Article

An examination of consumer browsing behaviors

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Purpose – Browsing is a common consumer behavior, but it has not been researched extensively. The aim of this paper is to fill some of the gaps in the research. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on literature from different areas, consumers' browsing experiences, browsing patterns, and factors influencing browsing activities are empirically examined. A combination of interviews and shopping trips with informants to examine the issues are used. Findings – The results show that browsing serves both functional and recreational purposes. Consumers vary by the degree to which they browse functionally or recreationally. Browsing behaviors are influenced by both consumer characteristics and the retail environment. Browsing is a powerful consumer information acquisition activity and has both desired and undesired consequences for consumer purchases. Consumers use various strategies to cope with the undesired consequences. Practical implications – Exploration of browsing patterns and factors influencing these patterns suggests important managerial implications for enhancing desirable browsing and reducing unnecessary browsing. Originality/value – The conceptualization and findings of this research contribute to two areas of research: consumer information search and consumer shopping behaviors in retail environments. An examination of the role of browsing offers an empirical extension to the information acquisition framework.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The Internet has dramatically expanded the shopping possibilities available to consumers. It provides consumers with both utilitarian and entertainment values (Xia, 2010). Consumers may exhibit various browsing strategies, depending on their online purposes. ...
... Influenced by convenience, cost saving, and information availability Influenced by a sense of control over technology Xia (2010) Achieve functional needs (e.g., locate a target product, obtain information, get familiar with a store's layout) ...
... Furthermore, moving forward and backward between pages, as indicated by the Fingers pattern, is also indicative of repeated visits to pages (Chou et al., 2010). These behaviors suggest that the user has a specific task in mind, such as to locate a target product in buying sessions or to obtain a specific piece of information about a product or store in non-buying sessions (Xia, 2010). In contrast to the frequent Finger and Mountain patterns in mobile sessions, PC sessions are characterized by various mixtures of patterns. ...
Article
We investigate and compare online consumer behavior on an e-retailer website in mobile versus PC devices, through the application of a web usage mining approach on clickstream data recorded in server-side log files. Online consumer behavior is characterized through both engagement measures and the discovery of common sequences of navigation patterns, using an innovative approach that combines footstep graph visualization with sequential association rule mining. We find that sessions conducted through mobile devices are more likely to consist of task-oriented behavior whereas sessions conducted through PC devices are characterized by a more exploration-oriented browsing behavior. Moreover, we find that certain sequence rules are associated with an increased likelihood of purchase in both mobile and PC sessions. The results demonstrate the value of our approach in analyzing online browsing behavior, across platforms, in the context of electronic retailing.
... Consumers behaving hedonically on the Internet browse without necessarily being driven by a need for a product (unlike utilitarian consumers), and enjoy exploring the Web site and its esthetic appeal and/or novelty (Gammack and Hodkinson 2003;Jones, Reynolds, and Arnold 2006;Slåtten et al. 2010;Wang, Minor, and Wei 2011). Thus, in line with the speculations in the conceptual piece by Xia (2010), it might be argued that they browse visit the Web site more frequently: sometimes for need and at other times for fun. Furthermore, although browsing does not necessarily translate into making a purchase, browsing often means more purchase opportunities. ...
... A consumer immersed in an atmosphere favoring hedonic feelings, such as a Web site with many offerings, videos and pictures, might be more likely to act on the spur of the moment, explore the Web site, try its features and make unplanned purchases (Goldsmith and Goldsmith 2002;Xia 2010). By contrast, consumers behaving in a utilitarian way and using the Internet as a means to save time might be considered less likely to indulge in impulsive buying, and might hardly continue browsing once they have found what they are looking for (Chiu et al. 2010;Okada 2005;Wolfinbarger and Gilly 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers may act on the spur of the moment, driven by fun and curiosity, or be goal-oriented, task-focused utilitarians. This study investigates the effects of consumers’ hedonic and utilitarian orientation online on price consciousness, frequency of purchase, purchased amount, intention to re-patronize a Web site and expertise with the Internet. It specifically considers purchasing, not mere browsing, basing on data collected on customers of one of the largest Italian online retailers for electronics. The data show significant differences between hedonic and utilitarian orientation online with regard to past purchase frequency, the amount purchased and the intention to re-patronize the Web site in the future. The findings suggest that utilitarianism is strongly present online, and is valuable, thus utilitarian consumers should not be neglected, but hedonism is even more profitable, impacting on the number of items purchased and the intention to come back to the Web site. No differences are found in the level of price consciousness or in the degree of expertise with the Internet.
... If the store environment is perceived as crowded, the shopper may refrain from browsing and withdraw himself/herself from such crowded environment (Xia, 2010). In such a situation the shopper will have reduced opportunity to come across/know the impulse stimuli which deters impulse buying. ...
... It was found that human crowding does not have statistically significant relationship with the other variables in the model namely impulsive buying tendency, urge to buy and in-store browsing. Thus, the finding of this study is in contrast to prior findings (Xia, 2010). The lack of support of the hypotheses related to human crowding and other variables may be due to the tolerance of the shoppers to human crowding. ...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of shopper's perception of the physical environmental factors on impulse buying at the retail level has attracted the attention of researchers since the last three decades but the role of perceived crowding and in-store browsing attracted little attention. This paper attempts to develop and empirically valid a model to investigate the role of perceived crowding and in-store browsing in impulse buying along with the psychological variables. Mall-intercept survey technique was used to collect data from 335 participants from 18 branches of a supermarket chain in different parts of Kolkata. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. Contrary to prior research the relationship between human crowding and other variables in the model was not supported whereas spatial crowding was found to have significant negative impact in impulse buying. The findings are discussed along with managerial implications and scopes for future research.
... Kegiatan ini dilakukan dengan atau tanpa niat membeli, dimana informasi tersebut dapat mereka simpan untuk digunakan ketika mereka dihadapi dengan niat dan tugas pembelian (Xia & Monroe, 2009). Kegiatan browsing yang dilakukan konsumen ritel terdiri dari strategi fungsional dan strategi hedonis, dimana strategi fungsional (utilitarian) ditandai dengan menghabiskan sedikit waktu melihat produk display, cepat dalam penanganan produk yang dicari, kemudian meninggalkan toko sedangkan, strategi hedonis (hedonic) ditandai dengan berjalan perlahan, membuat banyak pemberhentian yang lama untuk melihat berbagai produk, serta mengambil jalan yang mencakup seluruh toko (Xia, 2010). ...
... Penggunaan warna, tata letak, animasi, grafis, paparan gambar interaktif dan rangsangan atmosfer lainnya pada website dapat menarik perhatian konsumen untuk mengunjungi website serta mempengaruhi sikap mereka terhadap online store (Manganari, Siomkos, & Vrechopoulos, 2009). Dengan kata lain, pengalaman yang menyenangkan dalam online store akan membuat konsumen menghabiskan lebih banyak waktu, menghabiskan lebih banyak uang untuk melakukan pembelian, dan memiliki keinginan menjalin hubungan baik dengan karyawan online store (Xia, 2010), yang kemudian memicu niat konsumen untuk kembali mengunjungi website (Kabadayi & Gupta, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
p> Abstrak Tujuan – Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan menganalisis konsekuensi dari kepribadian situs web pada toko online Lazada Indonesia Desain/Metodologi/Pendekatan - Data dikumpulkan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada 332 responden yang telah melakukan pembelian online di situs Lazada Indonesia dengan frekuensi setidaknya 1-3 kali selama tahun 2016 dan dianalisis menggunakan alat analisis Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) yang diproses melalui program SPSS. Hasil – Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh positif kepribadian situs web pada penelusuran web utilitarian, penelusuran web hedonis, dan pembelian impuls online dan ada pengaruh positif penelusuran web hedonis pada pembelian impuls online. Namun, tidak ada pengaruh positif dari penelusuran web utilitarian terhadap pembelian impuls online. Abstract Purpose - This study aims to identify and analyze the consequences of website personality on the online shop Lazada Indonesia Design/Methodology/Approach –The data collected by distributing questionnaires to 332 respondents who have made purchases online on the website Lazada Indonesia with frequency at least 1-3 times during the year 2016 and were analyzed using analysis tools Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) that is processed through the SPSS program. Finding - The results of this study indicate that there is a positive influence of website personality on the utilitarian web browsing, hedonic web browsing, and online impulse buying and there is a positive influence of hedonic web browsing on the online impulse buying. However, there are no positive influence of utilitarian web browsing on the online impulse buying. </p
... On the other hand, there are consumers that plan more and have a clear purpose when it comes to search for product information (Bloch and Richins, 1983), and others tend to explore products via touch (Klazky and Peck, 2012). Browsing behaviours are also influenced by sensory cues, affecting the way consumers touch and move in shops, as well as the time they spend in there (Xia, 2010). Thus, the last objective of this present work is grouping consumers according to observed sensory patterns of interactions. ...
Article
The need to design products that engage several senses has being increasingly recognised by design and marketing professionals. Many works analyse the impact of sensory stimuli on the hedonic, cognitive, and emotional responses of consumers, as well as on their satisfaction and intention to purchase. However, there is much less information about the utilitarian dimension related to a sensory non-reflective analysis of the tangible elements of the experience, the sequential role played by different senses, and their relative importance. This work analyses the sensorial dimension of consumer interactions in shops. Consumers were filmed in two ceramic tile shops and their behaviour was analysed according to a previously validated checklist. Sequence of actions, their frequency of occurrence , and the duration of inspections were recorded, and consumers were classified according to their sensory exploration strategies. Results show that inspection patterns are intentional but shifting throughout the interaction. Considering the whole sequence, vision is the dominant sense followed by touch. However, sensory dominance varies throughout the sequence. The dominance differences appear between all senses and within the senses of vision, touch and audition. Cluster analysis classified consumers into two groups, those who were more interactive and those who were visual and passive evaluators. These results are very important for understanding consumer interaction patterns, which senses are involved (including their importance and hierarchy), and which sensory properties of tiles are evaluated during the shopping experience. Moreover, this information is crucial for setting design guidelines to improve sensory interactions and bridge sensory demands with product features.
... 19 Another study investigated both the individual consumer and their shopping environment to analyze the effect that browsing had on their final purchase. 20 Overall, studies showed that, similar to other everyday life-seeking information behavior, the emphasis on quick, easy-to-access information held true regardless of the financial product or behavior being studied. ...
... Few empirical studies have deepened the relationship between price consciousness and intentions measures such as intentional loyalty and WOM referral, Keaveney (1995) and Xia (2010) suggest that high price consciousness has a negative impact on intentional loyalty. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers can shop both online and offline, either for fun or for needs. We investigate the consequences of shopping for fun or for need on word-of-mouth (WOM), intentional loyalty, and price consciousness directly comparing the offline and online settings. We find differences in the relationships among the considered variables, with the offline context being characterized by a simplified structure of causalities, greater maturity, and fewer but stronger ties among the considered constructs, compared with the online context. Furthermore, the content of WOM changes: consumers share experiential issues when they shop for fun, and efficiency issues when their shopping is goal-oriented
... Awareness can be encouraged by restructuring the environment (e.g., a retail store) so that it promotes interest, learning and discovery, and opportunity to engage (e.g., by visually organizing the display; Nordfält 2011). Therefore, consumers' level of awareness can be increased by altering their beliefs about the environment (e.g., likelihood of finding deals) or by changing content in the environmentusing creative packaging, violating norms, or lowering search cost (Janiszewski 1998;Xia 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines consumers’ attention traces (e.g., sequences of eye fixations and saccades) during choice. Due to reduced equipment cost and increased ease of analysis, attention traces can reflect a more fine-grained representation of decision-making activities (e.g., formation of a consideration set, alternative evaluation, and decision strategies). Besides enabling a better understanding of actual consumer choice, attention traces support more complex models of choice, and point to the prospects of specific interventions at various stages of the choice process. We identify and discuss promising areas for future research.
... The present research focuses on situations where the store's sales personnel are the primary social evaluation source. Customers often browse without immediate intention to purchase and no desire for salesperson contact (Xia, 2010). These customers often are reluctant to interact with salespeople. ...
Article
The presence of others often affects retail shopping behavior. Other customers tend to increase one's self-awareness and cause negative self-conscious emotions. This research's findings suggest fellow customers also mitigate focal customers' evaluative concerns. Deindividuation theory, which posits that other customers create anonymity and reduce self-awareness, helps explain this phenomenon. A laboratory experiment and a quasi-experimental field study in a retail setting support the notion that the presence of other customers creates a deindividuation effect on a focal customer during unwanted social evaluation from salespeople. Results show a small group of other customers resulted in lower levels of emotional discomfort and behavioral inhibition than either an empty store or a larger group size, suggesting a U shape relationship.
... In these terms, serendipitous learning is neither chance nor random, simply unplanned and open-ended in a complex learning environment. It is sometimes called 'learning through browsing' and browsing has a long and honourable tradition (Xia, 2010). So, serendipitous learning about plant biology and gardening is not merely waiting for a fortuitous event to happen. ...
Article
Many household gardeners accumulate considerable knowledge of plant biology through a range of informal learning sources. This knowledge seldom relates to school biology and is driven by interest, keen motivation and what is termed here ‘vital relevance’. A small opportunity sample of 12 gardeners (6 M, 6 F) is interviewed in terms of their knowledge of plant biology and their motives for learning. They are largely self-educated, their knowledge is quite specific though piecemeal and their motivation has a strong affective dimension.
... Konsumen yang berpengalaman dengan teknologi merupakan bagian pasar potensial di internet bagi online shopping , biasanya pengguna adalah individu yang menyisihkan waktunya untuk e-mail, melakukan browsing serta melakukan berbagai pencarian lain seperti halnya untuk kepentingan pendidikan dan bisnis seperti yang diuraikan oleh (Sutedjo, 2006). Penelitian tentang belanja konsumen menyatakan bahwa browsing dapat membantu konsumen memenuhi kebutuhan mereka seperti menemukan sebuah produk, mendapatkan informasi, atau menjadi terbiasa dengan tata letak toko (Xia, 2010 (Cronin et al., 2000). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is the role of customer value perception mediate brand trust and quality of service on customer loyalty online shopping (case study on Zalora Online shop). This research was conducted in Zalora Online shop with analytical data path analysis technique. The number of samples obtained by using non-probability sampling method is 150 respondents. Based on the results of the analysis can be known brand trust has a significant positive effect on customer loyalty. Quality of service has a significant positive effect on customer loyalty. Brand trust has a significant positive effect on the perception of customer value. Quality of service has a significant positive effect on the perception of customer value. The perception of customer value has a significant positive effect on customer loyalty. Customer value perceptions mediate the positive impact of brand trust and service quality on customer loyalty shopping at Zalora Online shop. Keywords: Customer value, brand trust, service quality, customer loyalty
Article
Full-text available
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of firm process factors on the purchase intention shown by the consumer in the internet. It also aims to reveal and test the close relationship of consumer utility status among the firm process factors and consumer purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach-Data was collected from 595 responses who are familiar with online shopping. Exploratory analysis was done for the refinement and validation of the questionnaire items and structural equation modelling was used to analyze the relationship among the constructs used in the study. Findings-The findings of the study proved that recommendation system, reputation system and information search system also play a major role in framing consumer attitude towards purchasing online in the era of big data. Practical Implications-The results of this study provide several managerial implications for companies. Originality/value-This research takes a lead in analyzing consumer purchase intention in the era of big data by utilizing firm process factors in Indian context.
Article
We examine the effects of consumer motivations on browsing online stores with mobile devices and compare them with those on browsing physical stores. The results of the simultaneous analysis in multiple populations with structural equation modeling show that four kinds of motivations affect browsing mobile-based online stores, whereas three motivations affect browsing physical stores. This study implies that idea motivation is the most important determinant of both mobile and offline browsing. Also, it implies that adventure motivation and value motivation are important for mobile-based online stores, whereas gratification motivation is important for physical stores. This is the first study to examine the determinants of browsing intention in both physical stores and mobile-based online stores and will contribute to better understanding in-store browsing activity.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to show how the application of multiple qualitative methods reveals insights into grocery shopping that cannot be captured via traditional survey methods. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed-method approach was applied where the results of one technique provided the guidelines for the next as a way to understand how decisions are made within a grocery store. A mail survey started the process which subsequently presented input for the focus group, leading to videographic observations, depth interviews and consumer diaries. Findings – The results show that many decisions in the grocery store are not driven by the store environment but rather by emotional connections to the brand. This suggests that using behavioral and attitudinal surveys to understand this perspective may not adequately capture important aspects of grocery buying. Instead, consideration must be given to alternative methods which offer the shopper freedom to discuss what is important to them in terms of product selection. Research limitations/implications – This study is unique in applying multiple qualitative methods to an environment that is often overlooked as a source for meaningful insights into consumer decisions. The ability to use methods such as videography and self-assessment provides consequential reasons behind consumer behaviour rather than just statistical measurements of this. Practical implications – The results make a note of caution for retailers. Radical changes to brand offerings (e.g. deleting lines) and accessibility to preferred products (e.g. out of stocks, store layouts) runs the risk of potentially isolating regular customers. Our research shows that when a favorite product is not available, a substitute is not likely. Instead respondents tend to go to another store that does stock their brand, or they buy a smaller, cheaper product to “make do” until the next shop. Neither option is a good outcome for the consumer, the manufacturer or the store. Originality/value – This study will show that for grocery buying, not all decisions are rational where the use of available information is what drives the final brand choice. Instead, consumers display evidence of emotion that one research method in isolation is unlikely to adequately capture.
Article
Full-text available
B2C e-commerce is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. A lot of studies were carried out by both scholars and practitioners in order to assess online consumers’ behavioral issues in B2C e-commerce platforms. This paper aims to organize and classify the accumulated literature on B2C e-commerce in order to determine less-researched areas and provide future research directions. For that purpose 208 peer-reviewed articles from 71 journals published between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved and analyzed. The findings of the studies are discussed within the scope of developed framework.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to examine how multi-sensory cues, when store-congruent, influence consumer browsing behaviour and its subsequent effect on purchasing. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were used with a field experimental design in a furnishing retail store to examine browsing behaviour and purchasing in a visual, auditory, olfactory and a multi-sensory treatment group. Data were gathered over 12 weeks. This study was a set of studies comprising my dissertation thesis (Helmefalk, 2017). Findings Findings show that multi-sensory cues in a retail atmosphere are evidently influencing purchasing via browsing behaviour as a mediator. Originality/value The findings evidence browsing behaviour as a mediator and predictor for purchasing, which emphasizes its conceptual and empirical contribution in terms of modifying retail atmospheres. The work contributes to the field of retailing, sensory marketing and consumer behaviour, a novel view on the linkages between multi-sensory cues, browsing behaviour and purchasing.
Poster
Full-text available
This article seeks to explore factors responsible for the adoption of online marketing by second hand (used) car dealers or sellers in Ghana. A conceptual framework was adopted from the extant literature using the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical base. This article adopts a quantitative research approach. Data for the study was obtained from 60 second hand car sellers through self-administered questionnaire. Findings from this study revealed that factors responsible for online marketing adoption by second hand car dealers in Ghana are: perceived usefulness(marketing online, customer demand and increase productivity; ease of use (ability to upload pictures, interaction with clients, and online vehicles sales) of the platform. The study however, found no significant relationship between IT knowledge of the owner/manager, age of business and adoption of the online technology. This article highlights the importance of technology adoption in business among SMEs from technologically disadvantaged market.
Article
Purpose Social shopping website (SSW) introduce the social side into the shopping process, thus making “window” shopping or browsing more interesting for customers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate customer online browsing experience and its antecedents (i.e. information quality and social interaction) and consequences (i.e. urge to buy impulsively and continuous browsing intention) in the context of SSW. Design/methodology/approach A survey questionnaire was distributed to visitors of online SSW to collect data, and partial least squares technology was used to test the research model. Findings The results of this study reveal that three types of web browsing, namely, utilitarian browsing, hedonic browsing and social browsing, take place in a SSW. The unique factors of SSW, namely, the quality of user generated contents and social interaction are critical for facilitating customers’ browsing experiences. Furthermore, the findings reveal that hedonic browsing experience is found to be the most salient factor influencing customers’ urge to buy impulsively and continuance intention. Practical implications The findings suggest that practitioners, such as designers and managers of SSW should give special attention to the benefits of browsing activity to convert web browsers into impulse purchasers and increase customers’ loyalty. Moreover, they should focus on improving the quality of user generated content and pay more attention to support and encourage social interaction to enhance browsing experiences on a SSW. Originality/value Existing studies about browsing behavior mostly focus on traditional online e-commerce website. This study represents the first step toward understanding browsing activity on SSW. Moreover, prior studies mainly focused on utilitarian and hedonic browsing experience; however, there is a lack of research on social browsing experience. The current study attempts to fill this research gap.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the customer decision-making journey of high involvement female fashion consumers in the context of omnichannel fashion retailing. Design/methodology/approach The research is qualitative in nature, using a multi-method approach consisting of focus groups, semi-structured interviews, online diaries and follow-up interviews, with grounded theory applied to analyse the data. Findings The results of the study include a framework to outline the stages of the omnichannel customer decision-making journey for young high involvement female fashion consumers. The findings also reveal that an omnichannel decision-making journey is the one that predicated on risk and that consumers employ specific strategies to avoid such risks. Research limitations/implications Due to the nature of this research, the sample size is limited and may not be generalised. Data collection was confined to Manchester, UK. Practical implications Customer journey mapping enables practitioners to view the entire shopping experience through the eyes of the customer and enables retailers' fault-find issues within the customer and brand experience. Originality/value The paper advances knowledge about fashion and consumer behaviour. The customer decision journey framework maps the emotional experiences, devices and channels encountered by high-involvement fashion consumers across each stage of the omnichannel journey.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the causal relationships between constructs related to consumer–brand engagement (CBE), including consumers’ enduring involvement, ongoing information search behaviour, online engagement behaviour and brand attitude in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical framework is tested using data from 302 customers of a durable technology product, a smartphone, in Hong Kong, collected using a self-administered online survey. Partial least squares-structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Findings The results reveal that consumers’ enduring involvement and ongoing information search behaviour are key drivers of CBE, ultimately enhancing customers’ brand attitude. The importance of enduring involvement in strengthening ongoing search behaviour, online engagement behaviour and CBE is confirmed, together with the importance of ongoing search behaviour in strengthening CBE. Further analysis demonstrated the full mediating role of ongoing search behaviour in the relationship between enduring involvement and online engagement behaviour, such that CBE fully mediates the impact of ongoing search behaviour on brand attitude. Research limitations/implications The research contributes to the extant literature by providing an understanding of how to strengthen CBE for durable technology products, such as smartphones. However, this study is cross-sectional in nature, focusing on smartphones in Hong Kong only. Thus, future research should consider comparisons between countries with diverse cultures as well as other industries, such as the service sector, to enhance the generalisability of the study’s findings. Practical implications Marketers should seek to heighten customers’ involvement levels by encouraging customer–brand interactions, which is not only useful in encouraging customers’ ongoing search and online engagement behaviour but also critical in strengthening CBE. Additionally, marketers are recommended to encourage customers’ ongoing search behaviour (at the category level), which is useful in encouraging consumers’ online engagement behaviour as well as strengthening CBE. Originality/value The role of ongoing search behaviour in brand building has received little attention in the branding literature. This paper makes a noteworthy contribution to CBE research by empirically testing a holistic framework, confirming that enduring involvement and ongoing search behaviour are critical drivers in the process of strengthening CBE. This paper also demonstrates the mediation roles of ongoing search behaviour and CBE in the holistic framework.
Chapter
This article seeks to explore factors responsible for the adoption of online marketing by second hand (used) car dealers to sellers in Ghana. A conceptual framework was adopted from the extant literature using the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical base. This article adopts a quantitative research approach. Data for the study was obtained from 60 second hand car sellers through a self-administered questionnaire. Findings from this study revealed that factors responsible for online marketing adoption by second hand car dealers in Ghana are: perceived usefulness (marketing online, customer demand and increase productivity; ease of use (ability to upload pictures, interaction with clients, and online vehicles sales) of the platform. The study however, found no significant relationship between IT knowledge of the owner/manager, age of business and adoption of the online technology. This article highlights the importance of technology adoption in business among SMEs from technologically disadvantaged market.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this column is to examine the issues between library space and the pursuit of serendipitous browsing. Design/methodology/approach – The approach is via a literature review and commentary on this topic that has been addressed by colleague institutions. Findings – While library space is at a premium on every college and university campus, even in light of access to digital material, a considerable portion of the collection still must be available in print, thus necessitating traditional shelf space, so that searching the physical collection and browsing can occur. Balancing the two issues is a challenge to each and every institution in its forward planning cycle. Originality/value – The value in addressing this issue is to examine the issues of insufficient shelf space versus browsing the collection.
Article
Full-text available
The popular press has recently reported that managers of retail and service outlets are diffusing scents into their stores to create more positive environments and develop a competitive advantage. These efforts are occurring despite there being no scholarly research supporting the use of scent in store environments. The authors present a review of theoretically relevant work from environmental psychology and olfaction research and a study examining the effects of ambient scent in a simulated retail environment. In the reported study, the authors find a difference between evaluations of and behaviors in a scented store environment and those in an unscented store environment. Their findings provide guidelines for managers of retail and service outlets concerning the benefits of scenting store environments.
Article
Full-text available
Shopping with consumers, a method that has yielded useful data in the past, is demonstrated as a method that can efficiently and effectively generate naturalistic text. We review how shopping with consumers has been utilized within retailing research, compare this method with other techniques applicable to the study of consumer shopping behavior, and provide a detailed description of how we have used the method in our own research. Recommendations for future use of the method are offered for both managers and researchers.
Article
Full-text available
Although large enclosed shopping malls represent significant institutions in modem Western culture, consumers' activities within malls have been surprisingly underresearched. In the present study, consumers' interrelationships with malls as consumption sites are explored using the concept of a habitat drawn from the ecological sciences. An empirical study of consumer activity within multiple mall habitats is then discussed. Specifically, this research explores differences in mall habitat activity patterns and identifies mall related shopping orientations that are useful in explaining these differences.
Article
Full-text available
Consumers may act on the spur of the moment, driven by fun and curiosity, or be goal-oriented, task-focused utilitarians. This study investigates the effects of consumers’ hedonic and utilitarian orientation online on price consciousness, frequency of purchase, purchased amount, intention to re-patronize a Web site and expertise with the Internet. It specifically considers purchasing, not mere browsing, basing on data collected on customers of one of the largest Italian online retailers for electronics. The data show significant differences between hedonic and utilitarian orientation online with regard to past purchase frequency, the amount purchased and the intention to re-patronize the Web site in the future. The findings suggest that utilitarianism is strongly present online, and is valuable, thus utilitarian consumers should not be neglected, but hedonism is even more profitable, impacting on the number of items purchased and the intention to come back to the Web site. No differences are found in the level of price consciousness or in the degree of expertise with the Internet.
Article
Full-text available
Describes an experiment conducted comparing the effects of background and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. Concludes that choosing to play store music solely to satisfy customers' preferences may not be the optimal approach; instead music should be varied across areas of a store that appeal to different-aged customers.
Article
Full-text available
In a comprehensive study of the behaviors and correlates of information seeking by Australian new car buyers, the authors examine three dimensions of information seeking-a sources of information dimension, a brand dimension, and a time dimension. Cluster analysis is used to develop consumer taxonomies of search behavior based on measurements of each of the dimensions. The resulting taxonomies are a high search group, a low search group, and three clusters collectively styled selective information seekers. Examination of the correlates of the individual search dimensions suggests that only certain predictors of search behavior are related to the different search dimensions.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this column is to examine the issues between library space and the pursuit of serendipitous browsing. Design/methodology/approach – The approach is via a literature review and commentary on this topic that has been addressed by colleague institutions. Findings – While library space is at a premium on every college and university campus, even in light of access to digital material, a considerable portion of the collection still must be available in print, thus necessitating traditional shelf space, so that searching the physical collection and browsing can occur. Balancing the two issues is a challenge to each and every institution in its forward planning cycle. Originality/value – The value in addressing this issue is to examine the issues of insufficient shelf space versus browsing the collection.
Article
Full-text available
In many previous studies of consumer behavior, shopping has been equated with buying. This research examines the concept of browsing—the examination of a retailer’s merchandise without a current intent to buy. Results indicate that for the product classes of clothing and personal computers, browsing is related to perceptions of relevant dimensions of the retail environment. In addition, heavy browsers are more involved with the product, are more knowledgeable, and are more likely to be opinion leaders than are other consumers. Suggestions for future research are also noted.
Article
Full-text available
This study extends the Donovan and Rossiter (1982) study which introduced the Mehrabian-Russell (M-R) environmental psychology model into the store atmosphere literature. Donovan and Rossiter's study was exploratory in that student subjects were used and intentions rather than shopping behavior were measured. The present study uses a broader sample of shoppers, measures emotions during the shopping experience rather than before or after, and records the effects on actual shopping behavior. The 1982 study found that experienced pleasantness of the in-store environment was a significant predictor of willingness to spend time in the store and intentions to spend more money than originally planned. This finding was extended behaviorally in the new study: pleasure, as rated five minutes into the shopping duration was a significant predictor of extra time spent in the store and actual incremental spending. Arousal was found to vary in its effects across the two studies and bears further investigation. The effects of the emotional factors of pleasure and arousal were shown to be additional to cognitive factors such as variety and quality of merchandise, price specialing and value for money. The practical significance for retailers is that emotional responses induced by the store environment can affect the time and money that consumers spend in the store.
Article
Full-text available
While consumer search behavior has been studied for many years, its treatment has been limited to purchase contexts. This article defines ongoing search as search occurring outside of the purchase process, and places it within an overall framework for consumer search. In addition, it presents results of an exploratory study of ongoing search indicating that recreational or hedonic motives for ongoing search are more significant than practical, informational motives. This study also shows that product involvement is strongly linked to ongoing search and that ongoing searchers appear to be important elements in the marketplace.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has indicated that the information acquisition process is highly dependent upon the manner in which information is presented. This study investigated information acquisition in several variations of the Information Display Board (IDB) format, including an interactive computer version. The amount of information acquired and the manner in which it was acquired were dependent upon the presentation format. The results suggest that one should be cautious when generalizing the results of previous work to new information search environments.
Chapter
This chapter describes consumers in retail environments. Research drawn from environmental and consumer psychology, and from marketing is reviewed. One of the problems in attempting such an enterprise is the problem of integration. Research in the mentioned areas in general, and that which has considered the consumer in retail environments in particular, has tended to be fragmented and to some extent lacking in common theoretical orientation. Features of the consumer setting, such as lighting, heating, and crowdedness, is investigated in isolation. The findings of this research are reviewed. Along with the physical aspects of the retail environment, social, psychological, and economic features are also dealt with. Several models exist to explain consumer behavior in the retail environment. In addition, an approach in the social sciences which has attempted to form a common theoretical framework within which human behavior may be investigated and understood as an integrated whole is that of facet theory.
Article
Do people shop simply to make purchases? Are some shopping trips motivated by considerations that are unrelated to an actual purchase? The results of an exploratory study of shopper motivation suggest that a person may shop for many reasons other than his or her need for products or services.
Article
The presence of others often affects retail shopping behavior. Other customers tend to increase one's self-awareness and cause negative self-conscious emotions. This research's findings suggest fellow customers also mitigate focal customers' evaluative concerns. Deindividuation theory, which posits that other customers create anonymity and reduce self-awareness, helps explain this phenomenon. A laboratory experiment and a quasi-experimental field study in a retail setting support the notion that the presence of other customers creates a deindividuation effect on a focal customer during unwanted social evaluation from salespeople. Results show a small group of other customers resulted in lower levels of emotional discomfort and behavioral inhibition than either an empty store or a larger group size, suggesting a U shape relationship.
Article
We examine the effects of consumer motivations on browsing online stores with mobile devices and compare them with those on browsing physical stores. The results of the simultaneous analysis in multiple populations with structural equation modeling show that four kinds of motivations affect browsing mobile-based online stores, whereas three motivations affect browsing physical stores. This study implies that idea motivation is the most important determinant of both mobile and offline browsing. Also, it implies that adventure motivation and value motivation are important for mobile-based online stores, whereas gratification motivation is important for physical stores. This is the first study to examine the determinants of browsing intention in both physical stores and mobile-based online stores and will contribute to better understanding in-store browsing activity.
Article
Although wayfinding and orientation in complex buildings is an important criterion for environmental behavior, research on the subject remains limited and the issue is not considered sufficiently during the design process. This article examines the factors that affect wayfinding behavior of individuals in a shopping mall and explains how their behaviors are influenced by factors such as building configuration, visual accessibility, circulation systems, and signage. The case study conducted in a mall in Turkey draws a sample profile of Turkish society from a wayfinding point of view. The relation between wayfinding behavior and shopping activity is discussed. The results show that people did not find the signage system sufficient. Although they found the mall an easy setting from the wayfinding point of view, they still required better solutions to find specific destinations such as telephone booths, restrooms, or stores located in parts of the building that were not visually accessible.
Article
After a review of research on the use of store music, an experiment was conducted comparing the effects of background and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. In-store interviews revealed a preference for foreground music but customers’ moods and unplanned purchases were not substantially enhanced by hearing foreground music. However, customers’ perceptions of their shopping time varied with the type of music, depending on their age. Counter to expectations, the effects of music did not vary with the type of music, depending on their age. Counter to expectations, the effects of music did not vary with time of day. These results suggest that choosing to play store music solely to satisfy customers’ preferences may not be the optimal approach but rather music should be varied across areas of a store that appeal to different-aged customers.
Article
Consumers develop over their life span a pragmatic expertise in marketplace metacognition and marketplace interactions. Marketplace metacognition and social intelligence refer to people's beliefs about their own mental states and the mental states, strategies, and intentions of others as these pertain directly to the social domain of marketplace interactions. Drawing from the recent study of evolutionary psychology, theory of mind, multiple life-span intelligences, and everyday persuasion knowledge, I discuss the importance to our field of studying marketplace metacognition and social intelligence and of research-based consumer education programs on those topics.
Article
Extant research has demonstrated that models developed for predicting choices in decisions where only one of the available alternatives is to be selected “single-item choice” decisions) are not able to accurately predict preferences in decisions where more than one alternative is to be selected (“multiple-item choice” decisions). Findings from this research suggest that underlying decision processes are different for the two types of decisions. However, the specific nature of these differences is still not well understood. Differences in consumers’ information search between single-item and multiple-item choice decisions are examined in a decision-making experiment. Using a computerized process-tracing methodology, results of the study indicate that participants who make multiple-item choice decisions engage in a more in-depth information search with less variability in search patterns than do those who make single-item choice decisions. Participants who make multiple-item choice decisions are also more likely to use alternative-based information-search patterns. The results also show that there are no differences in information-search behavior among three multiple-item choice decisions used in the study. The study results are discussed, and their implications for consumer decision research are outlined.
Article
Is there a method to our madness when it comes to shopping? Hailed by the "San Francisco Chronicle" as "a Sherlock Holmes for retailers," author and research company CEO Paco Underhill answers with a definitive "yes" in this witty, eye-opening report on our ever-evolving consumer culture. "Why We Buy" is based on hard data gleaned from thousands of hours of field research -- in shopping malls, department stores, and supermarkets across America. With his team of sleuths tracking our every move, from sweater displays at the mall to the beverage cooler at the drugstore, Paco Underhill lays bare the struggle among merchants, marketers, and increasingly knowledgeable consumers for control. In his quest to discover what makes the contemporary consumer tick, Underhill explains the shopping phenomena that often go unnoticed by retailers and shoppers alike, including: How a well-placed shopping basket can turn a small purchase into a significant sale What the "butt-brush factor" is and how it can make sales plummet How working women have altered the way supermarkets are designed How the "boomerang effect" makes product placement ever more challenging What kinds of signage and packaging turn browsers into buyers For those in retailing and marketing, "Why We Buy" is a remarkably fresh guide, offering creative and insightful tips on how to adapt to the changing customer. For the general public, "Why We Buy" is a funny and sometimes disconcerting look at our favorite pastime.
Article
Consumers are continually faced with the task of finding their way through a wide variety of retail environments. Surprisingly, very little research has addressed questions about how consumers physically search through retail settings. This article explores this important, yet little researched behavior. A conceptual model of the consumer’s retail search process (CRSP) and several research propositions are advanced. The CRSP model integrates research findings relevant to an understanding of consumer retail search behavior. Literature from such diverse fields of scientific inquiry as environmental psychology, human factors, architecture, and marketing are reviewed and serve as the theoretical basis of the CRSP model.
Article
As part of the general study of user navigation through interactive databases, a set of indices is proposed to characterise users' search sequences. These indices are presented as an attempt to capture some of the psychologically significant aspects of the movement of users within interactive data-bases. An example of the use of the indices is given in reference to an experiment to compare front-ends to a data-base program. Their strengths and weaknesses are discussed in the light of this experiment. Their potential as a basis for the precise definition of search strategies such as browsing and scanning is also considered.
Article
An experiential value scale (EVS) reflecting the benefits derived from perceptions of playfulness, aesthetics, customer “return on investment” and service excellence is developed and tested in the Internet and catalog shopping context. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the EVS in both samples and tests the hypothesized hierarchical structure. Predictive modeling points to the value of the EVS as a measurement tool, useful in describing the perceived make-up of a retail value package and predicting differences in shopping preferences and patronage intent in multichannel retail systems. Study limitations and directions for future research are identified.
Article
Research and theory in consumer decision making has been dominated by a perspective that assumes that a consumer knows what product category he or she needs. This limited view has resulted in equating consumer decisions with brand choice. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for considering a wider range of consumer decision-making processes by linking them to different goals that consumers might pursue. A hierarchical goal structure consisting of four levels of goals; abstract principles or values, action programs, more concrete product acquisition, and brand acquisition goals, is proposed as the theoretical construct which ties together a wide range of consumer decision making phenomena. An experiment in which consumers think out loud in contemplating two levels of more familiar or unfamiliar goals reveals that their thoughts are constrained by the proposed goal hierarchy. The goals provide a useful framework for understanding decision-making processes involving product level consideration, set generation, and the evaluation of those self-generated sets. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Although undefined and ambiguous, the term “browsing” enjoys widespread usage among retailers. In this study, the concept is explored in terms of several different shopping behaviors. It is further demonstrated that these behaviors are associated with a variety of descriptive and attitudinal differences among retail mall patrons.
Article
Browsing refers to information retrieval where the initial search criteria are generally quite vague. The fundamentals of browsing are explored as a basis for the creation of an intelligent computer system to assist with the retrieval of online information. Browsing actions via a computer terminal are examined, together with new methods of accessing text and satisfying user queries. Initial tests with a prototype system illustrated the use of different retrieval strategies when accessing online information of varying structure. The results suggest the construction of a more intelligent processing component to provide expanded capabilities for content extraction and navigation within text documents.
Article
An experiential value scale (EVS) reflecting the benefits derived from perceptions of playfulness, aesthetics, customer “return on investment” and service excellence is developed and tested in the Internet and catalog shopping context. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the EVS in both samples and tests the hypothesized hierarchical structure. Predictive modeling points to the value of the EVS as a measurement tool, useful in describing the perceived make-up of a retail value package and predicting differences in shopping preferences and patronage intent in multichannel retail systems. Study limitations and directions for future research are identified.
Article
A new schematic framework for navigation is presented which is relevant to physical, abstract and social environments. Navigation is defined as the creation and interpretation of an internal (mental) model, and its component activities are browsing, modelling, interpretation and the formulation of browsing strategy. The design of externalizations and interactions to support these activities, and navigation as a whole, is discussed.
Article
Consumer researchers' growing interest in consumer experiences has revealed that many consumption activities produce both hedonic and utilitarian outcomes. Thus, there is an increasing need for scales to assess consumer perceptions of both hedonic and utilitarian values. This article describes the development of a scale measuring both values obtained from the pervasive consumption experience of shopping. The authors develop and validate the scale using a multistep process. The results demonstrate that distinct hedonic and utilitarian shopping value dimensions exist and are related to a number of important consumption variables. Implications for further applications of the scale are discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Perceived control is proposed to be a crucial variable in mediating the consumer's emotional and behavioral responses to the physical environment and the contact personnel that constitute the service encounter. Results of an experimental test of this proposition confirm the importance of perceived control in mediating the effects of two situational features of the encounter--consumer density (the number of consumers that are present in a service setting) and consumer choice (whether it is a person's own decision to enter into, and stay in, a service situation)--on the pleasantness of the service experience and the consumer's approach-avoidance responses to the service encounter. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Why do consumers sometimes act against their own better judgment, engaging in behavior that is often regretted after the fact and that would have been rejected with adequate forethought? More generally, how do consumers attempt to maintain self-control in the face of time-inconsistent preferences? This article addresses consumer impatience by developing a decision-theoretic model based on reference points. The model explains how and why consumers experience sudden increases in desire for a product, increases that can result in the temporary overriding of long-term preferences. Tactics that consumers use to control their own behavior are also discussed. Consumer self-control is framed as a struggle between two psychological forces, desire and willpower. Finally, two general classes of self-control strategies are described: those that directly reduce desire, and those that overcome desire through willpower. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Research on the impact of the environment on shopper behavior generally focuses on the design of retail environments that produce positive consumer feelings in order to increase the likelihood of purchase. The basic message of this article is that retailers and marketing researchers also should be concerned with environmental stimuli that create irritations among shoppers and try to come up with strategies aimed at reducing or eliminating such irritants. A study is presented where environment-based shopping irritants are identified on the basis of a conceptual framework and the degree of irritation induced by these irritants assessed. Results from a survey of 281 shoppers show that the degree of perceived irritation depends on the nature of the environmental variables considered and is affected significantly by shoppers' gender and age. While women appear to be generally more irritated than men by displeasing aspects of the shopping environment, the impact of age on shoppers' extent of irritation depends on which specific irritating factor is considered.
Shopping with consumers
  • C Otnes
  • M.A McGrath
  • T.M. Lowrey
Environmental psychology
  • J.A Russell
  • U.F. Lanius