Exercising at work and self-reported work performance

Article (PDF Available)inInternational Journal of Workplace Health Management 1(3):176-197 · September 2008with4,806 Reads
DOI: 10.1108/17538350810926534
Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the interplay of workplace exercising on self-reported workplace performance. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed methods design combined a randomised cross-over trial with concurrent focus groups. Three workplaces (two private companies, one public service organisation) were purposefully selected for their provision of on-site exercise facilities, size (>250 employees) and large proportion of sedentary occupations. Two mood diary questionnaires were distributed to employees exercising on-site only. Order of questionnaire completion was randomised: self-selected exercise-day (ExD) or no-exercise day (NExD) first. Exercise specifics (duration, intensity, mode) and ExD mood (pre-/post-exercise) were recorded. On NExD, mood was measured early and late in the working day. A 15-item work performance grid was completed at day-ends. Three on-site focus groups were held concurrently to explore performance-related topics. Findings – Among 201 volunteer respondents (67 per cent female, mean age 38.2 years), mood improved on ExD, pre-to-post exercise (all p<0.01). Performance indicators were higher on ExD, versus NExD (all p<0.01), independent of exercise specifics and workload. Positive changes in performance outcomes were almost exclusively linked to changes in mood. Inductive analysis of focus groups revealed 13 (of 17) themes exhibiting positive outcomes. Employee tolerance and resilience were central to the subjective findings. Research limitations/implications – The naturalistic, dual-paradigm study demonstrated that workday exercise can improve white-collar workers' mood and self-reported performance on days when they exercise at work over days when they do not. There are clear implications not only for employee wellbeing, but also for competitive advantage and motivation by increasing opportunities for exercising at work. Originality/value – This is one of the few studies that addresses the acute effects of exercise in the workplace in the same people. Self-rated productivity effects attributable to exercising during the working day were strongly mediated by changes in mood. Statistical power is amplified within the cross-over design.

Figures

Exercising at work and
self-reported work performance
J.C. Coulson
Department of Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Bristol,
Bristol, UK
J. McKenna
Carnegie Faculty of Education and Sport, Leeds Metropolitan University,
Leeds, UK, and
M. Field
Department of Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Bristol,
Bristol, UK
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address the interplay of workplace exercising on
self-reported workplace performance.
Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods design combined a randomised cross-over
trial with concurrent focus groups. Three workplaces (two private companies, one public service
organisation) were purposefully selected for their provision of on-site exercise facilities, size (. 250
employees) and large proportion of sedentary occupations. Two mood diary questionnaires were
distributed to employees exercising on-site only. Order of questionnaire completion was randomised:
self-selected exercise-day (ExD) or no-exercise day (NExD) first. Exercise specifics (duration, intensity,
mode) and ExD mood (pre-/post-exercise) were recorded. On NExD, mood was measured early and late
in the working day. A 15-item work performance grid was completed at day-ends. Three on-site focus
groups were held concurrently to explore performance-related topics.
Findings Among 201 volunteer respondents (67 per cent female, mean age 38.2 years), mood
improved on ExD, pre-to-post exercise (all p , 0:01). Performance indicators were higher on ExD,
versus NExD (all p , 0:01), independent of exercise specifics and workload. Positive changes in
performance outcomes were almost exclusively linked to changes in mood. Inductive analysis of focus
groups revealed 13 (of 17) themes exhibiting positive outcomes. Employee tolerance and resilience
were central to the subjective findings.
Research limitations/implications The naturalistic, dual-paradigm study demonstrated that
workday exercise can improve white-collar workers’ mood and self-reported performance on days
when they exercise at work over days when they do not. There are clear implications not only for
employee wellbeing, but also for competitive advantage and motivation by increasing opportunities
for exercising at work.
Originality/value This is one of the few studies that addresses the acute effects of exercise in the
workplace in the same people. Self-rated productivity effects attributable to exercising during the
working day were strongly mediated by changes in mood. Statistical power is amplified within the
cross-over design.
Keywords Exercise, Performance management, Focus groups
Paper type Research paper
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/1753-8351.htm
The authors would like to thank all the participating organisations and individuals in the study,
and Professor Kenneth R. Fox, Department of Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences,
University of Bristol, for his valuable feedback.
IJWHM
1,3
176
International Journal of Workplace
Health Management
Vol. 1 No. 3, 2008
pp. 176-197
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
1753-8351
DOI 10.1108/17538350810926534
Introduction
The workplace has been described as an ideal setting for exercise promotion and many
recognise its associated public health potential (Dishman et al., 1998; Ewles and
Simnett, 2003; Taylor, 2005). Since exercising employees are essentially healthier than
sedentary ones (Jex and Heinisch, 1996), it has been posited that employers stand to
benefit from encouraging structured exercise and also less formal physical activity
among their workers (Proper et al., 2002). Exercise is increasingly portrayed to
employers as an effective means of combating workplace stress (Flood and Long, 1996)
and of supporting organisations’ aspirations to corporate social responsibility and
organisational justice (Kivima
¨
ki et al., 2003). Indeed, employers may make
considerable investment to support work-based exercise facilities (Jex, 1991;
Shephard, 1989, 1992). Almost half (48 per cent) of “The 100 Best Companies to
Work For 2006” offered gym access to employees (Sunday Times, 2006), possibly to
emphasise care for employees and/or to heighten their workplace satisfaction.
Physical activity is currently regarded as the parent discipline that houses
structured exercise. Physical activity influences at least 20 major diseases (Booth et al.,
2000) and also has a positive role in maintaining mental health (Department of Health,
2004). Indices of mental health that are pertinent to physically asymptomatic
individuals include morale and mood (Goetzel et al., 1998; Harden et al., 1999; Lechner,
1997; Peterson and Dunnagan, 1998). Recent work has shown how physical activity
has a positive influence on coping skills for work behaviour and for tolerating minor
irritations, without becoming stressed (Steptoe et al., 1998). However, other literature
around improved performance or productivity following exercise is equivocal. Proper
et al. (2002) conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of physical activity
programmes at worksites with respect to productivity but found no evidence of an
effect. Others (e.g. Donoghue, 1977; Hildebrandt et al., 2002; Rosenfeld et al., 1989;
Shephard, 1992) have drawn cautious but more favourable conclusions. Economic
analysts have suggested that 70 per cent of UK adults meeting current
recommendation for exercising 150 þ minutes/week would save the economy £487
million by preventing 2.7 million days of work absence (Deloitte and TARP, 2006).
It is important to distinguish short- from longer-term effects on specific elements of
workplace performance and to determine how employees can act independently to
benefit that performance on any given work day. One such mechanism could be
through mood enhancement, leading to further developments which make work easier
to complete. Research supports associations of physical activity with acute mood
benefits and enhanced psychological affect (Biddle, 2000; Carless and Faulkner, 2003;
Scully et al., 1998; Yeung, 1996). Following exercise even individual sessions a
rapidly evolving pattern of affective improvement seems to arise, the persisting effects
of which are responsible for feelings of lowered tension and exhilaration (Byrne and
Byrne, 1993; Ekkekakis and Petruzzello, 1999; Yeung, 1996). Thus, exercising may be
an effective, short-term strategy for self-regulation of mood (Lane et al., 1998; Yeung,
1996). Physical activity can also contribute to positive physical self-perception,
positively promote mental health (Biddle, 2000; Scully et al., 1998) and protect against
the development of mental health problems (Carless and Faulkner, 2003), all of which
may be seen as factors within the so-called epidemic of workplace stress (Wainwright
and Calnan, 2002).
Exercising at
work
177
Since psychosocial features of the workplace contribute to sick leave and
underperformance (Head et al., 2006; Hemp, 2004; Koopman et al., 2001), it is surprising
that potential relationships between on-site exercise, mood and work performance have
not been better explored. In US employees, one estimate was that depression cost
employers $44 billion per year in lost productivity time. This figure is $31 billion per
year more than that for peers without depression, excluding costs associated with
short- and long-term disability (Stewart et al., 2003).
Emotional affect may predict job performance more strongly than job satisfaction
(Co
ˆ
te
´
, 1999) and employers may be more motivated by improvements in workplace
processes, rather than simply focusing on outcomes. For example, organisations could
seek to promote mood improvement for its relationship to a range of behaviours that
influence the working environment including organisational spontaneity, pro-social
behaviour, managerial fairness, altruism and morale (George and Brief, 1992; Pelled
and Xin, 1999). Indeed, recent research in the UK has identified that a “4A” model
(access, ability, attitude and application) often combines powerfully to improve
workplace effectiveness (Tamkin et al., 2008). Physical activity can play either a direct
or indirect role in facilitating each of these “A” factors, or their effective combinations,
toward improved workplace economic performance.
Moreover, physical activity promotion is often marketed as a route to cost-saving
and the climate is favourable for increased investment, with recent publications such
as the NICE guidelines for workplace physical activity (National Institute for Health
and Clinical Excellence, 2008), Working for a Healthier Tomorrow (Black, 2008),
Creating a Healthy Workplace Guide (Faculty of Public Health and Faculty of
Occupational Medicine, 2006) and the UK Government’s strategy for physical activity
(HM Government, 2005):
We want to create workplaces where we both protect the health and well-being of employees
and optimise the opportunity to help people improve their own health and well-being. [...]
Success should lead to optimal performance and attendance [and] increased productivity, so
that people are more effective when they are at work” (HM Government, 2005).
Few studies which identify positive links to physical activity are based on research
designs that accommodate usual behaviour, or that reflect everyday short-term
responses to exercise that may be conducted in, say, employees’ lunch-breaks. Instead
they are based on imposed behaviours, and often these behaviours have limited
ecological validity since they are hard to sustain beyond the influence of a research
study. To this end, the ecological validity of any claims for the influence of such
physical activity on workplace behaviour is inevitably limited (Yeung, 1996). Instead,
studies are needed that are based on self-selected physical activity behaviour.
Purposes
The purposes of the study were:
.
to explore employees’ experience of exercising at work, via group discussion, to
help better understand how exercising influenced the progression of the working
day;
.
to establish whether self-reported mood at work changed pre- to post-exercise,
and in relation to Exercise Days (ExDs) and No-Exercise Days (NoExDs);
IJWHM
1,3
178
.
to investigate differences in employees’ self-rated work performance at the end of
their working day on an ExD, compared to a NoExD; and
.
to determine whether exercise-induced mood improvement predicted
self-reported performance estimates.
Methods
The randomised control trial (RCT) is the design of choice for identifying which
interventions work best (Petticrew and Roberts, 2003), yet examples in this area are
rare, perhaps because they require a level of researcher control that is not available in
the workplace. Further, they may also require that employees are allocated to
inactivity, which is unlikely to be ethically approved given current understanding
about the importance of regular daily exercising. Another limitation of the RCT design
is that, although these are powerful designs, they compare the effects of exercise in one
group compared to another, whereas fewer studies have explored the acute effects of
exercising (versus non-exercising) in the same people. It is timely to learn more about
these issues, to capitalise on future potential for fighting the incumbent challenges of
well-being at work and public health which may link the mental with the physical.
Given the limited use of research designs based on high levels of researcher control,
it is not surprising that even more complex designs are less well represented in the
published literature. For example, there has been relatively little use of a dual
paradigm approach in research issues relating to this study, despite recent growing
interest in its use (Burke Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004; Cutcliffe and McKenna,
2002; Johnston et al., 1999). Therefore, a mixed methods design was generated, based
on an RCT design with cross-over, supported by focus groups. The design was based
around a concurrent, nested strategy (Creswell, 2003), which involved two study
methods being conducted in the same time period, i.e. summer 2006. Priority was given
to the quantitative data throughout, so that discrepancies in findings or outcomes
always favoured the empirical evidence.
Qualitative data provided secondary, explanatory data and can best be described as
embedded within the dominant, statistical, approach. Focus groups are particularly
valuable for studying workplace cultures (Kitzinger, 1995) and were employed to
triangulate data (Frey and Fontana, 1993). In the analysis stage, these data were used
to converge and confirm results from the questionnaires and help in their interpretation
(Creswell, 1998, 2003).
Settings
Three organisations (two private and one public) in the same city in Southwest
England were invited to participate. These were chosen according to:
.
a working population large enough to support a sizeable group of regular
work-day exercisers (i.e. . 250 employees);
.
having on-site exercise facilities; and
.
adopting a supportive approach towards exercising at work.
Using posters and e-mail (circulated by the list holders within the different
organisations), only volunteer employees who regularly exercised on-site, during
workdays, were recruited.
Exercising at
work
179
Method: randomised controlled trial with cross-over
Allocation was based on random numbers with block allocation. Randomisation
allocated the order of completing the questionnaire: starting ExD or NoExD.
Participants returned completed questionnaires at the end of each working day.
Questionnaires
Demographic data were provided first. Mood was then reported four times using the
validated Physical Activity Affect Scale (PANAS; Lox et al., 2000); pre- and
post-exercise on the ExD, and earlier (T1) and later in the day (T2) on the NoExD. On
the ExD questionnaire, exercise specifics (duration, mode, intensity and time of day)
were reported. Participants also rated:
.
the nature of their present job (1 ¼ highly sedentary, 3 ¼ lightly active, 5 ¼
highly active);
.
each day’s workload (1 ¼ very heavy, 3 ¼ about average, 5 ¼ very light); and
.
whether there was anything particularly unusual about each day.
Participants also stated their level of agreement with this statement: “As I am about to
leave, I feel an overall sense of satisfaction and achievement with my day at work”
(5 ¼ strongly agree, 3 ¼ don’t know, 1 ¼ strongly disagree).
Mood diaries
Steptoe et al. (1998) noted that the diary approach is a technique of momentary
assessment, providing unique naturalistic information that is not otherwise available.
Therefore, we used existing questionnaires (Lox et al., 2000), which we called mood
diaries (MDs). These were self-completed twice on each day when the study was
conducted. Responses were based on a response scale of 1 ¼ do not feel, 3 ¼ feel
moderately, 5 ¼ feel very strongly.
Self-selected physical activity
Participants chose their own physical activity mode, intensity and duration because
the need to address ecological validity has been highlighted elsewhere (Yeung, 1996), to
widen the generalisability of trial findings. This is important in the study design as
individuals are more likely to experience the “feelgood effect” after undertaking
exercise modes and intensities that they prefer (Biddle, 2000) rather than those that
may be imposed upon them. One particular advantage of this approach over the typical
randomised controlled trial design is that it offers the prospect of identifying the effects
of behaviours that can be sustained in given workplaces and within current work
patterns. Collectively, this enhances compliance with study demands and provides a
clearer view of the impact of a single bout of exercise in the workplace.
Work performance
Work performance was recorded at the end of respective days. Ten of the 25-item Work
Limitations Questionnaire items (WLQ; Lerner et al., 2001) were adopted, with
permission, using an adapted response scale: 1 ¼ difficult most/all of the time (51
percent þ ), 4 ¼ neither easy nor difficult and 7 ¼ easy most/all of the time (51
percent þ ). This questionnaire provided perceptions of completing work-related
demands in three domains (original
a
values shown here): time (
a
¼ 0:89),
IJWHM
1,3
180
mental-interpersonal (
a
¼ 0:91) and output (
a
¼ 0:88) demands (Lerner et al., 2001).
WLQ assesses presenteeism, which is working while unwell, and this is analogous to
the notion of engagement, which is a strong theme in contemporary workplace
literature. Five non-validated items were also integrated, rationalized by contemporary
literature (Kessler et al., 2003; Steptoe et al., 1998).
Method: focus groups
Three focus groups, one in each site, were conducted across the worksites. Participants
were recruited using posters displayed in workplace exercise facilities. Details of
contacts and the inclusion criteria were provided on the posters, meaning that
respondents were all appropriate volunteers.
A protocol was developed and refined through piloting and according to published
procedures (Basch, 1987; Kitzinger, 1995; Knodel, 1993; Krueger, 1988; Morgan, 1993).
The finalised approach successfully explored seven performance-with-exercising
topics, including mood, “spill-over” effects (i.e. outcomes/impacts) and different modes
and intensities of exercise. To ensure the involvement of all participants, nominal
group techniques were integrated, following the successful example of Mackey-Jones
and McKenna (2004). All discussions were audio-recorded using two devices to allow
for over-talking and equipment malfunction.
Each focus group generated four data sets: verbatim transcripts, flip charts and
field notes reported at each discussion, prepared by both a researcher and independent
observer. Transcripts were reduced using code-mapping (Knodel, 1993) and rebuilt via
inductive, thematic analysis, guided by the discussion themes. To meet paradigm
conventions, this process was triangulated (Creswell, 1998; Frey and Fontana, 1993) by
two researchers. Emphasis was placed on themes triangulated across data sources
(Miles and Huberman, 1994).
Informed consent and ethics
Completion of MD questionnaires was deemed to indicate giving informed consent. For
the focus groups, all participants agreed to each element of a seven-point informed
consent form. The study was approved by the University of Bristol Human Ethics
Committee (Department of Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences).
Statistical analysis
Before any analysis was undertaken, the accuracy of data entry was checked. Based on
20,100 entries from 22 (11 per cent) questionnaires, only seven errors were found, which
were then corrected. NoExD responses were taken to indicate a baseline reference for
the level of work performance. Intervention effects were assessed by calculating
change in mood (am minus pm) and performance scores (ExD minus NoExD), then
compared using independent, paired t-tests. To discover whether performance effects
were independent of mood changes, an ANCOVA analysis was undertaken with three
levels of mood differences (mood reduction, no change, mood improvement) used as
covariates. Eta2 determined effect size.
Results
Completed questionnaires were returned by 201 respondents. Compliance with
instructions was high, although slightly more respondents completed the ExD diary
Exercising at
work
181
first (n ¼ 112, 56 per cent). The gap between returning the NoExD and ExD
questionnaires averaged 3.98 (SD ¼ 2:99) days.
Baseline responses
The sample comprised 201 employees, whose mean age was 38.2 (^ 23.8) years. A
majority were female (n ¼ 135, 67 per cent), white (n ¼ 181, 90 per cent) and based at a
pensions company (n ¼ 120, 60 per cent). Others worked either in a computer company
or a university in the same British city in Southwest England. They confirmed holding
mainly, or highly, sedentary occupations (n ¼ 165, 82 per cent), but had been
exercising at least twice a week over the last month (n ¼ 161, 81 per cent). Respondents
were generally healthy, although exhibiting a mixed profile of mental health (Table I).
They already felt competent in their roles at baseline: 75 per cent (n ¼ 151) of
participants scored 4 or higher across single WLQ performance items, indicating that
they found the task neither particularly difficult nor easy, or easier.
Exercise undertaken on the exercise days
Modes of physical activity during the working day were dominated by cardiovascular
exercise (treadmills, classes, ergometers; 72.0 per cent), with 12.0 per cent engaging in
weight training and 16.0 per cent in games or team sports. Eight in ten respondents
reported doing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, with one in five undertaking
“very hard” exercise. For duration, 75.1 per cent reported doing 45 minutes or less
physical activity during their ExD.
Intervention effects
Estimates of the respective day’s workload (NoExD versus ExD) did not differ
(p . 0:05), averaging 2.95 (0.60) versus 2.93 (0.72). Satisfaction with the day’s
achievements (1-5) was higher by þ 0.62 (0.97) on the ExD (p , 0:01).
Mood
When mood was first measured on each respective day (ExD vs NoExD) only negative
mood differed (p , 0:05), with worse negative mood on the ExD (Figure 1). On ExD,
participants’ mood significantly improved (all p , 0:01) across all four of these
dimensions, pre-to-post exercise (Figure 1). In contrast, the only mood change on the
NoExD was for tranquillity, which worsened as the workday progressed (p , 0:01).
Performance
Trial effects were based on subscale differences (NoExD minus ExD). Nearly nine in
ten respondents (n ¼ 179, 89 per cent) reported improvements in at least one WLQ,
subscale and over half (n ¼ 115, 57 per cent) did so in all three on the ExD. Frequency
distributions of scores showed that 144 (72 per cent) individuals reported
improvements in managing time demands, 158 (79 per cent) in mental-interpersonal
performance and 148 (74 per cent) in managing output demands. More females (n ¼ 84,
62 per cent) than males (n ¼ 31, 47 per cent) achieved benefits in all three performance
domains (p , 0:05). Where participants showed no performance benefits associated
with exercising, they were characterised by self-reporting being in better spirits
(p , 0:001), having higher levels of energy (p , 0:01), but not mental health status
(p . 0:05) at the start of the study.
IJWHM
1,3
182
Females Males
Variable Response options n Per cent n Per cent n Per cent
Recent physical health (n ¼ 201) Excellent 18 99595
Very good 46 23 30 15 16 8
Good 25 12 73 36 25 12
Fair 33 16 19 10 14 7
Poor or very poor 634221
Recent general feelings “spirits” (n ¼ 201) Excellent or very good spirits 30 15 22 11 8 4
Mostly good spirits 101 50 64 32 37 18
Up and down 63 31 45 22 18 9
Mostly low spirits 744232
Recent energy levels “vitality” (n ¼ 200) Very full of energy/vitality 535300
Fairly energetic most of the time 75 38 49 25 26 13
Energy has varied quite a bit 94 47 63 32 31 16
Generally low in energy/vitality (most of time) 26 13 17 9 26 13
Mental health (n ¼ 200) No anxiety, depression, stress 97 49 62 31 35 18
Anxious, depressed or stressed but not receiving
treatment 68 34 45 23 23 12
Previously professionally treated for anxiety,
depression or stress 29 15 22 11 7 4
Currently anxious, depressed or stressed and
receiving professional treatment 635311
Table I.
Health-related
characteristics of
participants
Exercising at
work
183
Paired t-tests showed small but consistent performance benefits (mean difference, SD,
range) on ExDs for each work performance area assessed using the WLQ:
.
managing time demands: þ 2.50, 3.52, 2-14;
.
managing mental-interpersonal demands: þ 4.32, 5.34, 5-35; and
.
managing output demands: þ 3.44, 4.45, 3-21.
All p-values were , 0.01 (Figure 2). The largest, single-item benefit (1.25) was for
“Work without stopping to take unscheduled breaks”.
Adding the non-validated performance items, each of the 15 individual indicators
was significantly higher on ExDs, compared to NoExDs (all p , 0:01). The mean effect
size was 1.08 and the largest was for “feeling motivated/energised to work” (1.41)
(Table II).
Performance effects were independent of demographic variables (gender, age group,
ethnicity), exercise specifics (intensity, duration, mode, recent use of facilities), and
self-reported mental health. Neither the order of diary completion nor the unusualness
of the workload on either day influenced performance outcomes (all p . 0:05).
Physical activity, mood and performance
Mood responses, recoded into either exercise benefit versus no benefit in relation to
performance, are shown in Table III. Although t-tests showed that four outcome
Figure 1.
Mood scales: physical
activity patterns of
responses according to
exercise days and
no-exercise days
IJWHM
1,3
184
differences were linked to mood response, ANCOVA analysis showed that the only the
differences between negative mood and mental-interpersonal demands (F ¼ 4:46,
p , 0:05) remained after accounting for all mood responses. Regarding effect size, 58
per cent of the variability in performance was explained by knowledge of the grouping
for mood response.
Focus groups
Analysis confirmed 17 themes (Table IV), 13 of which were positive for exercise effects,
including better concentration and problem-solving, a clearer mind and
re-energisation. Exercising also presented a chance to interact with other often
less well known colleagues. It offered an active break from the demands of the office,
where participants commented on the marked contrast with the sedentary nature of
their work. Females especially valued this as “me time”. Exercise afforded contributors
more perspective about the workday and resilience to stressors. It appeared to reinforce
their short-term sense of personal achievement, by a process of accumulation. Negative
features included the challenges of self-organisation, guilt over being away from the
desk and perceived negative judgement from colleagues. Others missed “just vegging
Figure 2.
WLQ subscale means:
exercise days versus
no-exercise days
Exercising at
work
185
Mean (SD)
Validated measure Subscale (range) and items NoExD
a
ExD
b
Difference
c
p value
WLQ
d
Time demands (2-14) 8.80 (3.67) 11.30 (2.97) þ 2.50 (3.52) , 0.01
Work without stopping to take unscheduled breaks 4.44 (1.94) 5.70 (1.63) þ 1.25 (1.91) , 0.01
Stick to routine/plan for day 4.36 (2.01) 5.59 (1.58) þ 1.22 (1.96) , 0.01
Mental-interpersonal (5-35) 26.39 (5.99) 30.71 (4.15) þ 4.32 (5.34) , 0.01
Do work carefully, without making mistakes 5.22 (1.52) 6.02 (1.17) þ 0.81 (1.44) , 0.01
Concentrate on my work 4.58 (1.79) 5.79 (1.33) þ 1.21 (1.65) , 0.01
Speak with people 5.38 (1.45) 6.33 (1.10) þ 0.96 (1.39) , 0.01
Control temper 5.83 (1.49) 6.51 (1.00) þ 0.69 (1.46) , 0.01
Help others to work 5.37 (1.39) 6.04 (1.14) þ 0.67 (1.40) , 0.01
Output demands (3-21) 14.16 (4.86) 17.61 (3.14) þ 3.44 (4.45) , 0.01
Handle workload 4.89 (1.69) 5.99 (1.13) þ 1.10 (1.75) , 0.01
Finish work on time 4.51 (2.09) 5.73 (1.47) þ 1.22 (2.11) , 0.01
To do what I’m capable of doing 4.70 (1.82) 5.91 (1.34) þ 1.21 (1.52) , 0.01
N/A Perform at level expected of others doing similar job 5.01 (1.70) 6.01 (1.28) þ 1.00 (1.38) , 0.01
N/A Complete tasks set/set out to do 4.75 (1.87) 5.74 (1.43) þ 0.99 (1.84) , 0.01
N/A Feel motivated/energised to do work 4.33 (1.80) 5.73 (1.45) þ 1.41 (1.56) , 0.01
N/A Deal calmly with day’s workday stressors 4.90 (1.61) 6.17 (1.06) þ 1.27 (1.49) , 0.01
N/A Be generally productive re: role/responsibilities 4.93 (1.63) 6.18 (1.18) þ 1.26 (1.58) , 0.01
Notes: Paired t-tests.
a
No-exercise day;
b
exercise day;
c
for ExD;
d
Work Limitations Questionnaire (Lerner et al., 2001)
Table II.
Performance subscale
and item scores under
different exercise
conditions
IJWHM
1,3
186
out” or were annoyed by not taking lunch. Central to the positive outcomes described
by focus group participants were characteristics that we labelled as tolerance and
resilience.
Discussion
The study set out to explore how self-directed exercising at work impacts on
self-reported work performance. Outcomes need to be understood in terms of the
particular design strength, which compared individuals on days when they exercised
versus days when they did not. This should be distinguished from those studies that
compare exercisers with non-exercisers. This finding emphasises that any
performance effects attributable to exercising are absent on other, inactive, days.
There are four main findings based on the mixed methods approach. First,
self-directed exercise especially that which fits into a typical one-hour lunch break
was associated with important mood benefits. Second, performance increments
consistently favoured the exercise condition. Third, exercising was associated with a
wide range of beneficially changed work attitudes and perspectives regarding self,
tasks and colleagues. Finally, our trial data also distinguished that a range of
process-related variables were each connected to overall self-reported performance
improvement but only rarely were these independent of exercise-related mood changes.
The findings suggest that positive changes in self-reported performance outcomes
of white-collar employees were mostly linked to the mood changes brought about by
exercise. All 15 performance markers and the three performance subscales were
acutely and positively linked to exercising. These findings are supported by a
Mean (SD)
Variable and mood impact
Mental-
interpersonal
Output
demands Time demands
Positive mood
No benefit
a
(n ¼ 40; 21 þ 19) 3.20 (5.09) 2.03 (5.12) 1.35 (4.06)
Exercise benefit (n ¼ 154) 4.51 (5.33) 3.73 (4.14) 2.79 (3.31)
t-test NS
t(2.21),
p , 0.05
t(2.34),
p , 0.05
Negative effect
No benefit
a
(n ¼ 166; 94 þ 72) 4.16 (5.39) 3.01 (4.25) 2.28 (3.48)
Exercise benefit (n ¼ 28) 5.29 (5.30) 6.00 (5.13) 3.68 (3.90)
t-test NS
t(2.91),
p , 0.01 NS
Fatigue
No benefit
a
(n ¼ 146; 131 þ 15) 4.65 (5.42) 3.66 (4.32) 2.86 (3.40)
Exercise benefit (n ¼ 51) 3.16 (4.64) 2.67 (4.75) 1.47 (3.68)
t-test NS NS
t(2.45),
p , 0.01
Tranquillity
No benefit
a
(n ¼ 57; 39 þ 18) 3.70 (4.08) 3.68 (4.15) 2.51 (3.17)
Exercise benefit (n ¼ 141) 4.58 (5.81) 3.37 (4.60) 2.54 (3.69)
t-test NS NS NS
Notes:
a
Group size estimate; n ¼ mood deficit on ExD þ no mood change on ExD
Table III.
Performance differences
(NoExD versus ExD) by
mood differences
Exercising at
work
187
Illustrative raw data quotes Theme
Positive exercise effects
... makes a problem that you may have had in work, or whatever, beforehand seem less of a problem
when you get back .. .
Problem-solving (R)
“Your mind’s still perhaps ticking over in the background, working on the problem and back, after your
exercise, your body’s nicely tuned up, endorphins kicking in or whatever, and suddenly [clicks fingers]
you’ve also got the solution”
“It helps me to take a broader view to solving a problem”
“You can really concentrate ... exercising really helps for that ... If I’m doing one big, long task all
through the day where I need to concentrate on it, often, come lunchtime, I’m so sick and tired of, of
sitting at my desk and looking at it, it’s really nice to go and have a break and then you come back and
you’re much better for it in the afternoon ...
Improved concentration/lapse prevention (R)
“Exercising at lunchtime’s good for preventing post-lunch slump”
“It can make things, make you see things perhaps a little bit more clearly ... physical exertion can clear
your head. It ... can have a good effect on your mind ... lets your mind relax”
Mind-clearance (R)
“I always feel a lot calmer. If I didn’t do it, well I would feel more stressed than if I had ... hadn’t done it
... definitely relieves stress”
Calm-inducing/stress-reducing (R)
“The busier and more stressful I become, the more I value exercising”
“Taking knocks is easier. Helps me feel strong for the rest of the day. It’s just that I feel that that strength,
um, shows itself and I think it inspires more confidence in me ... you feel ... able to cope with more,
really, what’s going on around you”
Resilience (R)
“It just gives you a slightly different perspective, so that work isn’t the only thing that matters ...
“It’s an important part of the day, it’s as important as doing your work. I’m in a completely different
mindset when I get back ... that hour has taken on a different dimension and it changes my day”
Perspective (R)
“I’m not enjoying work due to organisational issues but getting away from my desk and exercising helps
my frame of mind”
“It is a good punctuation mark in the day ... there’s a kind of, a slightly kind of caged element to work
and that definitely gives it, it gives you the, a little bit of freedom in the day and, so, if you know you’ll be
stuck at your desk all day, then it’s a, it’s a good escape ...
Break-escape (R)
“I don’t tend to think about anything else that’s going on while I’m exercising ... I completely switch off
without actually thinking that I’m gonna switch off. You get to the end and you think ‘Aw, I haven’t
thought about X, Y, Z’ ...
(continued)
Table IV.
Focus group findings:
raw data, by thematic
categorisation
IJWHM
1,3
188
Illustrative raw data quotes Theme
“When I’ve been to the gym, I think, well, that was for you. That’s your bit for you. I’m not helping
anybody else by being there, you know, directly, so that’s my holistic bit”
Me-time (R) (females only)
“You feel like you’re just doing something, well for me, ... I’m not doing it for the family, I’m not doing it
for the students or the staff or whoever”
“I’m just doing it for me and that’s my own time and that’s really special to me ... time for me and I don’t
like people talking to me when I’m working out”
... if you’re exercising you are achieving a goal and, at work you are achieving a goal, so what you’re
actually doing is, is giving yourself a nice little, um, success treat before you get, get to work. And
because you, sort of, experience success outside of work, you you, you bring that feeling in and you know
you can be successful because you’ve done it before you’ve got to work, so you know you can be
successful at work”
Achievement reinforcement (R)
“It’s a-another kinda point of accomplishment, it’s gone in the piggy-bank for the day somehow”
“I go back to work and I feel full of beans ... Re-energising (R)
“Exercise wakes me up. When I’m sitting at work, I feel like I’m falling asleep, I’m tired, and if go to the
gym ... doing exercise at lunchtime just gives me a sense of feeling rejuvenated for the afternoon, so I’m
sort of back up there again, rather than ground down”
“It obviously gets your circulation going and I think that can have a good effect on your, on your mind ...
so my body’s done something as well as my mind”
Mind-body connection (R)
“Well, healthy body, healthy mind, isn’t it?”
“I play with my faculty accountant, which can be quite useful, and the computer technician to whom I
can say ‘Just come and fix this’. I meet my research friends from other departments and ... grant
applications have sprung out of games”
New/improved work relationships (T)
“You can interact better with people perhaps afterwards than you could, I dunno, before ... cos you’ve
got that buzz of having done your exercise which lasts for quite a long time”
“To have that sort of social contact with people, you learn more about those people and it sort of adds an
element to your work”
Social networks (T)
“I look forward to it as a social thing, definitely. Certainly with, with the exercise I do, either running or
the other exercise groups I go to, I’m meeting people I wouldn’t have any reason, almost ... to talk to in
the office environment ... or you know, work in different buildings, they come out, train together, we
chat together. We get to know them”
Negative exercise effects
(continued)
Table IV.
Exercising at
work
189
Illustrative raw data quotes Theme
“It’s the stress beforehand and making time for it that I find is the hardest bit. And you know, so many
times I don’t make enough time because there’s just so much stress on ...
In-built stress and guilt
“Sometimes, I feel bad about taking that sort of time out ...There’s a guilt feeling sometimes, isn’t there?
You know, maybe I should be working”
“You can’t do improvisation. I mean, you can’t fall out of bed, you can’t just leave home making sure
you’ve got everything you need, washed and ready to use ... there’s also a little bit of tension wrapped up
with it as well, inasmuch as, you know, having to organise your day to make sure that it will happen ...
But there’s also, you know, maybe a little guilt thing about being away from your desk”
“I crash in the afternoon ... almost shut down whooahh! ... With or without exercise ... often probably
more so with the exercise, cos there’s the physical side but certainly mentally ...
Unpredictable and transitory fatigue
“And, maybe, it might, might make me less productive, whereas if I’d just sat down, got a sandwich and
carried on at my desk I would be OK”
“It’s just, sometimes I need a break from work and other times, yeah, it’s maybe best not to break it up ...
But, other times, you feel quite tired, all I want to do is sleep and sometimes, you know, I’ve been known
to fall asleep at my computer, even for 10-15 minutes but I just can’t stop it ...
“I either feel really good, energised, awake etc. or really bad, tired, worn out, etc., afterwards. I don’t
really seem to be able to predict beforehand which way I will go!”
“My colleagues think I’m quite barmy ... and they, they actually openly say that. They all think I’m a bit
funny ...
Politics of judgement
“The other people round, actually they might take the mickey out of you but they’re actually secretly
envious of you ...
“There’s a nice feeling of coming in and exercising then ... ’cos you feel this superiority ...
Neutral themes
“What you describe as full of energy after you’ve exercised, I can get after ten minutes’ sleep and I find
that’s much more beneficial to me than exercise ...
Just getting away (exercise is immaterial)
“It’d be interesting to try and separate out whether it’s just stopping work ... or whether it’s sleep or
exercise or reading a book ...
“It’s more the escaping for an hour and whether you do it through the gym or running or whatever or
reading”
Notes: R ¼ resilience; T ¼ tolerance
Table IV.
IJWHM
1,3
190
literature suggesting that affect positively predicts job performance, over job
satisfaction (Co
ˆ
te
´
, 1998, 1999; Cropanzano et al., 1993). Importantly, the findings also
related to a sample where mental health concerns were higher than in the general
population (Singleton et al., 2001), with a majority (n ¼ 103, 52 per cent) self-reporting
at least one incidence of experiencing severe stress/anxiety or depression.
There are two main design strengths. The first is statistical the power is roughly
equivalent of a study with over 800 people in a standard RCT. The second reflects that
the design was realistic: participants undertook behaviours they would have done
anyway and that they can sustain beyond any influence of participating in this study.
Differences were generally small but effects were important, given that respondents
already felt competent in their roles, which left relatively little room for improvement.
Further, we considered changes in both mood and self-reported work performance,
which no other studies have done. We found greater fatigue early in the ExD,
suggesting that participants may have actively used exercise to improve their negative
mood, to prepare for the day’s remaining work. This proposition is not only supported
by previous literature (Lane et al., 1998; Yeung, 1996), but also by our focus group
evidence. Collectively, this evidence discounts the argument that positive effects were
due to people exercising on a day when they were in a better mood. Indeed, in what
might seem like something of paradox, focus group outcomes showed that individuals
purposely used exercise as a fatigue-reducing strategy; the paradox is that energy
expenditure increases one’s sense of energy.
Finally, we offer an alternative interpretation of the trial effects. Taking the idealised
view that exercising at work is the healthy norm, by preventing it, or not actively
supporting it, the comparison provided here shows that in the same people the
no-exercise days were consistently associated with lowered self-reported workplace
performance. Focus groups also suggest that, without opportunities for physical activity,
less positive attitudes toward work and colleagues would prevail. This implies that
exercising at work has a key morale-building effect. Importantly, these are acute effects,
which underlines the need for sustained investment in championing exercise at work.
This issue is emphasised, since numerical data revealed that employees time
management improved for exercise days, whereas focus groups revealed that employees
sometimes perceived it difficult to organise their working day to include exercise. Recent
data suggests that employees may be increasingly finding it hard to support exercise
during the working day due to a lengthening of that working day (Worrell and Cooper,
2007), achieved in part by not taking a midday break. Indeed, these same data also
highlight that one in three managers report irritability and concentration problems at
work. Our data highlights that exercising helps to overcome these relatively
commonplace elements of presenteeism. These same issues may also contribute to
lowered estimates of the quality of the work environment for colleagues and team mates.
Despite the positive findings, there are limitations to the study. On one hand, there
are few objective criteria for assessing both mood and performance, and use of
self-report questionnaires has been widely criticised (Dale et al., 2002; Sallis and
Saelens, 2000). Neither can we confirm that these self-reported workplace behaviours
correspond with objective assessments; indeed, existing literature questions this idea
(Taris, 2006). However, the challenge of identifying performance in white-collar work
remains a major challenge since it is often difficult to compare inputs with outcomes as
in productivity studies. Other potential moderators, such as fitness, health, exercise
Exercising at
work
191
specifics and eating behaviour, were only crudely self-reported. However, we can place
more confidence in the reports of exercise behaviour since these reflect behaviour
located within specific time periods, the mode is obvious, and the duration of the
effort-based components are relatively predetermined within a typical lunch break. We
also acknowledge that while we have established ecologically valid outcomes by
focusing on self-determined exercise behaviour, this does little to inform researchers or
practitioners about the active ingredients of the exercise prescription that most
contribute to improved work performance.
Neither is it possible to generalise about what constitutes productivity; this is likely
to differ according to concerns for engagement with the public, duration of typical
tasks, aspirations for success, size of the market sector and the aims of different
workplace sectors (Tamkin et al., 2008). On the other hand, the study design was
methodologically rigorous and was based on an ethos of pragmatic thinking, which
was centred in exploring what the effects were of exercise that employees would do. In
this way the findings also have much to say about the value, in relation to workplace
performance, of the exercise prescription issues that engage exercise professionals.
More specifically, the findings suggest that these effects are more attributable to
relative, rather than absolute, indicators of exercise intensity as well as to the
amenability of the chosen exercise format to fit into a normal midday break.
Another drawback was the potential for distortion within the crossover design, due
to carry-over, i.e. residual effects from any preceding physical activity. In clinical drug
trials, a wash-out period is usually incorporated between adjacent treatment periods to
eliminate these effects, which was impossible to impose here. This may have been
counterbalanced by participants’ tendency to leave more than one day between
completing questionnaires which, likewise, conferred greater ecological validity.
We were also unable to blind participants to exercising, or determine whether
exercise was being strictly evaluated against non-exercise conditions. Future studies
should appraise how the time spent on exercising on one day is spent on the
non-exercise days. Certainly, our only neutral focus group theme exemplified that other
workday activities might engender mood-performance benefits. Moreover, in terms of
return on investment, one might question whether other short-term mood improvement
strategies could exert as big an effect size on performance estimates or be associated
with so many other health-related benefits.
Finally, our focus on habitual exercisers did not follow current research agendas
around lifestyle physical activity (Department of Health, 2004). It would be interesting
to discover whether similar trends exist for less active employees and workers who
actively commute, or otherwise incorporate activity into their workday (e.g. a
lunchtime walk), rather than through structured exercise. Researching facility-based
exercise also limited the capacity to explore elements of the dose-response relationship
between exercise and performance. This probably reflects a lack of variability in what
our participants could fit into the breaks they took from work to exercise. However, the
study offers a fascinating range of possibilities for exploring these issues of frequency,
type, duration and intensity and how they link to performance. There is scope, too, to
broaden this dual paradigm approach by examining potential intra-employee
moderators such as personality traits (Jex, 1991), perceived decision latitude within the
workplace (Head et al., 2006) and physical activity and mental well-being corporate
typologies (Thøgersen-Ntoumani and Fox, 2005).
IJWHM
1,3
192
From these relatively limited data, it is unlikely that employers are going to be
queuing to provide gyms. This notwithstanding, the findings provide compelling,
positive evidence of acute effects that are part of a growing body of literature pointing
in similar directions. The direction and scale of these effects are impressive, given that
participants:
.
estimated high baseline performance;
.
were experienced exercisers; and
.
chose their own exercise involvement.
Overall consistency of the findings from both questionnaires and focus groups lends
weight to the understanding that work-based exercising has an acute effect on helping
employees to become more tolerant colleagues and more resilient workers.
Conclusions
Evidence was presented from a randomised controlled trial with cross-over, supported
by focus groups. The findings highlight that, compared to days when no exercise was
undertaken during the working day, exercising improved mood and performance,
leading to better concentration, work-based relationships and heightened resilience to
stress. The small, but consistently positive, self-reported performance effects underline
the value of providing work-based physical activity opportunities for white-collar
employees holding sedentary posts, including those with high baseline estimates of
their performance or those suffering from sub-optimal mental health. Implications for
competitive advantage and incentive for increasing active breaks from work are
evident, with mutual, multi-faceted benefit to employers and staff. Employers should
proactively seek to foster a supportive environment, particularly by challenging
exercisers’ concerns over time management and negative inter-employee politics. The
statistical power of these findings is amplified within the cross-over design.
References
Basch, C.E. (1987), “Focus group interview: an underutilized research technique for improving
theory and practice in health education”, Health Education Quarterly, Vol. 14 No. 4,
pp. 411-48.
Biddle, S.J.H. (2000), “Emotion, mood and physical activity”, in Biddle, S.J.H., Fox, K.R. and
Boutcher, S.H. (Eds), Physical Activity and Psychological Well-being, Routledge, London,
pp. 63-87.
Black, C. (2008), Working for a Heathier Tomorrow, The Stationery Office, London.
Booth, F., Gordon, S., Carlson, C. and Hamilton, M. (2000), “Waging war on modern chronic
diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology”, Journal of Applied Physiology,
Vol. 88, pp. 774-87.
Burke Johnson, R. and Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2004), “Mixed methods research: a research paradigm
whose time has come”, Educational Researcher, Vol. 33 No. 7, pp. 14-26.
Byrne, A. and Byrne, D.G. (1993), “The effect of exercise on depression, anxiety and other mood
states: a review”, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 37 No. 6, pp. 565-75.
Carless, D. and Faulkner, G. (2003), “Physical activity and mental health”, in McKenna, J. and
Riddoch, C. (Eds), Perspectives on Health and Exercise, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke,
pp. 61-82.
Exercising at
work
193
Co
ˆ
te
´
, S. (1998), “Productivity and affect are associated within short time periods”, unpublished
paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Society,
Washington, DC, May.
Co
ˆ
te
´
, S. (1999), “Affect and performance in organizational settings”, Current Directions in
Psychological Science, Vol. 8 No. 2, pp. 65-8.
Creswell, J.W. (1998), Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions,
Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Creswell, J.W. (2003), Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd ed., Sage
Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Cropanzano, R., James, K. and Konovsky, M.A. (1993), “Dispositional affectivity as a predictor of
work attitudes and job performance”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 14,
pp. 595-606.
Cutcliffe, J. and McKenna, H. (2002), “When do we know that we know? Considering the truth of
research findings and the craft of qualitative research”, International Journal of Nursing
Studies, Vol. 39, pp. 611-18.
Dale, D., Welk, G.J. and Matthews, C.E. (2002), “Methods for assessing physical activity and
challenges for research”, in Welk, G.J. (Ed.), Physical Activity Assessments for
Health-related Research, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, pp. 19-34.
Deloitte and TARP (2007), Health of the Nation, Deloitte, London.
Department of Health (2004), At Least Five a Week: Evidence on the Impact of Physical Activity
and its Relationship to Health. A Report from the Chief Medical Officer, Department of
Health, London.
Dishman, R.K., Oldenburg, B., O’Neal, H. and Shephard, R.J. (1998), “Worksite physical activity
interventions”, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 344-60.
Donoghue, S. (1977), “The correlation between physical fitness, absenteeism and work
performance”, Canadian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 68, pp. 201-3.
Ekkekakis, P. and Petruzzello, S.J. (1999), “Acute aerobic exercise and affect: current status,
problems and prospects regarding dose-response”, Sports Medicine, Vol. 28 No. 5,
pp. 337-74.
Ewles, L. and Simnett, I. (2003), “Changing policy and practice”, Promoting Health: A Practical
Guide, 5th ed., Elsevier, London, pp. 314-32.
Faculty of Public Health and Faculty of Occupational Medicine (2006), Creating a Healthy
Workplace: A Guide for Occupational Safety and Health Professionals and Employers,
Faculty of Public Health and Faculty of Occupational Medicine, London.
Flood, K.R. and Long, B.C. (1996), “Understanding exercise as a method of stress management:
a constructivist framework”, in Kerr, J., Griffiths, A. and Cox, T. (Eds), Workplace Health:
Employee Fitness and Exercise, Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 55-67.
Frey, J.H. and Fontana, A. (1993), “The group interview in social research”, in Morgan, D.L. (Ed.),
Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art, Sage Publications, Newbury
Park, CA, pp. 20-34.
George, J.M. and Brief, A.P. (1992), “Feeling good – doing good: a conceptual analysis of the mood
at work-organizational spontaneity relationship”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 112, pp. 310-29.
Goetzel, R.Z., Anderson, D.R., Whitmer, R.W., Ozminkowski, R.J., Dunn, R.L. and Wasserman, J.
The Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee (1998),
“The relationship between modifiable health risk factors and health care expenditure:
an analysis of the multi-employer HERO health risk and cost database”, Journal of
Occupational Medicine, Vol. 40, pp. 1005-9.
IJWHM
1,3
194
Harden, A., Peersman, G., Oliver, S., Mauthner, M. and Oakley, A. (1999), “A systematic review of
the effectiveness of health promotion interventions in the workplace”, Occupational
Medicine, Vol. 49, pp. 540-8.
Head, J., Kivima
¨
ki, M., Martikainen, P., Vahtera, J., Ferrie, J.E. and Marmot, M.G. (2006),
“Influence of change in psychosocial work characteristics on sickness absence:
the Whitehall II study”, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 60, pp. 55-61.
Hemp, P. (2004), “Presenteeism at work but out of it”, Harvard Business Review, October,
pp. 49-58.
Hildebrandt, V.H., Proper, K.I. and Urlings, I.J.M. (2002), “Physical activity and work
performance: results from the national worker fitness test 2000 in The Netherlands”,
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 34 No. 5, Supplement 1, p. S201.
HM Government (2005), Health, Work and Well-being: Caring for our Future. A Strategy for the
Health and Well-being of Working Age People, Department of Health, Department for Work
and Pensions, Health and Safety Executive, London.
Jex, S.M. (1991), “The psychological benefits of exercise in work settings: a review, critique and
dispositional model”, Work and Stress, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 133-47.
Jex, S.M. and Heinisch, D.A. (1996), “Assessing the relationship between exercise and employee
mental health: methodological considerations”, in Kerr, J., Griffiths, A. and Cox, T. (Eds),
Workplace Health, Employee Fitness and Exercise, Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 55-67.
Johnston, L.H., Corban, R.M. and Clarke, P. (1999), “Multi-method approaches to the investigation
of adherence issues within sport and exercise: qualitative and quantitative techniques”,
in Bull, S.J. (Ed.), Adherence Issues in Sport and Exercise, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 263-88.
Kessler, R.C., Barber, C., Beck, A., Berglund, P., Cleary, P.D., McKenas, D., Pronk, N., Simon, G.,
Stang, P., Ustun, T.B. and Wang, P. (2003), “The World Health Organization Health and
Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ)”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental
Medicine, Vol. 45 No. 2, pp. 156-74.
Kitzinger, J. (1995), “Qualitative research: introducing focus groups”, British Medical Journal,
Vol. 311, pp. 299-302.
Kivima
¨
ki, M., Elovaino, M., Vahtera, J. and Ferrie, J.E. (2003), “Organisational justice and health
of employees: prospective cohort study”, Occupational and Environmental Medicine,
Vol. 60, pp. 27-34.
Knodel, J. (1993), “The design and analysis of focus group studies”, in Morgan, D.L. (Ed.),
Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art, Sage Publications, Newbury
Park, CA, pp. 35-50.
Koopman, C., Pelletier, K.R., Murray, J.F., Sharda, C.E., Berger, M.L., Turpin, R.S., Hackleman, P.,
Gibson, P., Holmes, D.M. and Bendel, T. (2001), “Stanford Presenteeism Scale: health status
and employee productivity”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 44,
pp. 14-20.
Krueger, R.A. (1988), “Asking questions in a focus group”, Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for
Applied Research, Sage Publications, London, pp. 59-71.
Lane, A., Mills, M. and Terry, P. (1998), “Mood regulation among corporate workers: effects of
exercise on mood”, Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 16, pp. 92-3.
Lechner, L. (1997), “Effects of an employee fitness program on reduced absenteeism”, Journal of
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 39, pp. 827-31.
Lerner, D., Amick, B.C., Rogers, W.H., Malspeis, S., Bungay, K. and Cynn, D. (2001), “The Work
Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ): a self-administered instrument for assessing on-the-job
work disability”, Medical Care, Vol. 39, pp. 72-85.
Exercising at
work
195
Lox, C.L., Jackson, S., Tuholski, S.W., Wasley, D. and Treasure, D.C. (2000), “Revisiting the
measurement of exercise-induced feeling states: the Physical Activity Affect Scale
(PAAS)”, Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 79-95.
Mackey-Jones, W. and McKenna, J. (2004), “Women and work-home conflict: a dual paradigm
approach”, Health Education, Vol. 102 No. 5, pp. 249-59.
Miles, M.B. and Huberman, A.M. (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis, 2nd ed., Sage Publications,
Newbury Park, CA.
Morgan, D.L. (1993), Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art, Sage Publications,
Newbury Park, CA.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008), Workplace Health Promotion: How to
Encourage Employees to Be Physically Active, Public Health Guidelines, National Institute
for Health and Clinical Excellence, London.
Pelled, L.H. and Xin, K.R. (1999), “Down and out: an investigation of the relationship between
mood and employee withdrawal behaviour”, Journal of Management, Vol. 25 No. 6,
pp. 875-95.
Peterson, M. and Dunnagan, T. (1998), “Analysis of a worksite health promotion program’s
impact on job satisfaction”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 40,
pp. 973-9.
Petticrew, M. and Roberts, H. (2003), “Evidence, hierarchies and typologies: horses for courses”,
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 57, pp. 527-9.
Proper, K.I., Staal, B.J., Hildebrandt, V.H., van der Beek, A.J. and van Mechelen, W. (2002),
“Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related
outcomes”, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Vol. 28 No. 2,
pp. 75-84.
Rosenfeld, O., Tenenbaum, G., Ruskin, H. and Halfon, S.-T. (1989), “The effect of physical
training on objective and subjective measures of productivity and efficiency in industry”,
Ergonomics, Vol. 32, pp. 1019-28.
Sallis, J.F. and Saelens, B.E. (2000), “Assessment of physical activity by self-report: status,
limitations and future directions”, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Vol. 71 No. 2,
pp. 1-14.
Scully, D., Kremer, J., Meade, M.M., Graham, R. and Dudgeon, K. (1998), “Physical exercise and
psychological well-being: a critical review”, British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 32,
pp. 111-20.
Shephard, R.J. (1989), “Exercise and employee wellness initiatives”, Health Education Research,
Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 233-43.
Shephard, R.J. (1992), “A critical analysis of work-site fitness programs and their postulated
economic benefits”, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 24, pp. 354-70.
Singleton, N., Bumpstead, R., O’Brien, M., Lee, A. and Meltzer, H. (2001), Psychiatric Morbidity
among Adults Living in Private Households 2000, Office for National Statistics, London.
Steptoe, A., Kimbell, J. and Basford, P. (1998), “Exercise and the experience and appraisal of daily
stressors: a naturalistic study”, Journal of Behavioural Medicine, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 363-74.
Stewart, W.F., Ricci, J.A., Chee, E., Hahn, S.R. and Morganstein, D. (2003), “Cost of lost productive
work time among US workers with depression”, Journal of the American Medical
Association, Vol. 289, pp. 3135-44.
Sunday Times (2006), “The Sunday Times 100 Best Companies to Work for, 2006”, in association
with Best Companies, DTI and Investors in People, available at: http://extras.timesonline.
co.uk/pdfs/icons2.pdf (accessed 25 March 2006).
IJWHM
1,3
196
Tamkin, P., Cowling, M. and Hunt, W. (2008), People and the Bottom Line, Institute for
Employment Studies, Brighton.
Taris, T.W. (2006), “Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical
review of 16 studies”, Work and Stress, Vol. 20, pp. 316-34.
Taylor, W.C. (2005), “Transforming work breaks to promote health”, American Journal of
Preventive Medicine, Vol. 29 No. 5, pp. 461-5.
Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. and Fox, K.R. (2005), “Physical activity and mental well-being
typologies in corporate employees: a mixed methods approach”, Work and Stress, Vol. 19
No. 1, pp. 50-67.
Wainwright, D. and Calnan, M. (2002), Work Stress: The Making of a Modern Epidemic,
The Open University Press, Buckingham.
Worrell, L. and Cooper, C. (2007), The Quality of Working Life 2007: Managers’ Health,
Motivation and Productivity, Chartered Management Institute, London.
Yeung, R.R. (1996), “The acute effects of exercise on mood state”, Journal of Psychosomatic
Research, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp. 123-41.
Corresponding author
J. McKenna can be contacted at: j.mckenna@leedsmet.ac.uk
Exercising at
work
197
To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight.com
Or visit our web site for further details: www.emeraldinsight.com/reprints
    • "Additionally, two recent studies showed no effects on productivity, despite improved fitness (Gram et al., 2012; Pedersen et al., 2009). However, other studies show effects (Coulson et al., 2008; Mills et al., 2007; von Thiele Schwarz and Hasson, 2011). Moreover, reviews investigating the link between health and productivity have concluded that employee ill health is associated with decreased productivity, with PE often identified as an important determinant (Schultz et al., 2009; Schultz and Edington, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects on fitness outcomes of a work-based physical exercise (PE) intervention among women working in older people’s care. In addition, effects on productivity-related outcomes including work ability and sickness absence were studied. Design/methodology/approach – Employees participated in a one-year intervention involving two one-hour weekly mandatory PE sessions. The intervention (n=13) was compared to referents (n=12). Fitness tests and self-reports on work ability and sickness absence were obtained before the intervention (T1), six months into the intervention and after 12 months. Findings – Fitness test scores (corrected for age and weight) increased significantly over time in the intervention group but not among referents. Perceived exertion decreased significantly in the intervention group and increased significantly among referents. For self-rated work ability and sickness absence, no significant time or group differences emerged. Research limitations/implications – Further research on larger groups of women is needed to delineate the effects of PE on self-rated productivity and performance. Practical implications – Work-based PE programs can improve fitness among women in older people’s care. Social implications – With previous research having primarily focussed on men, this study shows that women in blue-collar jobs also may benefit from taking part in work-based PE programs. Originality/value – This paper makes an important contribution through its focus on the effects of a work-based PE program on fitness and possible relations to productivity, among employed women.
    Article · Mar 2015
    • "A review suggests that fitness intervention programs decrease sickness absence [19]. The first study that uses a within-person experimental design found that employees’ self-rated job performance and mood were higher on days they exercised in the company gym than on days they did not [20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
    • "This is particularly evident in those tasks that require muscle strength and power. Previous studies have shown that energy restriction combined with exercise training sufficient to evoke weight loss can promote improved functional capacities, work capacity and cognitive performance to a greater extent than energy restriction loss alone [21,73,74,75,76]. The risk of musculoskeletal injury may be further reduced and functional capacity enhanced if the training stimulus is sufficient to stimulate improvement in strength and aerobic capacity [8,17,29]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
Show more