see the results. The initial screen is a Kama
Sutra print ad with sitar music playing in the background and a half dozen navigation
buttons reading:
overview of campaign by account planner;
the ads;
focus groups with men 18-35;
first six months sales and user interviews;
Marketing and
survey of condom brand images; and
published research.
Clicking first on the overview, we see and hear an interview with the account planner
explaining the concept work that went into the campaign. It is interspersed with clips
of creative concepts considered, culminating in the final campaign. We next click on
the focus group results and see more navigation buttons allowing us to watch entire
focus groups with various demographic groups or to instead select topics that will take
us to the relevant portions of the interviews. Different groups were conducted in Hindi,
Gujarati, and English, but it is easy to select English subtitles for each. Each
participant has a pseudonym shown below their image and we can also select a
particular man if we want to see and hear more of his comments. We can also pull up a
profile of the person speaking in a separate window. As we listen to the
post-introduction focus groups discussing a particular ad, we click on another pop-up
window to view the ad.
Now curious about how the brand introduction is doing in terms of sales, we
navigate to sales charts comparing Kama Sutra and other brand sales over the first six
months after product launch. It is clear in an instant that the brand is leaving others by
the wayside, despite simultaneous introductions by two other brands and the more
recent entry of a copycat brand, whose ads and packages we can also choose to view.
In order to understand the sales results we turn first to survey results on brand images.
We choose to look separately at differing age groups and sexual orientations. It is clear
that the brand has captured its intended position as the forthright pleasure-oriented
brand and that despite its high price it is strongly preferred by heterosexual men. It is
also seen as being a highly Indian brand that is regarded as neither cheap nor prurient
in its appeals to the ancient Indian Kama Sutra. Relevant portions of these results are
keyed to depth interviews with users and we follow a few of these links to hear their
own accounts of the brand. After we have explored more of these results we go to the
section on published research where we find a list of references keyed to full text
reports that are also searchable by words, phrases, or Boolean combinations. A link to
a web site helps us search for related work in other Asian countries as visions of a
global roll-out of the brand stir in our imagination.
The multi-media report in this scenario is neither difficult to imagine creating nor
does it begin to exhaust the digital distribution possibilities for videography. If we are
thinking of targeting a particular group of consumers and have suitable research to
draw upon, it might be more desirable to be able to instantly call up interviews with
people from this specific group and be able to see their homes, cars, workplaces,
friends, pets, favorite magazines and television programs, as well as watch them as
they prepare a meal, go shopping, or talk on the phone. Such real life slices of life can
greatly reduce the distance between decision-making executives and the consumers
they are trying to understand and reach. Perspectives in action video footage of
customers driving while talking on their cellular phones might allow us to see the
driver’s actions, watch the speedometer, and monitor the reactions of other drivers.
A picture-in-picture image of the party at the other end of the conversation, further
rounds out the communication taking place.
These ideas are meant to be suggestive of the wide variety of possibilities opened up
by videographic means of presentation. Along with the risks of uncritical acceptance of
videographic “evidence” as “truth”, come exciting possibilities to engage the minds and
imaginations of various constituents: fellow researchers, practitioners, students, and
others. Presenting videographic information on the world wide web may turn out to be
an excellent way for consumer research to build familiarity and credibility among the
wider, mainstream public that is unlikely to sort through the jargon of the average
consumer research or marketing journal in search of nuggets of insight. In an age when
book and newspaper reading on the decline, and video and television watching is
increasing, videographic presentations are a consumer-centric way to communicate
and disseminate our research.
Challenges and opportunities in videographic research
Enticing as these scenarios may be, there is a host of creative decisions that necessarily
intervene between production and consumption of videographic research. We need
hardly remind the reader that the magic of cinema and television depends partly on
illusion. Because the viewer of video is often less critical than the reader of written
reports, there is a special obligation for video researchers to try to tell a coherent story
or stories without taking undue liberties with the visual and auditory data. It is our
position that the obligation to use video effectively and fairly lies with the filmmaker
more than the audience. Providing too many options to the user in the interests of
making an unbiased and complete report is likely to confuse more than enlighten and
to lose the dramatic story telling potential of the medium. The power of camcorders
and of editing and visual authoring software is now such that restraint is a greater
virtue than demonstrating all possible flourishes of sight and sound. The beginning
filmmaker is apt to zoom too much, have too much camera movement, employ too
many “cute” transitions, and use special effects where none are needed. These
embellishments are more apt to distract than produce good video.
As with written ethnographies, there are many ways to craft a videography. Van
Maanen (1988) categorizes the types of tales that ethnographers tell, but the options
open to the videographer are greater than in the case of ethnographic writing. Based on
the ACR Film Festival entries to date, some of the possible genres include expose
documentaries, mockumentaries, heroic tales, journalistic tales, and those Van Maanen
(1988) labels impressionist tales, realist tales, and confessional tales. Furthermore,
most of these can be done in a variety of styles ranging from quick-cuts to comedy,
tragedy, “voice of god” narration, didactic instruction, or Bollywood musicals.
For example, Kozinets (1999) experimented with an MTV-like montage style
possessing only video and sound, and presented it by reading an autoethnographic
poem while the videography played in the background. Kozinets (2000) presented the
same topic Burning Man but did so in a manner that mimicked the style of a
conventional consumer research journal article. It began with an introduction and
overview of extant theories, presented consumer interview data, presented frozen stills
of the interviews with text and voice-over narration that then categorically analyzed
the data that had been presented, and then aggregated the videographic data into
themes. After the themes were presented, the narration turned to a short discussion
section that provided insights about how the research extended current theory.
In contrast, Kozinets and Sherry (2002), presented the Burning Man festival using no
voiceover narration at all, narrated only by the words of informants, and with
no apparent analysis provided although the film itself was clearly providing an
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analysis and the portrayal of a sacred journey from a profane reality to a sacrificial and
sacrosanct one.
What this range of creative possibilities underscores is that if our written
papers invoke the mantle of “science”, our videographic productions may be as
likely to invoke the mantle of “art”. This is not a bad thing and it is likely
unfortunate that we fail to put more art into our often formulaic written work. The
difficulty, as mentioned above, is in the perception of others in the field (and
perhaps outside) that this association with art somehow lessens and delegitimizes
our research, moving it more into the realm entertainment than knowledge (see the
debate at the start of Belk, 1998). In terms of production values, some researchers
may choose to use professionals in order to improve the artistry of shooting the
video and editing it. But this is certainly no longer necessary. Very few of the
videos in the ACR Film Festival have done this and the People’s Choice Awards
suggest that professional production is not necessary.
Good use of video media will keep in mind that the type of knowledge produced can
be more experiential and emotional than we often attempt with our written work. In
Barthes (1984) vocabulary, the visual can strive for the “prick” of punctum rather than
the lesson of studium. That is, we should wish to make the audience empathize, feel,
imagine, and recognize human conditions (Sherry and Schouten, 2002; Thompson,
1990). This need not preclude prompting the studium of reflecting, contemplating, and
categorizing, but what visual research can add to qualitative marketing research best
is an experiential dimension in which the viewer vicariously learns what it is like for
the consumer.
We cannot attempt to teach the art and techniques of videography or the theory of
visual analysis in the course of this short paper. However, we can recommend a few
sources that may prove useful. At the more concrete and practical end of the
continuum, sources like Gaskill and Englander (1985), Hampe (1997), Musburger (1999)
and Rabiger (1997) may be helpful. For a more cultural perspective on filmmaking, we
recommend Barbash and Taylor (1997), MacDougall (1998), Pink (2001) and Sherman
(1998). Some more theoretical reflections on what visual images mean may be found in
Floch (2000), Schroeder (2002), Scott (1999), Sontag (1977) and Wright (1999). And for
more analytic perspectives on ways of understanding visual images, we suggest
sources like Banks (2001), Emmison and Smith (2000), Evans and Hall (1999), Rose
(2001), Taylor (1994) and Van Leeuwen and Jewitt (2001).
With all the books, articles, journals, classes, workshops and DVDs that exist about
how to shoot and produce video material, the interested videographer should have no
problem finding help. We end with a final observation based on the ACR Film
Festivals. To date, the majority of videos entered as well as the majority of
prize-winning videos were first time efforts by the filmmakers. Some in each case were
students. This is not to say that we cannot improve our videography with practice. But
it is clear that there is little to stop the determined videographer from making and
distributing their video research. How difficult would it be to take along a small video
camera and tripod on your next data gathering expedition? How tough would it be to
buy and learn a video editing program, and use it to produce your next masterpiece?
After a bit of trial and error, you will likely be pleasantly surprised. Surely, it cannot be
as heavy or as difficult as it was for Robert Flaherty, tracking his cameras and his
75,000 feet of film across the cold Canadian wilderness. We look forward to your entry.
1. I think the former examples of the tourists and Burning Man are pretty unobtrusive,
especially since we note that we blend into the background because of the presence of lots of
people with cameras. Also, if the shopper know the guy has a camera in his b-ball hat, isn’t
that sort of intrusive?
2. Since we reference the Burning Man stuff earlier (my addition), I went with the Star Trek
research/video here.
3. This prior section was just moved down, when the above paragraph was inserted.
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Marketing and
... On distinguera plus loin le récit cinématographique du dispositif filmique. apports et limites de la vidéo en termes de production, post-production et dissémination des données (Belk & Kozinets, 2005 ;Cléret et al., 2018 ;Goodman, 2004 ;Petr et al., 2015 ; cf. aussi l'interview de J. Bakan dans Bell, 2015). ...
... informationnelle et conceptuelle), susceptible de venir perturber la relation entre le chercheur, son sujet et son public (Wood et al., 2018), pour ouvrir sur de nouvelles manières de penser, voir et comprendre . Ce positionnement inscrit le film documentaire de chercheur dans une logique « hybride » entre art et science, impliquant un floutage des frontières entre faits empiriques et inventions artistiques (Walz et al., 2016 ;Wood & Brown, 2011), et une redéfinition du chercheur à l'intersection du scientifique et de l'artiste ou de l'Auteur (Belk & Kozinets, 2005 ;Wood & Brown, 2012). Cette indistinction tend à rapprocher le documentaire du terrain de la fiction (« video is fiction », , la vidéographie ayant « the power to show us compelling fantasies of possible worlds » (Rokka & Hietanen, 2018, p. 114). ...
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Le film documentaire, en tant que matériau ou méthode, est un outil de recherche de plus en plus fréquemment mobilisé en management. L’analyse du récit et du dispositif filmique déployé dans Mondovino – un film sur les effets de la mondialisation dans l’univers du vin – est l’occasion d’explorer différentes politiques à l’œuvre dans le film documentaire. En nous appuyant sur le concept de politique chez Rancière, et celui de dispositif critique chez Caillet, nous montrons que le film documentaire constitue une ressource précieuse pour le chercheur-cinéphile comme pour le chercheur-cinéaste engagés dans une démarche de recherche critique. Nous identifions à cet égard trois dimensions politiques au film documentaire : par la mise en œuvre de son dispositif filmique, il opère comme une intervention ou performance qui modifie concrètement le réel là où il s’exerce (faire le film) ; par son récit, le film documentaire construit une alternative critique reconfigurant notre monde historique (faire le monde) ; et enfin, à travers la mise en visibilité du dispositif dans le récit cinématographique, il permet au spectateur de confronter le geste politique de « faire le film » aux enjeux critiques du récit (faire le monde, film faisant).
... Even so, the documentary film format is increasingly often considered as a method for the production of data in its own right, in a sociological and anthropological tradition of filmed research (Colleyn, 1993(Colleyn, , 2009Pink, 2013), or more firmly anchored in contemporary art-based research methods (Barone & Eisner, 2012;Debenedetti et al., 2019;Mairesse, 2019). Some of these studies focus on the major steps in the production of filmed research, underlining the benefits and limits of video in terms of production, post-production, and dissemination of data (Belk & Kozinets, 2005;Cléret et al., 2018;Goodman, 2004;Petr et al., 2015; cf. also the interview with J. Bakan in Bell, 2015). Others emphasize the ability of the filmic form to grasp the physical and embodied dimensions of the organization, and also the democratic dimension of recourse to a collaborative or participative documentary production (Hassard et al., 2018;Slutskaya et al., 2016). ...
... Original Research Article 4 Debenedetti and Perret 'monstrous' form . Emphasizing the esthetic or poetic dimension of the narrative, this work makes the film an immersive, experiential form (vs. informational and conceptual) likely to disturb the relation between the researcher, the subject, and the audience (Wood et al., 2018), and to open up new ways of thinking, seeing, and understanding . This provides the research documentary a 'hybrid' status between art and science, blurring the frontiers between empirical evidence and artistic invention (Walz et al., 2016;Wood & Brown, 2011), and placing the researcher where the work of the scientist and the artist or auteur intersects (Belk & Kozinets, 2005;Wood & Brown, 2012). This overlap tends to bring the documentary closer to fiction ('video is fiction', , where the videography has 'the power to show us compelling fantasies of possible worlds' (Rokka & Hietanen, 2018, p. 114). ...
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Whether as a material or a method, the documentary film is increasingly used in management research. An analysis of the filmic device used in Mondovino – a film about the effects of globalization on the wine world – offers an opportunity to explore different politics at work in the documentary film. Based on the concept of politics as defined by Rancière, and the ‘critical device’ of Caillet, we show that the documentary film is a valuable resource for both the cinephile researcher and the filmmaking researcher engaged in critical research. We ascribe three political dimensions to the documentary film: (1) through its filmic device, it operates as an intervention or performance that concretely changes reality within its scope of action (filmmaking); (2) through its narrative, it builds a critical alternative that reconfigures our historical world (worldmaking); and (3) through making the filmic device visible in the cinematographic narrative, it enables the viewer to relate the political act of filmmaking to the critical issues in the narrative (worldmaking in filmmaking).
... The recent technological progress allowing the use of miniaturized cameras and camcorders helps researchers nowadays to reach a deeper layer of the consumers' behavior analysis using subjective recordings without disturbance due to heavy and bulky equipment. This was suggested by Belk & Kozinets (2005) and applied by very few researchers in different ways. Basil (2011: 252) described the potential uses of photography and video in observational research, their strengths and weaknesses, highlighting that "marketing researchers may be able to employ images that allow us to reveal aspects of human behavior that we would otherwise miss". ...
... Glede analize nakupovalne poti in pristopnega vedenja so metode opazovanja − bodisi skrite bodisi odprte − najustreznejše (Iyer, 1989). Videografijo lahko uporabimo tudi za ustvarjanje obsežnega podatkovnega gradiva (Belk in Kozinets, 2005). Na splošno imajo posnetki velik potencial ne samo pri ocenjevanju potrošnikovega vedenja kot takega, temveč tudi pri identifikaciji situacijskih spremenljivk in kazalcev nakupovalnega okolja (Silberer in Wang, 2010, str. ...
Conference Paper
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According to the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), travel and tourism are among the most affected sectors, along with airlines on the ground, closed hotels, and travel restrictions in place in most countries around the world (2020). The Covid-19 pandemic has led to unimaginable changes worldwide. In this research, the changes in tourist arrivals and overnight stays in the Republic of Srpska in the observed period from 2013 to 2020 are presented. In the same observed period, data for tourist arrivals and overnight stays were also presented by NACE (Classification Economic Activities). The paper explains the changes in the oscillations of visits and overnight stays in terms of years, according to the branding of the country (entity). The results showed a drastic decrease in the visits and overnight stays of both domestic and foreign tourists. According to the results, the authors of the paper gave certain recommendations, based on the UNWTO Forecast (2020).
This paper examines the role of domestic materiality in the construction of extended family identity. It investigates how extended family members experience tensions during new family formation and the ways in which materiality contributes to the resolution of these tensions and the construction of a new family identity. Our findings suggest that the intersubjectivities centred on domestic material objects cause tensions in relationships. However, it is through a process of negotiation stimulated by these intersubjectivities that a new extended family identity emerges. We identify four materiality capacities in this process of negotiation: catalysing, associating, disassociating, and bridging. We posit that these negotiations are an essential part of the process of identity formation given that they motivate a new understanding of competing family discourses, changes to individual and collective status, and a restructuring of family, especially family structure, character, and intergenerational orientation.
In recent years, machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) have attracted considerable attention in different industry sectors, including marketing. ML and AI hold great promise for making marketing intelligent and efficient. In this study, we conduct a literature review of academic journal studies on ML in marketing applications and propose a conceptual framework highlighting the main ML tools and technologies that serve as the foundation of ML applications in marketing. We use the 7Ps marketing mix, that is, product, price, promotion, place, people, process, and physical evidence, to analyze these applications from 140 selected articles. The applications are supported by various ML tools (text, voice, image, and video analytics) and techniques such as supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning algorithms. We propose a two-layer conceptual framework for ML applications in marketing development. This framework can serve future research and provide an illustration of the development of ML applications in marketing.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to use a spreadable form of creative expression, bookwork, to illustrate the encroachment upon the indigenous craft process of Namibian master crafters. In addition, the authors hope to inspire a dialogue regarding the value of interdisciplinary research between the arts and business and promote creative expression as scholarly output that can provide additional depth to research topics in business. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces bookwork as a research technique used to convey insights regarding the consequences to master crafters and indigenous craft practices arising from the economic activities of informal sector tourists as “outsiders” – those external to the indigenous Namibian Craft community. Findings In this paper, the authors convey the manner in which outsiders (such as tourists) permanently influence the traditional craft culture of indigenous communities in a largely unexplored cultural ecological niche in Namibia by purchasing low cost, easily mass produced, yet inauthentic brightly colored objects. It is likely that craft processes designed for revenue generation will encroach on the role of the master crafters in Namibian society and permanently redirect creative activities away from the indigenous practices. Research limitations/implications The researchers acknowledge the biases they have, as outsiders, in their perception of Namibian master crafters and craft practices. Social implications The human capital of the master crafters of Namibia is being eroded and traditional craft practices are being distorted due to incentives created by tourist preferences for cheap, inauthentic replicas of the master crafters’ work. Originality/value While some business disciplines, such as marketing, have incorporated the arts into their research, the use of creative expression in many business disciplines has been limited. The authors are the first to use bookwork to explore academic business research questions as per their knowledge. In addition, this study provides a new perspective, that of the outsider, in assessing how tourism impacts traditional Namibian Craft processes.
Sustainability is strongly becoming imperative for all fashion companies to respond to stakeholders’ concerns and meet their expectations. While companies are more and more engaged in sustainability practices regarding all the activities carried out, there is also a growing opportunity for them to communicate it to reinforce the brand through various means. One of these is undoubtedly represented by social media. The social media landscape is increasingly characterized by the use of images as a highly impactful way of communication, with image-based social media such as Instagram that are experiencing significant growth among consumers and businesses. Consequently, the paper aims to understand how sustainability is depicted through Instagram by sustainable fashion companies. For these reasons, the paper investigates the use of images on Instagram by two sustainable fashion brands, Patagonia and Stella McCartney. To this aim, the paper employs the visual content analysis on over 300 pictures downloaded from the two corporate accounts on Instagram. The findings show the most used image categories to depict sustainability, and how such categories generate online interaction with users in terms of digital engagement. Implications for sustainable fashion companies and social media managers are provided.
The role of cooking on pre- and post-consumption quality expectations and its impact on satisfaction during the eating experience is under-researched. To address this gap, a ‘task and talk’ focus group study involving participants preparing and eating a beef steak as part of a meal was designed to explore the role of cooking on consumers' evaluation of beef quality. The results from six focus groups (n = 36 participants) identified that ‘perceived cooking quality’ of beef is an important criterion impacting pre-purchase evaluation. Cooking is a process of adaptation to personal tastes and is influenced by cooking self-efficacy. This personal confidence in steak preparation mediates a willingness to directly complain about a disappointing eating experience. Direct complaints generally occurred in relation to intrinsic quality cues prior to cooking where the locus of quality control was external to the participant. Poor eating quality of beef was generally attributed to a deficiency in cooking skills, an internal attribution of quality failure that minimised the likelihood of direct complaints. A lack of confidence in cooking skills may explain a delay in repeat purchasing following a negative eating experience.