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The role of emotional climate in learning organisations

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This paper describes the research directed at the study of the role of the emotional climate in learning organisations. It becomes increasingly obvious that an emotional climate pervades every level of human interaction inside organisations. Emotionality and rationality coexist in organisational settings. This research examines how an emotional climate arises, how it evolves, how it is maintained, and what are the consequences of a given type of emotional climate. We suggest that it may deeply affect organisational dynamics such as idea-generation, creativity, adaptability to change, and facilitation or inhibition of learning processes. Hence, it ultimately influences performance. We are in the process of developing an instrument to measure the emotional climate in a learning organisation.
The Learning Organization
The role of the emotional climate in learning organisations
Véronique Tran
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Véronique Tran, (1998),"The role of the emotional climate in learning organisations", The Learning Organization, Vol. 5 Iss 2
pp. 99 - 103
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99
Introduction
Historically, emotion has been a difficult topic
for researchers. At the end of the last century
and at the beginning of this one, psychology
had been dominated by irrationalists and
instinctivists, therefore making emotion
somehow repellent for empirical and objective
research, owing probably to a semantic over-
abundance in the description of the phenome-
na (Scherer, 1984a; 1984b).
In the 1960s came the cognitive era, where
emotion got rejected anyway. The human
being was under the siege of very rational and
logical decision making, and emotion could
only be some kind of imperfection in this well-
rounded mechanism.
Since the 1980s, emotion has gained some
popularity again across disciplines (anthro-
pology, psychology, sociology). However, one
of the major obstacles to progress in this area
has been the problem of arriving at a defini-
tion and a concept of emotion acceptable to
most psychologists (Scherer, 1984b, p. 294).
Most of the theories in the field recognise
that “emotion” and “cognition” are inter-
twined. But emotion is not simply a cognitive
process (Frijda, 1988). It is actually recog-
nised as being:
a psychological construction consisting of
several aspects of components:
the component of cognitive appraisal or
evaluation of stimuli and situations;
the physiological component of activation or
arousal;
the component of motor expression;
the motivational component, including
behaviour intentions or behavioural readi-
ness; and
the component of subjective feeling state.
Judging from a number of recent surveys of
emotion in the literature, there seems to be a
fair amount of agreement that the concept of
emotion should encompass all of these compo-
nents, rather than just some of them (see Aver-
ill, 1980; Izard, 1977; Lazarus et al., 1970;
Leventhal, 1979; Plutchnik, 1980)
(Scherer, 1984, p. 294).
Nevertheless, organisational literature has still
ignored emotions or kept it to a very narrow
range.
Emotions were first referred to in organisa-
tions when early group dynamics theorists
introduced the concept of human relations in
the workplace; for example Mayo in his study
on the morale of workers and its impact on
performance, and Lewin, who worked on
social change. In order to lower resistance to
The Learning Organization
Volume 5 · Number 2 · 1998 · pp. 99–103
© MCB University Press · ISSN 0969-6474
The role of the
emotional climate in
learning organisations
Véronique Tran
The author
Véronique Tran is with the Geneva Emotion Research
Group, Université de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland.
Abstract
This paper describes the research directed at the study of
the role of the emotional climate in learning organisations.
It becomes increasingly obvious that an emotional climate
pervades every level of human interaction inside organisa-
tions. Emotionality and rationality coexist in organisational
settings. This research examines how an emotional climate
arises, how it evolves, how it is maintained, and what are
the consequences of a given type of emotional climate. We
suggest that it may deeply affect organisational dynamics
such as idea-generation, creativity, adaptability to change,
and facilitation or inhibition of learning processes. Hence,
it ultimately influences performance. We are in the process
of developing an instrument to measure the emotional
climate in a learning organisation.
Downloaded by ESCP EAP EUROPEAN SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT LONDON At 14:34 14 August 2015 (PT)
change, part of the strategy is to eliminate
prejudices heavily loaded with affectivity. One
has to trigger an emotional upheaval that will
play the role of a catharsis, in breaking preju-
dices and unfreezing habits (Anzieu and
Martin, 1994).
Otherwise, emotions were considered
rather inappropriate in organisational settings
(Putnam and Mumby, 1993) because they are
rather linked to the expressive arenas of life, as
opposed to the instrumental goal orientation
of the business world.
And Flam (1994) reinforces:
Organisations are usually studied from either
rationalistic or normative perspectives, suggest-
ing that they are immune to emotion. Similarly,
in studies of work and organisational life, emo-
tions are usually either completely ignored or
very narrowly conceived. Studies that do deal
with emotions tend to focus on work satisfac-
tion, work enthusiasm, or self-actualisation.
The negative emotions, such as fear, guilt or
embarrassment, do not receive the attention
they deserve although they play a key role in the
shaping of the organisational order (1994).
The pendulum of history swings
Things are evolving. It becomes increasingly
obvious that an emotional climate pervades
every level of human interaction inside any
organisation. Emotionality and rationality
coexist in organisational settings. Authors
such as Hochschild, Van Maanen, Kunda,
Sutton, Rafaeli, Fineman have worked
already on these issues, starting in the 1980s.
Arlie Hochschild (1979; 1983) has drawn
something very interesting to our attention,
namely the concept of “emotional work”
(which is the effort put into ensuring that our
private feelings are in tune with socially
accepted norms) and “emotional labour” (the
commercial exploitation of this principle):
All in all, we can think of emotion as a covert
resource, like money, or knowledge, or physical
labour, where companies need to get the job
done. Real-time emotions are a large part of
what managers manage and emotional labour is
no small part of what trainers train and supervi-
sors supervise. It is a big part of white-collar
“work”. This is true for manufacturing firms,
but it is far more true in the rapidly expanding
service sector – in department stores, airports,
hotels, leisure worlds, hospitals, welfare offices
and schools (1990, p. xii).
Interesting work has been done on emotional
display at work and the strong links with the
prevailing organisational culture in place (Van
Maanen and Kunda, 1989). It is shown how
ritualised expression of emotion can be part of
this culture.
Expression of emotion in organisational life
can have important consequences for the
person displaying the emotion as well as for
the person who is the target of this display,
especially when the one displaying does it for
professional purposes: there is a forced
apprenticeship of distinguishing between
emotions one feels, and emotions one learns
to express (Rafaeli and Sutton, 1989).
We can no longer ignore in today’s organi-
sational life the fact that emotions are just part
of the picture and that a lot of decisions,
although one pretends they are scientifically
balanced (e.g. we look at balance sheets,
complex financial reports, marketing reports,
etc.), are due to a final “emotional” hint from
the decision-maker. Fineman says:
Emotions are within the texture of organising.
They are intrinsic to social order and disorder,
working structures, conflict, influence, confor-
mity, posturing, gender, sexuality and politics.
They are products of socialisation and manipu-
lation. They work mistily within the human
psyche, as well as obviously in the daily
ephemera of organisational life (1994, p. 1).
and:
Organisational order depends on feelings of
togetherness and apartness, while organisation-
al control would be hard to conceive without the
ability to feel shame, anxiety, fear, joy or embar-
rassment (1994, p. 2).
As we look deeper into the subject, we look at
some of the specific emotions encountered in
organisations, for example, fear. As Flam
states:
Fear and anxiety have been underworked in
organisational theorising; obscured, perhaps, by
the positive thinking and feeling expected for
man’s work transactions. The fear of loss of
face, prestige, position, favour, fortune or job
focuses the corporate actor’s mind and sharpens
his or her political vision and skills. Such anxi-
eties are readily transformed into a socially
acceptable work enthusiasm or drive, which
ambitious organisational members soon learn to
display (1994, p. 4).
Fear means hiding away, occupying yourself
with your professional work. The fear of sepa-
rateness, fear of being identified, fear stemming
from hesitation, from a lack of decision, fear of
one’s own self, of self-defining oneself. Fear of
being crossed, of being defined (1994, p. 66).
A few practical insights
If one takes a closer look at the business press
(see Figure 1), one can actually find a lot of
100
The role of the emotional climate in learning organisations
Véronique Tran
The Learning Organization
Volume 5 · Number 2 · 1998 · 99–103
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emotional words, which just reinforces our
hypothesis that emotions are part of organisa-
tional life.
For example: When Welch (Jack Welch,
CEO of General Electric) dedicated his
shareholders’ letter in GE’s 1991 Annual
Report to the theme of building GE’s future
on mutual trust and respect, he was met with
considerable surprise and scepticism. But
Welch was describing how GE is going to
become a knowledge organisation. For exam-
ple, even if a manager delivers according to
the numbers but shows failure in a conflict
over character and values, he will be dis-
missed. The logic of such a choice is clear:
getting ideas to flow means thawing out those
parts of the company still frozen by fear.
(Webber, 1992).
Or: Inside and outside the company, trust
creates the invisible ties that bind people and
companies together and convert mere trans-
actions into personal relationships.
A quick glance at learning organisations
By reviewing the literature on the learning
organisation, it seems that we can see a pat-
tern emerging. The concept of organisational
learning appears to be probably the only
competitive advantage for firms (Stata, 1989)
in a very fast changing and tough world.
Some of the key ideas attached to the
learning organisation are: team work and
team learning, free vertical and horizontal
flow of information, training of the workforce,
learning reward systems, continuous improve-
ment of work, flexibility of company strategy,
decentralised hierarchies and participative
management, constant experimentation at
work, supportive corporate culture (Rosen-
garten, 1995).
We also know that:
Measurements must be taken to assess the
current culture, learning attitudes and learning
disabilities in an organisation, in order to deter-
mine which actions to take to manage the
progression towards a learning culture. Once a
learning organisation is established it can
progress to a leading organisation which is
capable of achieving and sustaining competitive
advantage (Campbell and Cairns, 1994).
One step further
Yet, no major breakthrough in the under-
standing of the role of emotions in organisa-
tions has occurred. It seems obvious that one
needs to take emotional reactions into
account in organisations, for example, in
planning and implementing a change pro-
gramme. Furthermore, emotions are critical
in the motivation of employees. Yet, it is
unclear whether managers are conscious that
emotions have a dynamic of their own and
they can therefore shape the organisation’s
emotional climate. That is, individuals have
emotions; collectively, these individual emo-
tions create an emotional climate, which in
turn will affect individual emotions, etc.
The emotional climate is the central key
element of organisational life. As we already
mentioned, it is where everything gets played
out: power games, contempt, envy, despair,
but also joy, pleasure, interest, enthusiasm. As
David Goleman (Emotional Intelligence, 1995)
says: “the destructive effects of miserable
morale, intimidated workers, or arrogant
bosses – or any of the dozens of other permu-
tations of emotional deficiencies in the work-
place – can go largely unnoticed by those
outside the immediate scene. But the costs
can be read in signs such as decreased pro-
ductivity, an increase in missed deadlines,
mistakes and mishaps, and exodus of employ-
ees to more congenial settings. There is
inevitably, a cost to the bottom line from low
levels of emotional intelligence on the job.
When it is rampant, companies can crash and
burn”.
Our research focuses on how an emotional
climate arises, how it evolves, how it is main-
tained, and what are the consequences of a
given type of emotional climate on an organi-
sation’s functioning. We suggest that the
emotional climate deeply affects organisation-
al dynamics such as idea-generation and
creativity, readiness and adaptability to
change, and facilitation of learning processes
101
The role of the emotional climate in learning organisations
Véronique Tran
The Learning Organization
Volume 5 · Number 2 · 1998 · 99–103
A glance in the business press gives
us some very practical evidences
u Apple is going through severe job cuts
and loss in profit, hurt by feeble
consumer confidence and fears of
market saturation (Financial Times)
u Cable & Wireless: the Chairman and
the CEO left the company after failing
to resolve a rancorous power struggle
(Financial Times)
u Air Inter’s pilots are deeply depressed
(Capital)
u KLM and Northwest: there was
personal animosity between the 2
CEOs (Business Week)
Figure 1 Emotional words in the business press
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(see Figure 2). Hence, it influences perfor-
mance, both individual and organisational.
We suggest the following development
applied to an emotional climate in organisa-
tions.
As an overall framework, there are some
generating conditions, which could be seen as
the dispositions to react a certain way. In
other words, members of an organisation
would share a certain emotionality, which is
based on three factors: shared values, shared
motivations (goals and needs), and shared
beliefs and attitudes. The structural reality
and the social environment should also be
taken into consideration, as they are shared as
well by all members, i.e. the type of leadership
in place, the networks, and the physical work-
ing conditions.
On the ground of a certain type of emo-
tional disposition, certain internal or external
events occur. They elicit either emotional
episodes, for a short period of time, affecting
everyone in the organisation; or some mood
states, for a longer period of time, both phe-
nomena affecting everyone in the organisation
in a convergent manner, i.e. affective states of
each member having a comparable nature.
The reactions of the group(s) to the emo-
tional episodes or moods are influenced by a
group dynamics phenomenon, such as con-
formity (or non-conformity), influence, emo-
tional contagion, and emotional modulation.
Therefore, the emotional climate becomes
qualitatively and quantitatively different,
precisely because it is the result of shared
emotional episodes, moods, values, beliefs,
and goals. From a qualitative point of view,
there are different action tendencies triggered.
From a quantitative point of view, there is a
different intensity developed.
Furthermore, we propose that the emo-
tional climate must have an impact on learn-
ing, positive or negative. Therefore, as we
measure the learning organisation, we suggest
measuring the emotional climate in order to
identify its potential to inhibit learning or
enhance learning.
When emotionally upset, people cannot
remember, attend, learn, or make decisions
clearly. There are strong signs that suggest the
future of all corporate life, a tomorrow where
the basic skills of emotional intelligence will
be ever more important, in teamwork, in co-
operation, in helping people learn together
how to work more effectively. As knowledge-
based services and intellectual capital become
more central to corporations, improving the
way people work together will be a major way
to leverage intellectual capital, making a
critical competitive difference. To thrive, if
not survive, corporations would do well to
boost their collective emotional intelligence
(Goleman, 1995).
We are in the process of developing an
instrument to measure the emotional climate
in an organisation, or a company, or a group.
The main instrument is represented as an
emotional map, composed of 16 main emo-
tions represented by circles, scaled with
increasing intensity (see Figure 3). The goal is
to be able to diagnose an emotional climate by
identifying which of these emotions are pre-
dominant in an organisation, at a given time.
This diagnostic will be made possible by the
use of different other instruments and tools:
for example, interviews, questionnaires, or
video-taping of group sessions. These
different levels of information will feed into
each emotional bubble.
102
The role of the emotional climate in learning organisations
Véronique Tran
The Learning Organization
Volume 5 · Number 2 · 1998 · 99–103
Emotional
Climate
Creativity
and Idea
Generation
Decision
Making
Flexibility
Adaptability
Learning
Processes
Figure 2 Emotional climate versus organisational dynamics
Unpleasant Pleasant
Anger
Contempt
Disgust
Envy
Guilt
Shame
Fear
Sadness
Pride Elation
Joy
Satisfaction
Relief
Hope
Interest
Surprise
High Control
Low Control
Figure 3 The emotional map
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Conclusion
We hope to be able to demonstrate the impact
that the emotional climate has on the organi-
sation’s functioning, on its decision-making
processes and its learning ability. It could be
possible to identify whether the emotional
climate is an inhibitor or enhancer of learning
and how the situation could be either
improved or reinforced depending on the
results obtained. If organisations recognise
the importance of the emotional climate and
manage it in a proper way, it could lead to
major improvements in the overall manage-
ment process and to organisational success.
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The role of the emotional climate in learning organisations
Véronique Tran
The Learning Organization
Volume 5 · Number 2 · 1998 · 99–103
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... Örgütte çalışanların hissettikleri duygular, olaylar karşısında gösterdikleri tepkiler ise örgütteki duygusal Öğretmenlerin Duygu Yönetim Becerileri ile Okulun Duygusal İklimi Arasındaki İlişki [1809] atmosferi yani duygusal iklimi oluşturacaktır. Tran (1998)'a göre örgütteki duygusal iklim, örgütte bulunan ortak değer, inanç, davranış ve hedeflerden oluşmaktadır. Örgütte hakim olan duygusal iklim, çalışanların bireysel olarak değil, örgütteki tüm paydaşların ortak olarak ne hissettikleri ile alakalıdır (Andersen, Evans ve Harvey, 2012). ...
... Olumsuz duygusal iklimin, öğretmen duyarlığında ve öğrencinin adaptasyonunda ciddi azalmalara sebebiyet vereceği bilindiği için (Pattinson, Staton, Smith, Sinclair ve Thorpe, 2014) ülkenin geleceğine vereceği zararı tahmin etmek de zor olmayacaktır. Olumlu bir duygusal iklim, çalışanlarda fikir üretme, yaratıcılık, değişime uyum ve öğrenme sonuçlarını da olumlu bir şekilde etkilemektedir (Tran, 1998). Bu bakımdan öğretmenlerin duygusal birikimlerine yapılan olumlu bir yatırım aynı zamanda öğrencilere ve dolayısıyla eğitime yapılan bir yatırım gibidir (Raver vd., 2008). ...
... Örneğin; mutluluk, gurur ve sevgi duyguları pozitif duygular; öfke ve umutsuzluk duyguları ise olumsuz duygular olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Burić, Slišković ve Macuka, 2018). Bu nedenle duygusal iklimin örgütsel yaşamın temel anahtar ögelerinden biri olduğu söylenebilir (Tran, 1998). Olumlu duygusal iklime sahip olan örgütlerde, işgörenler arasındaki etkileşim de beklendiği üzere olumlu ve kuvvetlidir. ...
... Duygusal iklim, işgörenlerin sosyal iletişimleri ve ilişkileri yoluyla oluşan ortak duygu durumlarını ifade etmekle birlikte çalışma ortamını etkileyen her türlü ekonomik, sosyal ve politik durumdan da önemli ölçüde etkilenebilmektedir (Ruiz, 2007). Tran (1998) örgütte var olan duygusal iklimi, işgörenlerin başarısı olarak da görmektedir. Bu yönüyle düşünüldüğünde eğitim örgütlerindeki duygusal iklim, öğretmenlerin çoğunun hissettiklerinin okul paydaşlarınca algılanma biçimini ifade ettiği söylenilebilmektedir. Dolayısıyla öğretmenler için olumlu bir hava yaratılmasının öğretmenlerin duygularını etkilemesi ve öğretmenlerin okula olan bağlılıklarını arttırmada önemli bir rol oynaması beklenmektedir (Frenzel ve Stephens, 2013;Pekrun, 2009). ...
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, okulun duygusal iklimi ile öğretmenlerin tükenmişlik algıları arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesidir. İlişkisel tarama deseninde tasarlanan araştırmaya, 2020-2021 eğitim ve öğretim yılı ikinci döneminde Batman il merkezinde görev yapan 362 öğretmen katılmıştır. Araştırmanın örnekleminin saptanmasında iki yöntemden yararlanılmıştır. İlk olarak ölçüt örnekleme yöntemi kapsamında öğretmenlerin en az bir yıllık mesleki deneyime sahip olması göz önünde bulundurulmuştur. Daha sonrasında ise birinci ölçütü karşılayan öğretmenlere tesadüfi örnekleme yönteminden yararlanılarak ulaşılmıştır. Verilerin toplanmasında "Okulların Duygu-sal İklim Ölçeği (ODİÖ)" ve "Maslach Tükenmişlik Envanteri-Eğitimci Formu (MTE-EF)" kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizi için aritmetik ortalama, toplam puan, spearman sıra farkları korelasyon katsayısı ve çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizleri yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre ODİÖ Duygusal Birliktelik boyutu ile Duygusal Tükenme ve Duyarsızlaşma boyutları arasında negatif yönlü; Kişisel Başarı boyutu ile arasında pozitif yönlü, anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. ODİÖ Empati boyutu ile Duygusal Tükenme ve Duyarsızlaşma boyutları arasında negatif yönlü; Kişisel Başarı boyutu ile arasında pozitif yönlü, anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. ODİÖ Duygusal Yorgunluk boyutu ile Duygusal Tükenme ve Duyarsızlaşma boyutları arasında pozitif yönlü; Kişisel Başarı boyutu ile arasında negatif yönlü, anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca MTE-EF Duygusal Tükenme boyutunun iki anlamlı yordayıcısı tespit edilmiştir. Buna göre Duygusal Birliktelik boyutu Duygusal Tükenme boyutunu negatif yönde; Duygusal Yorgunluk boyutu ise Duygusal Tükenme boyutunu pozitif yönde yordamaktadır. İkinci olarak MTE-EF Duyarsızlaşma boyutunun tek anlamlı yordayıcısı tespit edilmiştir. Buna göre Duygusal Yorgunluk boyutu Duyarsızlaşma boyutunu pozitif yönde yordamaktadır. Son olarak MTE-EF Kişisel Başarı boyutunun iki anlamlı yordayıcısı tespit edilmiştir. Buna göre Duygusal Birliktelik boyutu Kişisel Başarı boyutunu pozitif yönde; Duygusal Yorgunluk boyutu ise Kişisel Başarı boyutunu negatif yönde yordamaktadır.
... Relevance, in turn, increases information processing and attention on these alternatives. On the other hand, negative affect may lead to risk avoidance and inertia (Staw, Sandelands, & Dutton, 1981), thus resulting in a rather incremental response to an immediate performance deficit (Tran, 1998) that does not strongly engage the firm's beliefs on the set of alternatives. ...
Article
A central idea in the behavioral theory of the firm is that when an organization's performance falls below aspirations, a search is triggered. While this aspiration-based model has dominated the empirical literature, it is only one of two Carnegie School accounts of how firms use performance feedback to regulate behavior. We call the second account the belief-based model. This model focuses on the characteristics of the choice alternatives faced by firms and the challenges inherent in evaluating them. Using a computational approach, we demonstrate that the predictions of the belief-based model may explain instances where search increases, rather than decreases, as performance improves. This behavioral pattern, both above and/or below the aspiration, is prevalent in empirical research but not well accounted for by the aspiration-based model alone. We then develop the Integrated Discovery and Evaluation of Alternatives (IDEA) model of problemistic search, which integrates the two models and identifies the organizational and environmental factors that induce one or the other constituent sub-models. We highlight the implications for empirical research on performance feedback and extensions to account for additional theoretical constructs such as affect and politics.
... Especially since the workforce is currently becoming younger and more diverse, KM needs to enable several generations to create, share and use knowledge according to their needs and preferences, which can largely be met through honest communication as well as respectful and trusting relationships (McNichols, 2010), political skill, and emotional intelligence (Priyadarshi & Premchandran, 2019). Overall, an appealing emotional climate in the learning organization (Tran, 1998) is supportive for the generational transition of knowledge (Bandera et al., 2018), especially when management specifically promotes emotional resonance in knowledge networks (Xie et al., 2021). ...
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Emotions are deeply rooted in the human mind and vital to many knowledge processes, such as knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. Nonetheless, the knowledge management (KM) discipline largely approaches KM from a rational rather than an emotional standpoint. Therefore, starting with a broad view on emotions in general as well as several discrete emotions, our paper presents a structured review of existing evidence on emotions and their role in KM research. We use a structured literature review approach to examine research on emotions as a general concept as well as several discrete emotions in KM research. We recognize and incorporate an integrative emotions‐in‐KM framework, dividing KM into enablers, processes, and intermediary outcomes as well as organizational performance, and connected emotions with each of these parts. After identifying 72 relevant research publications, we analyze and assign these publications to our initially developed integrative review framework. We present several research opportunities to inspire and encourage further research on emotions in KM. Our analysis reveals a strong focus on empirical approaches; we suggest future research employs further qualitative research to incorporate profound theories and models for further exploring emotions in KM. Furthermore, emotions as the intermediary outcome or during knowledge creation and knowledge use could be investigated in further research endeavors. By showing in which KM contexts and processes emotions are displayed, organizations can draw conclusions to trigger positive emotions for better KM as well as reducing barriers caused by emotions.
... Under a highly affective climate, team members feel more comfortable and confident; thus, they can be engaged in experiment and transformation activities [48]. The affective climate has a substantial influence on organizational dynamics such as knowledge creation by supporting team members' autonomy, encouraging them to achieve their jobs in transformational ways [49,84,85]. Many studies show similar findings. ...
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As individuals are the actual agents of knowledge management (KM) activities, they are influenced by the technical and social aspects of an organization. The effects of social and technical aspects on KM, however, have either been studied separately, or one aspect has been emphasized over the other. This study used the multilevel approach to investigate the interaction between technical and social systems within the work system of KM by examining how the social system moderates the effects of the technical system on KM activities. The social system is operationalized as a team climate, which is the socially shared perception among members within a team, whereas the technical system is operationalized as the perceived value of the KM systems (KMS), which is the technical information system that deals with organizational knowledge and is realized in the work setting in the form of the perception of individuals. We conducted a field study that involved 80 teams of 419 individuals from three knowledge-intensive companies. A hierarchical linear model was employed to analyze the multilevel structure: individual-level KMS perceptions for operational support and strategic decision support, and KM activities with the team-level affective and innovative climates. Our findings show that the innovative team climate magnifies the effect of the perceived KMS value of individuals for strategic decision support on their knowledge adoption; whereas, the affective climate strengthens the effect of the perceived KMS value of individuals for operational support on their knowledge transformation.
... Örgütlerde duygu konusu rasyonel geleneğin temsilcileri Weber, Taylor ve Fayol gibi teorisyenlerden etkilenerek (Callahan ve McCollum, 2002) göz ardı edilmiş ve çalışma ortamları rasyonel bir çevre olarak görülmüştür (Grandey, 2000;Tran, 1998). Duyguların örgütsel süreçler içerisinde ele alınması ise oldukça yenidir ve bu konudaki çalışmalar da öncelikle örgütsel amaçlar çerçevesinde duyguların yönetilmesi ve örgütsel duygu kurallarının belirlenmesi şeklinde ortaya çıkmıştır (Scherer ve Tran, 2001). ...
... Climate for learning is associated with certain conditions that are either necessary or encouraging for learning to occur. These include shared responsibility and accountability, provision of time and resources, an opportunity for experimentation, social as well as relational aspects among employees (Mikkelsen & Grønhaug, 1999), and emotional aspects such as support, recognition, and jobsatisfaction (Tran, 1998). Learning structure may be translated as the organisation being composed of teams whereby each member of the team learns to perform tasks that are usually done by other members (Örtenblad, 2018). ...
Article
Recent years showed a much stronger appeal for transforming schools, among other organisations, into learning organisations. More than two decades into the coining of the term learning organisations, researchers are still in pursuit of proper tools for measuring the construct. The present investigation aims to evaluate the appropriateness of Professional Learning Communities Assessment – Revised (PLCA-R) for assessing schools as learning organisations. Data gathered from 224 elementary teachers were analysed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to validate the dimensionality of the selected tool in an organisational context. The results provided reasonable model fit and validity for the hypothesised six-factor model indicating that PLCA-R is a suitable tool for assessing schools as learning organisations. The findings imply that all the dimensions of PLCs have to be given equal consideration when implementing PLCs in the context of learning organisations.
... A group's emotional climate is more lasting and objective than the group emotions, which shape and obey the climate (cf. Tran 1998;). Such group climates feed on the social sharing of emotional experiences, which over time establish a set of attitudes and behaviours that are common in the group. ...
Book
This book offers a concise, informative and game-changing view on acquisitions for scholars and practitioners. Mergers and acquisitions are known to create substantial emotional turmoil, but this book presents a novel and unique view on how positive emotions can promote post-acquisition integration. The phenomenon is explored from multiple theoretical perspectives, including cognitive appraisal theory, socialization and identity, and the findings are based on rich empirical data, offering both thick contextualization and potential for transferability. Positive emotions increase change receptiveness and engagement, highlighting the importance of creating positivity beyond alleviating negativity. Through engagement, positivity can also help improve performance. The real-world advice offered in this book is plain and easy to understand, presenting hands-on emotion management guidelines designed to ease organizational change. Dive in to discover how positive change management facilitates integration, how the merger syndrome can be overcome to build a harmonious coexistence and how to move from identity threats towards encouraging emotional identification. Dr Riikka Harikkala-Laihinen is a Postdoctoral Researcher in International Business at the Turku School of Economics at the University of Turku, Finland and a Visiting Researcher at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. Her areas of expertise include emotions in organizations, cross-border acquisitions, and cross-cultural management. Her current work centers on exploring the influence of employee emotions at work and rejuvenating theory on intercultural encounters.
Chapter
This chapter centres on finding unity when the us versus them thinking that is common in acquisitions is heightened. This setting often triggers negative protectionist attitudes in the target company employees. However, with careful emotion management, the integration process can become swifter and smoother. This chapter introduces a German–Finnish acquisition completed in early 2017. The findings stem from interviews, memo-like diaries and an employee satisfaction survey collected between 2017 and 2018. The findings indicate that understanding how group-shared and group-based emotions emerge in organizations based on either co-presence or identification can increase companies’ ability to influence employee emotions. Moreover, offering the employees positive emotion triggers through a positive emotional climate at work can greatly enhance unity during integration.
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Purpose – While emotions and feelings arise in the singular personality, they may also develop a normative dimensionality in a plural agency. The authors identify the cybernetic systemic principles of how emotions might be normatively regulated and affect plural agency performance. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic cultural socio-cognitive trait theory of plural affective agency (the emotional organization), involving interactive cognitive and affective traits, and these play a role within the contexts of Mergers and Acquisitions (MA with the alternate poles having an auxiliary function to each other – where the traits may take intermediary “balanced” states between the poles.Findings – Processes of affect regulation are supposed to go through three stages: first, identification (affective situation awareness); second, elaboration of affect is constituted through schemas of emotional feeling, which include emotion ideologies generating emotional responses to distinct contextual situations; third, execution: in the operative system primary emotions are assessed through operative intelligence for any adaptive information and the capacity to organize action; and turned into action, i.e. responses, through cultural feeling rules and socio-cultural display rules, conforming to emotion ideologies.Research limitations/implications – This new theory provides guidance for framing multilevel interaction where smaller collectives (as social systems) are embedded into larger social systems with a culture, an emotional climate and institutions. Thus, it is providing a generic theoretical frame for M&A analyses, where a smaller social unit (the acquired) is to be integrated into a larger social unit (the acquirer).Practical implications – Understanding interdependencies between cognition and emotion regulation is a prerequisite of managerial intelligence, which is at demand during M&A processes. While managerial intelligence may be grossly defined as the capacity of management to find an appropriate and fruitful balance between action and learning orientation of an organization, its affective equivalent is the capacity of management to find a fruitful balance between established emotion expression and learning alternate forms of emotion expression.Social implications – Understanding interdependencies between cognition and emotion is a prerequisite of social, cultural and emotional intelligence. The provided theory can be easily linked with empirical work on the emergence of a cultural climate of fear within societies.
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What is the nature of emotion? Mandler (1975) cautions not to ask this question, fearful it may lead to reification and delude us into thinking that emotions exist. If Mandler means to alert us to the fact that all experience is private and can only be studied using various indicators, etc., we should indeed heed his cautionary statement. But if he means to single out emotion from thought and/or perception, and argue against the existence of emotion as a discrete form of mental experience, then I must take exception to his warning. My emotions existed well before my thoughts and certainly well before I was aware of the problem of reification; I suspect the same was true for Professor Mandler.
Article
Traditionally, the emotions have been viewed from a biological perspective; that is, the emotions have been seen as genetically determined and relatively invariable responses. The present chapter, by contrast, views the emotions as social constructions. More precisely, the emotions are here defined as socially constituted syndromes or transitory social roles. A role-conception does not deny the contribution of biological systems to emotional syndromes; it does, however, imply that the functional significance of emotional responses is to be found largely within the sociocultural system. With regard to subjective experience, a person interprets his own behavior as emotional in much the same way that an actor interprets a role“with feeling.” This involves not only the monitoring of behavior (including feedback from physiological arousal, facial expressions, etc.), but also an understanding of how the emotional role fits into a larger“drama” written by society. Some of the biological, personal, and situational factors that influence emotional behavior are also discussed.