Article

Reading Behavior in the Digital Environment: Changes in Reading Behavior Over the Past Ten Years

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Abstract

Purpose – This study attempts to investigate reading behavior in the digital environment by analyzing how people's reading behavior has changed over the past ten years. Design/methodology/approach – Survey and analysis methods are employed. Findings – With an increasing amount of time spent reading electronic documents, a screen-based reading behavior is emerging. The screen-based reading behavior is characterized by more time spent on browsing and scanning, keyword spotting, one-time reading, non-linear reading, and reading more selectively, while less time is spent on in-depth reading, and concentrated reading. Decreasing sustained attention is also noted. Annotating and highlighting while reading is a common activity in the printed environment. However, this “traditional” pattern has not yet migrated to the digital environment when people read electronic documents. Originality/value – Implications for the changes in reading behavior are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.

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... Indeed, it has previously been noted that screen-based reading behaviour is more likely to be characterised by 'more time spent browsing and scanning, keyword spotting . . . non-linear reading, and reading more selectively' [2]. Further study has found online reading is conducted more quickly, with a cost to comprehension [3,4]. ...
... Additionally, education research suggests students need to be taught to not over rely on scanning behaviour, due to the cost to processing incurred [5]. The increase of skimming in online reading behaviour therefore invites the question of how readers assess the importance of text, when engaged in a reading strategy that is so rapid and selective ( [2,6,7]). As such, this research aims to explore how aspects of reading on the Web, specifically skim reading, the presence of hyperlinks and the composition of a webpage affect a readers' perceived importance of the text and in turn their reading behaviour. ...
... In addition to the topographical differences reading on the Web carries, the increased likelihood of skim reading on the Web [2] is another key difference compared to other reading activities. Furthermore, there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that during skim reading, some comprehension may be lost compared to more in-depth reading [24][25][26][27]. ...
Article
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It has previously been shown that readers spend a great deal of time skim reading on the Web and that this type of reading can affect comprehension of text. Across two experiments, we examine how hyperlinks influence perceived importance of sentences and how perceived importance in turn affects reading behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants rated the importance of sentences across passages of Wikipedia text, while in Experiment 2, participants read these passages, with the task being either reading for comprehension or skim reading. Reading times of sentences were analysed in relation to the type of task and the importance ratings from Experiment 1. Results from Experiment 1 show readers rated sentences without hyperlinks as being of less importance than sentences that did feature hyperlinks, and this effect is larger when sentences are lower on the page. It was also found that short sentences with more links were rated as more important, but only when they were presented at the top of the page. Long sentences with more links were rated as more important regardless of their position on the page. In Experiment 2, higher importance scores resulted in longer sentence reading times. When skim reading, however, importance ratings had a lesser impact on reading behaviour than when reading for comprehension. We suggest readers are less able to establish the importance of a sentence when skim reading, even though importance could have been assessed by information that would be fairly easy to extract (i.e. presence of hyperlinks, length of sentences, and position on the screen).
... Recent research indicated that readers did not derive positive reading experiences and pleasant engagement from digital reading similar to print reading (Kazanci, 2015;Mangen & Kuiken, 2014). The existing research (see reviews by Clinton, 2019, andAlexander, 2017) indicates that reading from screens involves poorer self-regulation (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011;Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Liu, 2005). Most of the research have reported that reading in print results in better reading comprehension than digital media (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011;Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Lenhard et al., 2017;Mangen et al., 2013;Singer et al., 2017). ...
... Readers' metacognition (e.g., comprehension monitoring, self-regulation) has a great influence on adopting a specific reading strategy, and results in differences in the reading processes (Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011;Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Goldsmith, 2011;Liu, 2005). Reading strategy and metacognition are closely related and therefore are jointly discussed in this section. ...
... Ackerman and Goldsmith (2011) compared undergraduates' cognitive (e.g., encoding, information storage) and metacognitive (e.g., self-regulated study time, prediction of performance) processes when they read expository texts in print or on digital media, and found that the primary differences between print and digital reading lay in the metacognitive regulation rather than in the cognitive processes. Liu (2005) asked undergraduate students to think aloud while they read on a screen, and found that they spent a lot of time browsing and scanning the text, keyword spotting, one-time rereading rather than back-and-forth reading, and non-linear reading. The participants also reported that it was harder for them to maintain their attention on the text displayed on screens, and therefore, they did not spend enough time concentrating on the information to ensure deep processing. ...
Article
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Comparing comprehension outcomes in print and digital reading is an active area of research but little is known about the reading processes that these media entail. This study involved an eye-tracking experiment with 50 undergraduate students to investigate the differences in reading processes in print and digital media. The participants were randomly assigned to read the same six-page popular science article that included several diagrams either in print or on a tablet computer and then answer reading comprehension questions. The results showed that comprehension was better when reading in print. Eye-movement data indicated that the print and digital groups spent about the same amount of time processing the article, texts, diagrams, and diagram statements, but the time was not divided evenly between the first pass and the rereading stages. The digital group spent more time reading the article at the first-pass reading stage and seldom reread it. In contrast, the print group first skimmed the article and then reread the important parts, exhibiting both longer total fixation durations in the rereading stage and a higher number of rereading instances across pages. In sum, the findings indicate that reading in print versus digital media employs different cognitive strategies with those reading in print showing more selective and intentional reading behavior.
... Inferior comprehension in screen-based reading compared to paper-based reading was more pronounced when there was time pressure and expository rather than narrative texts were used. Several researchers concluded that the on-screen disadvantage is caused by two factors: i) On-screen readers may approach the task using shallower strategies and ii) Reading from screen results in higher cognitive loads (Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011;Delgado et al., 2018;Lauterman & Ackerman, 2014;Liu, 2005). ...
... Since the majority of reading from screen experiences are casual and rapid, readers of the screen may approach the tasks of reading from screen with overconfidence and process the information quickly, superficially (Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011;Liu, 2005), similar to the usual techniques used for social and recreational reading online. This metacognitive approach may affect readers, especially when they do not read complex academic texts deeply and thus overlook important information (Delgado et al., 2018;Kim & Kim, 2013;Latini et al., 2019;Nichols, 2016;Sackstein et al., 2015;Singer & Alexander, 2017). ...
... Several researchers concluded that the on-screen disadvantage is caused by two factors: i) On-screen readers may approach the task using shallower strategies and ii) Reading from screen results in higher cognitive loads (Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Ackerman & Goldsmith, 2011;Delgado et al., 2018;Lauterman & Ackerman, 2014;Liu, 2005). Our study provides support to this. ...
... In general, screen-reading is characterized as involving more time spent browsing and scanning of the document, as well as non-linear and one-time reading. Consecutively, less time is spent on in-depth and concentrated reading (Baron, 2015;Delgado & Salmerón, 2021;Hillesund, 2010;Liu, 2005;Loh & Kanai, 2016;MangenDon, 2014;Singer Trakhman et al., 2018, 2019. Newer research has, however, shown little to no difference in reading speed on computer screens in comparison to reading on paper. ...
... Interestingly, even though this research is almost a decade old, it seems that students continue to use highlighting activelyat least in print formats. In studies that looked at reading and text interaction during controlled experiments, most conclude that annotation and highlighting behavior has not migrated in a useful way from physical to digital environments (Ben-Yehudah Eshet-Alkalai, 2018; Jennifer Sarah Pearson, 2012;Liu, 2005). For instance, Johnston and Ferguson observed that study participants had "some awareness" of digital features, but that they did not use them at all when reading in an e-book (Johnston & Ferguson, 2020). ...
... The difference between average proportion of document highlighted on laptop was not statistically significant from the average number of highlights on paper, which is interesting when comparing the result to previous findings, e.g. (Johnston & Ferguson, 2020;Kara et al., 2019;Liu, 2005;Mizrachi et al., 2018), which found that students did not interact with digital documents, even if they knew the features to do so were available. In the digital environment provided in this study, highlights seem to be used as frequently. ...
Article
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Academic reading, a form of active reading, often involves interaction with the text. Highlighting and annotating are some of the most common strategies of interacting with academic texts, yet we have limited understanding of exactly how such interactions affect reading comprehension in digital versus analog reading environments. In this paper, we present an exploratory study, comparing how university students (n = 50) interact with a digital and a physical text, focusing on highlights and annotations. We compare reading time, interaction with, and subsequent memory of the texts. We make nine observations about reading time, highlighting and annotation frequency and memory scores between paper and laptop. We find that students annotate significantly less on laptop than on paper, but that neither highlighting nor annotations influence subsequent memory of the text in either condition. Our broader contribution is to augment understanding of how different interaction features aid academic reading in a natural environment.
... Reading is no longer a hobby but a necessity to keep up with the innovations that science and technology has brought to us. According to Liu (2005), the new reading behaviours are influenced by the availability of digital information and people spend more time reading electronic media. Karim, Hasan, and Shahriza (2007) supported this by claiming that the increasing amount of information and entertainment in a digital format is becoming more popular among the young. ...
... Digital or e-libraries make reading materials readily available. Understanding changes in reading behaviour due to the evolution of electronic documents, would help in designing more sophisticated digital libraries and encourage users to gain benefits from this digital environment (Liu, 2005). ...
Article
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Malaysian National Literacy Survey (2005) by the National Library revealed that Malaysians read an average of merely two books a year. Despite various efforts to advocate reading, the number is still low compared to other countries, far from the targeted literacy rate of 100 per cent, one of the aspirations of Vision 2020. This study aims to explore the English language reading habits, interests and attitudes of University of Technology Sarawak (UTS, previously known as UCTS) foundation students. It also determines the reading barriers, motivations and strategies of the students who are immensely impacted by the use of technology in this digital age. The research questions identified the types and sources of reading materials, frequency of items read, their preferred leisure activities, reading activity and enjoyment, anxiety and difficulty, along with strategies utilised to overcome reading barriers. An online questionnaire was filled by randomly selected 230 students (115 male, 115 female), studying in Foundation in Arts and Foundation in Science 2019/2020 session. This study was conducted in a duration of one year and the data collected were analysed descriptively. Results of the study revealed that; (i) the students have poor reading habits with low interest in reading as they prefer other activities to reading; (ii) the students assert their uncertainty towards reading in the English language, indicating poor reading attitudes; and (iii) the students encounter barriers that impede reading with oneself as the most important motivator to improve reading using various strategies. These implied that it is still a long way to foster a healthy reading habit among the younger generation, hence suggestions were given. This study is necessary to provide insights into the current reading habits of the students so that new methods or suggestions can be proposed to foster healthy reading habits, especially among the young, with implications of the findings in terms of academic performance and language learning.
... Regarding the reading medium, previous studies show that reading printed texts have a positive effect on reading proficiency compared to the use of digital media (Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Clinton, 2019;Salmerón & Delgado, 2019). The literature has explained this difference, stating that reading from a screen affects sustained attention and concentration Liu, 2005). In addition, the literature proposes that digital media generate a deficit in metacognitive monitoring and, consequently, more superficial reading (Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Delgado & Salmerón, 2021). ...
... In other words, reading information on a digital screen or printed does not affect pausing behaviour during integrative writing. Our results here may diverge somewhat from previous studies assessing the effects of reading medium, where differences in sustained attention, concentration, and competence between readings media were identified (Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012;Clinton, 2019;Delgado & Salmerón, 2021;Liu, 2005). However, it should be noted that studies comparing differences between media generally do not consider writing, let alone the writing process. ...
Article
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Multiple factors simultaneously interact during the writing process. The effect of these interacting factors must be considered if writing is studied as a dynamic and complex process that constantly changes. Based on that premise, the study aims to determine how the interaction between the reading medium and the communicative purpose of a writing task affects the pauses during different stages of the writing process. At the same time, it seeks to determine how this interaction is related to the writer's competence. Using a 2-by-2 experimental design, undergraduate students (n = 66) read documents (print or digital format) and completed a computer-embedded writing task with different communicative purposes (to persuade or to inform). While writing, pauses-related keystrokes were recorded. The results show that neither the reading medium nor the task purpose or the interaction of these two variables affect pauses. However, communicative purpose interacts with the stages of the writing process, so regardless of participants' writing competence, they took longer at the end of the writing process when the purpose was to persuade. Other interactions indicated that the type of pause interacts differentially with the stage and communicative purpose. These interactions and main effects were systematically related to the writer's competence; because once it was statistically controlled, these interactions and main effects were no longer significant. The results are analysed in terms of the cognitive processes underlying pauses, considering evidence from studies on hybrid reading-writing and integrated writing studies.
... One good example supporting this claim is reading. Liu (2005) argued that reading has been greatly impacted by technology. It is an educational practice solely done before in print, until when it was possible to digitize materials. ...
... One relates to the claim of Liu (2005) -the growth of information available in digital form. It is argued that digital creations are growing exponentially. ...
Article
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This empirical investigation on the e-reading habit involved 109 graduate students (32.29 as mean age, SD-10.34). The cross-sectional study gathered data through the employment of an 16-item adapted [by Maden (2018)] survey-questionnaire (with a reliability of Cronbach alpha = 0.87). Analysis of the data revealed that the respondents, on the average, are of 'satisfactory e-reading habit'. Moreover, it was determined that a gender difference exists favoring the female respondents of the study. In addition, a significant negative correlation is established between the respondents' e-reading habit and age. Finally, the study disclosed that respondents socioeconomic status influences e-reading habit. Discussions and Implications are herein found.
... One-time reading of electronic documents, selective reading Carr (2008); Liu (2005) It is possible to pay sustained attention on reading ...
... Possible distraction of attention on reading Carr (2010Carr ( , 2008; Liu (2005) Serial access to information of a text Random access through hypertext links and browser functions Kress (2003); Prensky (2001) Multimodality of electronic documents (image, audio, video, text) changes the way that readers perceive and understand such a document Kress (2003) Reading via print media, along with audio media, improve critical thinking and imagination Greenfield (2009) Video games improve visualspatial skills Greenfield (2009) Video games improve high school students' executive functions Homer, Plass, Raffaele, Ober, and Ali (2018) Video games improve many cognitive abilities, such as reasoning, receptive vocabulary, visual shortterm memory, and processing speed Gnambs and Appel (2017); Dobrowolski, Hanusz, Sobczyk, Skorko, and Wiatrow (2015) Writing by hand: the visual attention is strongly concentrated onto the point of character input (e.g. the tip of the pen) ...
Conference Paper
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Although the interest of academics and practitioners is focused on concepts, such as digital competence , literacy, and skills, digital intelligence has its own distinct importance. Whilst the former concepts are related to knowledge and learning outcomes, digital intelligence is about the new way of thinking (particularly visible to young people) that is developing in the continuously expanding digital environment. Understanding and further investigating digital intelligence will help to establish better and more appropriate, for the demands of the digital era, frameworks of digital competence. This study proposes that measuring digital intelligence should comprise computational thinking tests, as well as tests that could be used to assess digital use and behaviour. In the context of that, a number of students at senior high schools of the Regional Unit of Thessaloniki, Greece, were tested regarding their computational thinking and their digital use and behaviour. The most interesting results are: (i) the average score of students increases as the level of education of their parents increases, and (ii) there is a statistically significant positive relationship of the students' aggregate performance between computational thinking and digital use & behaviour, implying that they are correctly considered components of the construct of digital intelligence.
... Skimming is a reading technique that involves quickly glancing over text to gain a general idea of its content, extracting only the most important information [49]. Since skimming a paper takes a fraction of the time required for a deep read, researchers have adopted skimming as one strategy to keep pace with the growing literature, a practice intensified by a shift to online scholarly reading [43,66]. ...
... Skimming is a particularly necessary and useful skill for scholars who read scientific papers. As the number of published papers continue to increase year over year and technology has caused a gradual move from print towards a digital medium, scholars have adapted by reading more papers while spending less time on each [43,66]. ...
Preprint
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Researchers are expected to keep up with an immense literature, yet often find it prohibitively time-consuming to do so. This paper explores how intelligent agents can help scaffold in-situ information seeking across scientific papers. Specifically, we present Scim, an AI-augmented reading interface designed to help researchers skim papers by automatically identifying, classifying, and highlighting salient sentences, organized into rhetorical facets rooted in common information needs. Using Scim as a design probe, we explore the benefits and drawbacks of imperfect AI assistance within an augmented reading interface. We found researchers used Scim in several different ways: from reading primarily in the `highlight browser' (side panel) to making multiple passes through the paper with different facets activated (e.g., focusing solely on objective and novelty in their first pass). From our study, we identify six key design recommendations and avenues for future research in augmented reading interfaces.
... O wyższej klikalności mogą także decydować umieszczone w nagłówkach dane liczbowe (por. uwagi na temat navigational reading -Liu, 2005). Nagłówki z liczbami odnotowano w GW Wrocław dziewięciokrotnie (11%), zaś w GW Rzeszów 48krotnie (30%). ...
Article
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Cel: zasadniczym celem badań było sprawdzenie, czy w obrębie serwisów regionalnych jednej grupy medialnej (Agory SA) narracja na temat Ukraińców jest spójna, czy też dostrzec można w niej jakieś odmienności. Metody badań: podstawę metodologiczną stanowiła analiza zawartości, która objęła nagłówki zapowiadające teksty o Ukraińcach w dwóch portalach regionalnych „Gazety Wyborczej” – www.wroclaw.wyborcza.pl oraz www.rzeszow.wyborcza.pl – w latach 2015–2019. Zbadano zarówno aspekty formalne, m.in. długość nagłówków, sposób ich formułowania (relacje między twierdzeniami, pytaniami i wykrzyknieniami), jak i elementy treściowe, m.in. zasadnicze funkcje spełniane przez nagłówki, środki językowe, jakie się w nich pojawiają, oraz występowanie stereotypów. Wyniki i wnioski: uzyskane wyniki wskazują na wielowymiarowy wizerunek Ukraińców kształtowany przez regionalne serwisy „Gazety Wyborczej”. Między serwisami podkarpackim i dolnośląskim dostrzeżono wyraźne różnice, przede wszystkim w samej ekspozycji tematu (wyższej na Podkarpaciu) oraz w waloryzacji Ukraińców i Polaków, wzmacnianej przywoływanymi stereotypami. Podobny był natomiast rozkład funkcji nagłówków (dominacja funkcji ekspresywnej) oraz udział nagłówków, w których wzmiankowano o ważnej osobie lub instytucji. Autorzy tekstów korzystali również ze zbliżonych środków językowych (m.in. kolokwializmów, kontrastowych zestawień, pytań retorycznych). Zakodowane w nagłówkach medialne wizerunki Ukraińców na Dolnym Śląsku i Podkarpaciu, pomimo formalnych cech wspólnych, różnią się pod zasadniczym, treściowym względem, na co wpływa prawdopodobnie specyfika wydarzeń relacjonowanych przez dziennikarzy w każdym z tych regionów. Oryginalność i wartość poznawcza: przeprowadzona analiza wypełnia lukę w badaniach nad wizerunkiem Ukraińców w regionalnych internetowych portalach informacyjnych. Wskazanie podobieństw oraz różnic, występujących w nagłówkach jednej grupy medialnej w dwóch województwach, inspirować może do dalszych, bardziej obszernych badań dotyczących lidów oraz zasadniczej treści przekazów, kształtujących medialny obraz migrantów z Ukrainy w Polsce.
... Abidin et al (2011) reported that the growth of electronic media as one of the sources of information and entertainment has been extraordinary. Liu (2005) reading habit of people in this digital era, especially young adults, had changed because they were spending more time reading digital materials than printed materials. But that does not mean printed material had been abandoned altogether, as seen in Figure 4. ...
... Another underlying principle that has been cited to support the environmental externality theory is linked to improving environmental quality. Rauf et al. (2018) and Liu (2005) contended that energy consumption negatively relates to environmental sustainability and suggested that policies that ease access to electricity, particularly electricity from renewable energy sources, could increase environmental quality (Bilgil et al. 2016). However, Li et al. (2020) found that energy consumption's effects differ in different regions: In developing countries, an increase in energy consumption is related to an increase in environmental unsustainability, while in developed countries, an increase in energy consumption is related to an increase in environmental sustainability. ...
Article
Climate change is an environmental problem that humanity will face over the next several decades. Environmental quality has always been an important component of the quality of life. The rapid rise in urbanization and energy use in China has profound environmental consequences. This study investigates the impact of energy use and urbanization on China's ecological footprint and CO 2 emissions from 1971 to 2016. The results reveal the positive relationship of China's energy use and urbanization, while international trade and capital formation are adversely associated with its CO 2 emissions and ecological footprint. Overall, energy use and urbanization deteriorate China's environmental quality, while international trade and capital formation improve it. The results of Granger causality show bidirectional causality between urbanization and ecological footprint and between ecological footprint and CO 2 emissions, while unidirectional causality runs from the ecological footprint to energy use and from international trade to the ecological footprint.
... If students tend to spend more time reading, as Krashen (1993) has pointed out, students will be able to develop reading comprehension ability, writing style, vocabulary, grammar, and spelling. One of the possible reasons for such kind of behavior can be ascribed to the fact that most students nowadays tend to spend more time watching TV or using a computer for surfing the internet for primarily entertainment purposes rather than reading a book or any other printed material (Liu, 2005;Neuman, 1982;Ramirez, 2003). ...
Article
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The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of reading habits among college-level foundation Omani students and their impact on the participants' performance in tests. The study used a qualitative and quantitative research method in which 70 participants from the foundation level were included. A survey questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data, while two college-based reading tests were used to collect quantitative data from the college-based tests. The main research question this study attempted to answer was whether foundation-level students have positive reading habits and attitudes towards books. At the end of the study, the data were analyzed quantitatively, using descriptive and inferential statistics to ascertain whether there was a correlation between positive reading habits in English and the participants' performance in an examination setting. The results indicated that positive reading habits correlated positively with the participants' test scores on two consecutive tests. Given the positive effects that emerged from the current study, the researchers would like to recommend that English reading teachers guide and encourage their learners to engage in reading as much as possible, as such habits will help them improve all aspects of literacy and succeed in achieving their educational and life goals with ease.
... Ayrıca oldukça güncel bir çalışma olan Türkiye Okuma Kültürü Araştırmaları (2019) kapsamında da dijital ekranlardan okuma sıklığının sadece yüzde 2 olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Buna karşın bilgisayar teknolojilerindeki hızlı değişime paralel olarak son on yıllarda insanların okuma kültürü ve alışkanlıklarında değişimlerin olduğu ve yeni okuma biçiminin teknoloji tabanlı okuma anlayışından yana geliştiği pek çok çalışmada ortaya konan bir gerçektir (Chauhan ve Lal, 2012;Güneş, 2010;Halme, 2011;Liu 2005;Shen, 2006;Duran ve Alevli, 2014). Eldeki araştırmada ortaya çıkan bu durum ise ekran okuma kavramının yeni bir okuma stratejisi olarak görülüp tanınmaması ile ilgili olabileceği gibi, geleneksel okuma alışkanlığının kâğıt üzerinden okuma olarak algılanmasının da bir yansıması olabilir. ...
Article
Teknolojinin kitaba izdüşümü olan e-kitap olgusu modern çağın yeni okuma biçimini oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın öncül amacı da üniversite öğrencilerinin e-kitap okuma alışkanlıkları olarak belirlenmiştir. Söz konusu amaca ulaşmak için çalışma nitel veri toplama teknikleri içerisinde yer alan, yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma evrenini, 2019-2020 öğretim yılında Kırıkkale Üniversitesinde öğrenim gören lisans öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada elde edilen veriler frekans değerleri alınarak tablolaştırılmıştır. Buna göre araştırmada, üniversite öğrencileri arasında e-kitap okuma aracına sahip olma düzeyi oldukça düşüktür. Katılımcıların büyük çoğunluğu okumalarını cep telefonu üzerinden gerçekleştirmektedirler. Buna karşın basılı kitaplar halen en çok tercih edilen okuma araçları olarak yerini korumaktadır. Yine katılımcıların büyük çoğunluğunun e-kitap ya da bilgisayar üzerinden okumalarını kısa aralıklarla yaptıkları ve baştan sona bir kitabı okumadıkları tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca e-kitabın gözü ve bedeni yorması gibi nedenlerle tercih edilmediği de belirlemeler arasındadır.
... Hun ogen springen heen en weer over titels, samenvattingen, tussenkopjes en alinea's, in plaats van zich regel voor regel van het begin naar het einde te bewegen. Bovendien klikken ze veelvuldig op hyperlinks en maken ze gebruik van zoek machines, daarmee uitstapjes makend buiten de tekst (Dyson en Haselgrove, 2000;Holmqvist et al., 2003;Liu, 2005;Bird, 2006;Coiro en Dobler, 2007). ...
Chapter
In dit artikel wordt vanuit literatuuronderzoek beschreven dat leraren leerlingen kunnen motiveren voor lezen door aandacht te besteden aan de factoren persoonlijke intrinsieke motivatie, sociale interactie, vertrouwen in eigen leesvaardigheid en boekenaanbod. De leraaractiviteiten die samengaan met deze factoren zijn niet vanzelfsprekend op Nederlandse basisscholen terug te vinden. Dikwijls worden vooral leestechniek en methodisch werken benadrukt. Belangrijk voor de aandacht die leraren besteden aan het motiveren van hun leerlingen voor lezen is de eigen leesmotivatie. Uit onderzoek onder 60 studenten van de master-opleiding Special Educational Needs (SEN) van de Hogeschool Windesheim te Zwolle, allen leraar, blijkt dat er te weinig aandacht is voor motiverende werkvormen in groep 4 tot en met 8. Wel is het zo dat leraren die zelf plezier hebben in lezen en ook daadwerkelijk lezen, meer aandacht besteden aan werkvormen die de leesmotivatie stimuleren dan leraren die zelf niet lezen. Het is daarbij opvallend dat oudere leraren meer lezen en ook eerder aandacht besteden aan motiverende werkvormen. Een belangrijk verband wordt gevonden met vakliteratuur. Leraren die vakliteratuur lezen, passen eerder motiverende werkvormen toe dan leraren die dat niet doen. Dit onderzoek maakt verder duidelijk dat gebruikers van een methode voor voortgezet technisch lezen (65 %) niet vaker motiverende werkvormen gebruiken dan leraren die een dergelijke methode niet gebruiken.
... More research are conducted to determine or create more reading programs and intervention approaches due to the acknowledgement that effective reading is pivotal in this digital era since the advent of technology and the Internet are influencing readers' reading habits and attitude over the years (Cho, 2013;Jamshidifarsani et al., 2019;Karim & Hasan, 2006). Numerous research in literacy indicate that not only reading behaviors but readers' profiles are also changing due to the impact of digital media and the growth of easily accessible digital information as well as the increasing amount of time people are spending reading online (Baba & Affendi, 2020;Cho, 2013;Liu, 2005;Putro & Lee, 2017). In the same vein, Coiro (2011) highlighted that new theories of literacy encompassing both online and offline reading comprehension may be essential to more precisely define and appreciate the complexities of the reading phenomena where readers read via both platforms. ...
... Indeed, chronic media multitasking in general has been associated with impairments and disruptive changes in the functioning of working memory and long-term memory (Uncapher, Thieu, & Wagner, 2016). Reading information online also seems to encourage browsing and scanning behaviors, which can lead to shallower levels of encoding (Liu, 2005). Ultimately, instructors may need to adapt to a world full of digital distractions to figure out the best ways to facilitate student learning. ...
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Digital technologies have changed the everyday use of human memory. When information is saved or made readily available online, there is less need to encode or maintain access to that information within the biological structures of memory. People increasingly depend on the Internet and various digital devices to learn and remember, but the implications and consequences of this dependence remain largely unknown. The present chapter provides an overview of research to date on memory in the digital age. It focuses in particular on issues related to transactive memory, cognitive offloading, photo taking, social media use, and learning in the classroom.
... 10,11 This means that text-based information may not be effectively disseminated using the Internet. 12,13 Consequently, computer-tailored intervention content may not be as effective as it could be when the personalized advice is not read, processed, and actioned as intended. ...
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Purpose: This study examined the usage, acceptability, usability, perceived usefulness, and satisfaction of a web-based video-tailored physical activity (PA) intervention (“TaylorActive”) in adults. Methods: In 2013–2014, 501 Australian adults aged 18+ years were randomized into a video-tailored intervention, text-tailored intervention, or control group. Over 3 months, the intervention groups received access to 8 sessions of personally tailored PA advice delivered via the TaylorActive website. Only the delivery method differed between the intervention groups: video-tailored vs. text-tailored. Google Analytics and telephone surveys conducted at post intervention (3 months) were used to assess intervention usage, acceptability, usability, perceived usefulness, and satisfaction. Quantitative and qualitative process data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. Results: Of 501 recruited adults, 259 completed the 3 months post-intervention survey (52% retention). Overall, usage of the TaylorActive website with respect to number of website visits, intervention sessions, and action plans completed was modest in both the video-tailored (7.6 ± 7.2 visits, mean ± SD) and text-tailored (7.3 ± 5.4 visits) groups with no significant between-group differences. The majority of participants in all groups used the TaylorActive website less than once in 2 weeks (66.7% video-tailored, 62.7% text-tailored, 87.5% control; p < 0.001). Acceptability was rated mostly high in all groups and, in some instances, significantly higher in the intervention groups compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Usability was also rated high; mean Systems Usability Scores (SUS) were 77.3 (video-tailored), 75.7 (text-tailored), and 74.1 (control) with no significant between-group differences. Perceived usefulness of the TaylorActive intervention was low, though mostly rated higher in the intervention groups compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Satisfaction with the TaylorActive website was mixed. Participants in both intervention groups liked its ease of use, personalized feedback, and tracking of progress, but also found completing action plans and survey questions for each session repetitive and tedious. Conclusion: Providing personally tailored PA advice on its own (either through video or text) is likely insufficient to ensure good retention, usage, perceived usefulness, and satisfaction with a web-based PA intervention. Strategies to address this may include the incorporation of additional intervention components such as activity trackers, social interactions, gamification, as well as the use of advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies to allow more personalized dialogue with participants.
... Researches in the sphere of digital reading show the process of reading from the screen is different from reading from a sheet. It is noted the leading strategies for reading from the screen are viewing, scanning, keyword search (Liu, 2005), in addition, additional mechanisms are connected: information search and verification strategies, as well as assessments of the relevance and reliability of the found information (Green et al., 2010;Santana et al., 2011). Changing screen reading strategies certainly affects not only the process itself, but also the reading results. ...
... Studies comparing offline to screen-based reading have concluded that screen-based reading promotes skimming, keyword spotting, and other forms of fragmented reading which in turn contributes to losses in sustained attention. 20 The Disconnect complicates such a characterization of screen-based reading by forcing its readers to transform their screen into an offline device. By removing the distractions that a connection to the internet entails, The Disconnect attempts to fuse an offline reading experience with a digital medium to create an ideal screen-based space where attention can be sustained and oriented for possible pedagogical purposes. ...
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It is increasingly difficult to imagine digital experiences beyond the potential of data analytics and government or corporate surveillance. One possible means to evade surveillance is to avoid or opt-out of digital technologies, yet such acts of disconnection ignore the increasing degree to which the internet has become an essential infrastructure for people's day-today lives. In this paper, I contend that users do not have to retreat from digital technologies to avoid surveillance by focusing on The Disconnect magazine as a digital technology that provides a disconnective experience. The Disconnect is a hybrid digital/offline magazine that forces its readers to disconnect their device from the internet to access the magazine content. Using Ulises Ali Mejias' theory of paranodality and a mix of the walkthrough method and a platform studies approach, I analyse The Disconnect as a paranodal or off-the-network technology that inoculates its readers from surveillance practices during the period of media consumption. By forcing its readers offline, I argue The Disconnect creates a quiet and unobservable space on the edge of the digital network that escapes the reach of client-side surveillance programs such as Google Analytics, that in turn enhances readers' intellectual privacy and autonomy. Moreover, by fusing an offline experience with a digital medium, The Disconnect demonstrates that digital technologies are not synonymous with ubiquitous surveillance.
... The structure of the text in these posters, however, is limited compared to the physical posters. The number of words in these digital posters is limited, and that can be attributed to the limited attention span online (Liu 2005) besides the restricted space within the frame of an image. To appeal to young supporters and create new supporters, these digital posters need to overcome the problem of attention deficit among users with little role for text as a mode of communication and emphasis on standard party symbols for ready identification and visually dramatic scenes. ...
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This article examines the effects of WhatsApp as a mode of dissemination of political posters. It found that platform affordances that control the crafting and dissemination of political messages open up the possibility of vague political messaging by conforming to the social media’s visual culture and limit the spread of these messages, restricting the ability to organically gather support for a political cause. Despite the growing appeal of social media in political campaigns, social media messages when used by individuals and small, independent social media groups, who are not a part of a larger, organized political party or movement, have little influence on electoral decisions of voters about a political cause that faces weak public support. This was discussed in the context of electoral results of the Leftist political party in India in 2019 national elections. The paper then contributes to our understanding of the extent of the influence of social media platforms on political media messages.
... While these sources are valuable, they are less comprehensive than social psychology courses or FAE-specific interventions because they are often constrained by word limits, are introductory by design, and usually involve no interactive component or assessment. Online FAE passages may also be less effective precisely because they are online passages: People tend to scan and read selectively when reading online text (Liu, 2005), and Internet environments facilitate shallow learning and increased distractibility via multitasking (Loh & Kanai, 2016). ...
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Research suggests that a variety of educational interventions can be effective for reducing cognitive biases such as the fundamental attribution error (FAE). Specifically, comprehensive FAE education, such as social psychology instruction or targeted training interventions, can reduce the FAE. However, most non-experts in social psychology and members of the public are unlikely to receive such comprehensive FAE education. Instead, they would likely learn about the FAE through informal means outside of educational settings, such as through reading on the Internet. In the current study, we tested whether reading a short and accessible educational passage was effective in reducing the FAE in a between-subjects experiment. Two-hundred forty-four adults from the Reddit community r/SampleSize were randomly assigned to read an online educational passage describing the FAE (treatment) or a biology passage (control) before completing a writer attitude attribution task. Preregistered analyses indicated that participants who read the educational passage self-reported greater understanding of the FAE. However, participants committed the FAE, regardless of whether they read the educational passage. Exploratory analyses suggested that reading the educational passage did not increase perceived FAE understanding for participants with pre-existing FAE knowledge. Additionally, when compared to undergraduate students from previous FAE research, participants who read the educational passage reported lower perceived FAE understanding than undergraduate social psychology students but not general education students. We discuss recommendations for science communicators and future research, including designing enriching FAE materials and assessing FAE reductions in context of real-world behavioral changes.
... All ages are less likely to read extensively in the hypertext environment because they cannot read profoundly. According to some academics, the proliferation of electronic media may negatively impact the capacity to read extensively and maintain a long-term reading habit (Liu, 2005: Ngugi & Mberia, 2014. Human capital creation and the growth of knowledge and skills have been claimed to be linked to education as a bridge to the future, an agent for the construction of human capital (Adegbesan, 2011). ...
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The library’s goal is to promote the culture of reading. Not only does the library promote the culture of reading, but also it facilitates access to books for those who love reading. Thus, through the library, its visitors can enjoy not only their lives, but also it allows them to spend their time intellectually. This program has been designed to help people discover the joy of the written word. The primary goal of fostering a love of reading among library patrons is to make it an enjoyable and rewarding pastime. As a result, it is critical to raise awareness about the value of reading for pleasure rather than only learning material for tests and encourage students to make reading a habit. Library Week, which is held each year during the academic session in high school, is one of the ways that libraries can help spread the word about the importance of reading and healthy reading culture. The relevant literature has been assessed in light of the topic by searching both published and unpublished relevant research works. Tylor and Francis Group, ERIC, Emerald, Elsevier, LISA, LISTA, ProQuest Research papers, and Wiley Online Library are addressed as relevant databases. The current study’s findings may also aid in better planning school library services and dealing with the required, complicated, and ever-increasing requirements for book selection, acquisition, and integration. The findings are also aid in the modification and enhancement of educational policy.
... Several studies demonstrated that reading for pleasure has positive effects on the acquisition of skills related to written expression and reading comprehension [1], [17], [18], [19], and also a positive impact on second language acquisition [20] and on learning outcomes [21], [22]. [23] and [24] have pointed out that the existence of the digital media has significantly influenced the ways in which people read in our contemporary context. We have to bear in mind that digital technologies are used worldwide. ...
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In this study we discuss the value of videos editing designed to enhance reading comprehension in students from the Faculty of Teacher Training of the University of Valencia. First, we present the role of reading for pleasure by summarizing research findings related with multimedia and reading comprehension. In the following part, we describe the methodology with 80 students from 3 different grades which participate in our study. Our results show the positive impact of creating videos in understanding the value of visual literacy in the classroom and the important role of reading for pleasure. Finally, we present the lack of mechanisms of digital video for some students without background knowledge in digital literacy and problem solving in technology.
... We used a methodthe Abortion Service Information Appraisal Tool (ASIAT) -to gather web-based information objects. ASIAT was developed by the lead author in a previous study to mimic online health service information seeking behaviours; which is based on pre-existing implements for assessing online health information seeking (Best et al., 2013;Duffy et al., 2019;Liu, 2005;Sillence et al., 2007). As part of the ASIAT process, we searched for abortion service information webpages on two popular search engines (Google and Bing) using eight search terms in July 2020 from an Irish IP address. ...
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Background Following legal reform, grounds for abortion access were expanded significantly in the Republic of Ireland in 2019. Information is a critical factor in ensuring abortion access to health care is timely, efficient, and equitable. In 2020, an implementation study was conducted to examine barriers and facilitators to abortion care. Method The article applies Patient Journey Analysis (PJA), a holistic patient-centred analytic approach to health services research, to the role of information in the abortion care pathway, by focusing on how systems facilitate or inhibit individuals transitions between key interfaces in health. Specifically we focus on the interfaces between: the ‘public’ sphere and ‘point of entry’; ‘point of entry’ and primary care; and primary and secondary care. Materials The paper draws on data from an extensive mixed-method study. A tool for assessing online abortion service information (ASIAT), desktop research of information objects, and qualitative data relating to informational barriers and facilitators from in-depth interviews with providers, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and service users informed the analysis. Results Establishing and promoting a state-run abortion information hotline (MyOptions) facilitates patient journeys at the public sphere/‘point of entry’ and ‘point of entry’/primary care interface. Provider communication and well-resourced, clinician-led information handover facilitate patient journeys at the primary/secondary care interface. Patient journey barriers at public sphere/‘point of entry’ are poor promotion of MyOptions and disinformation. Non-referral is the main barrier at ‘point of entry’/primary care interface. Information handover systems are the main barrier at primary/secondary care interface. Applications The article identifies examples of good practice in information strategy, as well as key areas for development, to ensure patient journeys to abortion are equitable, seamless, and timely.
... To track eye-movements, several variables on pre-defined areas of interests (AOIs) can determine whether reading behaviour is intentional (i.e., reading that follows the logical sequence of fixations and saccades throughout the source), or unintentional (i.e., presented as a range of fragmented fixation stimuli and saccades order) (Gere et al., 2017). The latter typically seen as unordered saccade movements where a person scans the page looking for options or hooks (i.e., linguistic signs or metaphors) to meet a need (such as task fulfilment) within a given context (Schmar-Dobler, 2003;Liu, 2005;Duggan and Payne, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose. To explore the relationship between participants’ eye fixations (a measure of attention) and durations (a measure of concentration) on Areas of Interest within a range of online articles and their levels of information discernment (a sub-process of information literacy characterising how participants make judgements about information). Methodology. Eye-tracking equipment was used as a proxy measure for reading behaviour by recording eye-fixations, dwell times and regressions in males aged 18-24 (n=48). Participants’ level of information discernment was determined using a quantitative questionnaire. Findings. Data indicates a relationship between participants’ level of information discernment and their viewing behaviours within the articles’ Area of Interest. Those who scored highly on an information discernment questionnaire tended to interrogate the online article in a structured and linear way. Those with high-level information discernment are more likely to pay attention to textual and graphical information than those exhibiting low-level information discernment. Conversely, participants with low-level information discernment indicated a lack of curiosity by not interrogating all of the article. They were unsystematic in their saccadic movements spending significantly longer viewing irrelevant areas. Social implications. The most profound consequence is that those with low-level information discernment, through a lack of curiosity in particular, could base health, workplace, political or everyday decisions on sub-optimal engagement with, and comprehension of information or misinformation (such as fake news). Originality/value. Ground-breaking analysis of the relationship between a persons’ self-reported level of information literacy (information discernment specifically) and objective measures of reading behaviour. Keywords: Information literacy, information behaviour, digital literacy, eye, tracking, information discernment, misinformation. seductive details.
... A variety of digital reading devices have been created to aid in the effective reading of electronic materials. Print-based reading, on the other hand, continues to dominate throughout the world, resulting in increased paper consumption [23][24][25] . ...
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This study examined the reading habits among Research scholars and Postgraduate (PG) students in Pondicherry University. Out of the 13 schools of Pondicherry University, 6 schools were selected for the study based on simple random sampling. The purposes of using the various types of reading materials, the accessibility and the use of the Internet and online reading materials and the problems faced while reading were looked at in this study. The survey method and questionnaire tool are used in conducting this study. The findings highlighted some of the factors related to reading habits and interest in Pondicherry University. The study is expected to stimulate further in-depth studies that may help improve reading habits and interests and increase the value of the Central library of Pondicherry University. The findings also revealed that their reading habits changed after joining the university. Most respondents enjoy reading for pleasure and read 2-3 hours during weekends and 4-6 hours during exam days, preferably during the night. While reading, they took small breaks and their break time varied from 5-20 minutes. The majority of them are reading to gain knowledge, preparing for exams. Most of them also confirmed that their reading certainly impacted their academic performance and helped in their vocabulary, learning new facts, and gaining more knowledge. It is observed that the majority of the Research Scholars and PG Students stated the main reasons that are negatively affecting their reading habits is because of their busy schedule of classes. The majority of the respondents indicated that due to lack of concentration, they are not able to read well.
... A variety of digital reading devices have been created to aid in the effective reading of electronic materials. Print-based reading, on the other hand, continues to dominate throughout the world, resulting in increased paper consumption [23][24][25] . ...
Article
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This study examined the reading habits among Research scholars and Postgraduate (PG) students in Pondicherry University. Out of the 13 schools of Pondicherry University, 6 schools were selected for the study based on simple random sampling. The purposes of using the various types of reading materials, the accessibility and the use of the Internet and online reading materials and the problems faced while reading were looked at in this study. The survey method and questionnaire tool are used in conducting this study. The findings highlighted some of the factors related to reading habits and interest in Pondicherry University. The study is expected to stimulate further in-depth studies that may help improve reading habits and interests and increase the value of the Central library of Pondicherry University. The findings also revealed that their reading habits changed after joining the university. Most respondents enjoy reading for pleasure and read 2-3 hours during weekends and 4-6 hours during exam days, preferably during the night. While reading, they took small breaks and their break time varied from 5-20 minutes. The majority of them are reading to gain knowledge, preparing for exams. Most of them also confirmed that their reading certainly impacted their academic performance and helped in their vocabulary, learning new facts, and gaining more knowledge. It is observed that the majority of the Research Scholars and PG Students stated the main reasons that are negatively affecting their reading habits is because of their busy schedule of classes. The majority of the respondents indicated that due to lack of concentration, they are not able to read well.
... In addition to the three variants mentioned above, the DT can be categorized into four types: DT prototype (DTP) [43], DT instance (DTI) [44], DT aggregation (DTA) [45], and DT environment (DTE) [44][45][46]. Figures 3 and 4 represent the architecture of DT types and DT environment, respectively. The DTP represents a type of DT framework that leverages all the information from the physical system, which is necessary to reproduce the system in the physical world. ...
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The Internet of Things (IoT) connects massive smart devices to collect big data and carry out the monitoring and control of numerous things in cyber-physical systems (CPS). By leveraging machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques to analyze the collected data, physical systems can be monitored and controlled effectively. Along with the development of IoT and data analysis technologies, a number of CPS (smart grid, smart transportation, smart manufacturing, smart cities, etc.) adopt IoT and data analysis technologies to improve their performance and operations. Nonetheless, directly manipulating or updating the real system has inherent risks. Thus, creating a digital clone of a real physical system, denoted as a Digital Twin (DT), is a viable strategy. Generally speaking, a DT is a data-driven software and hardware emulation platform, which is a cyber replica of physical systems. Meanwhile, a DT describes a specific physical system and tends to achieve the functions and use cases of physical systems. Since DT is a complex digital system, finding a way to effectively represent a variety of things in timely and efficient manner poses numerous challenges to the networking, computing, and data analytics for IoT. Furthermore, the design of a DT for IoT systems must consider numerous exceptional requirements (e.g., latency, reliability, safety, scalability, security, and privacy). To address such challenges, the thoughtful design of DTs offers opportunities for novel and interdisciplinary research efforts. To address the aforementioned problems and issues, in this paper, we first review the architectures of DTs, data representation, and communication protocols. We then review existing efforts on applying DT into IoT data-driven smart systems, including the smart grid, smart transportation, smart manufacturing, and smart cities. Further, we summarize the existing challenges from CPS, data science, optimization, and security and privacy perspectives. Finally, we outline possible future research directions from the perspectives of performance, new DT-driven services, model and learning, and security and privacy.
... The majority of existing work, however, focuses on the aggregated, collective level, leaving open the question of whether there is a general accelerating trend on the individual (with a few exceptions, like surveys that point to a reduction in sustained attention in reading behaviour (32)). ...
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The global public sphere has changed dramatically over the past decades: a significant part of public discourse now takes place on algorithmically driven platforms owned by a handful of private companies. Despite its growing importance, there is scant large-scale academic research on the long-term evolution of user behaviour on these platforms, because the data are often proprietary to the platforms. Here, we evaluate the individual behaviour of 600,000 Twitter users between 2012 and 2019 and find empirical evidence for an acceleration of the way Twitter is used on an individual level. This manifests itself in the fact that cohorts of Twitter users behave differently depending on when they joined the platform. Behaviour within a cohort is relatively consistent over time and characterised by strong internal interactions, but over time behaviour from cohort to cohort shifts towards increased activity. Specifically, we measure this in terms of more tweets per user over time, denser interactions with others via retweets, and shorter content horizons, expressed as an individual's decaying autocorrelation of topics over time. Our observations are explained by a growing proportion of active users who not only tweet more actively but also elicit more retweets. These behaviours suggest a collective contribution to an increased flow of information through each cohort's news feed -- an increase that potentially depletes available collective attention over time. Our findings complement recent, empirical work on social acceleration, which has been largely agnostic about individual user activity.
... Studies found that students' interest increased with digital texts, and they spent more time on them due to easier accessibility through electronic devices and practicality purposes (Baharuddin & Hashim, 2020;Ding et al., 2021). Liu (2005) added that students were attracted to browse through an array of information on the Internet, skim through a variety of texts and download their favourites at the same time. With a purposeful learning attitude, even the use of social networking services on their smartphones alone encouraged EFL students to learn English in academic and non-academic settings, and this improved their language proficiencies due to the interactive environment (Hamat & Hassan, 2019;Vikneswaran & Krish, 2016). ...
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Since the introduction of the Internet and smartphones, there has been a shift in literacy patterns to digital texts. This change affects students' reading habits. For EFL students in Malaysia, the influence of digital texts is significant for their reading skills because the texts encountered on their smartphones are primarily in English. Hence, the way those texts are handled is slightly different from those in their L1. This is a qualitative case study involving thematic analysis, which investigates the digital reading habits of 12 Malaysian pre-university students on smartphones through observations of their screen recordings and open-ended interviews. The aim was to examine their pre-reading while reading, and post-reading habits while handling texts on smartphones and the implications on their L2 reading skills. Findings revealed that students could read in any environment, and the texts usually involved messages, web articles, and feeds from social networking applications. The selection of texts depended on recommendations and interests, but lengthy texts were generally avoided. Nevertheless, texts with appealing topics were attempted using assistive tools. Students also tended to navigate from one text to another rather quickly and used skimming and scanning methods while reading. To manage distractions, students used designated smartphone applications.
Chapter
Im 2. Kapitel werden die Vor- und Nachteile digitaler Medien im schulischen Kontext thematisiert. Sie erhalten Einblicke in die aktuelle Studienlage sowie in Begriffe wie BYOD, das 4K-Modell und „Blended Learning“. Es werden zudem positive Beispiele der Integration digitaler Medien im Unterricht aufgezeigt.
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The chapter explores the impact of artificial intelligence on art creation and on the manners in which AI art challenges our understanding of beauty and artistic value.
Article
Clinical relevance: Reversed-contrast testing is easy to perform via electronic devices and may improve reading performance and the quality of life of most glaucoma patients. Background: Electronic devices are becoming increasing popularity and most devices have easily adjustable contrast settings. This study investigated near vision acuity and preference between the standard visual acuity chart (black text on white background) and a reversed-contrast chart (white text on black background) in glaucoma patients with decreasing contrast sensitivity. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 177 eyes of 177 patients from a single glaucoma clinic. The better eye of primary glaucoma patients (visual acuity of 6/20 or better) was evaluated. Patients with any other condition affecting visual acuity or reading performance were excluded. Near visual acuity was measured using a device with an anti-glare screen at 40 cm distance for both standard and reversed-contrast charts. Results: Glaucoma patients had a significantly better average near visual acuity using the reversed-contrast chart than using the standard chart (median best-corrected visual acuity, LogMAR = 0.12; interquartile range = 0.18 vs median best-corrected visual acuity, LogMAR = 0.2; interquartile range = 0.26; respectively; P < 0.01), with more prominent differences in the advanced glaucoma group (median best-corrected visual acuity of reversed contrast chart: median best-corrected visual acuity of standard chart = 0.12:0.2, 0.12:0.13, and 0.18:0.22 in the early, moderate, and severe groups, respectively, P < 0.01 in early and severe group and P = 0.02 in moderate group). One hundred and nine (109) out of 177 patients (61.58%) preferred the reversed contrast version. Conclusion: Reversed contrast materials may improve the reading performance and quality of life of patients with glaucoma, especially those with severe disease.
Article
La lectura como actividad cultural y cognitiva está presente en los procesos académicos de niños y jóvenes de todos los niveles educativos, en particular, en la modalidad blended-learning (b-l). El dominio exigido para la lectura en impreso o digital requiere de un proceso de formación y trabajo escolar teórico-práctico orientado por los docentes, pues los modos de leer y aproximarse de forma efectiva a los textos no son inherentes al ser humano, de ahí la necesidad de aprenderlos. Aplicando el método de Revisión Sistemática de la Literatura (RSL) en un corpus documental de 43 investigaciones realizadas entre el 2012 y el 2018, este artículo de revisión expone algunas tendencias y características relacionadas con la lectura y su uso digital en ambientes b-l. Entre los resultados se destacan la incidencia de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) en las maneras como los escolares leen y acceden a la información, así como su papel mediador en el aprendizaje y la interacción del lector con el texto. Sin embargo, el desarrollo de competencias lectoras no se logra como consecuencia directa de la inclusión de recursos tecnológicos en el ambiente b-l, razón por la cual se requiere ampliar el espectro de investigación, concretamente, en la educación primaria.
Article
This research investigates how aliterate consumers process drug risk information. An experimental approach and 398 participants were employed to assess the effects of manipulating drug risk presentation format. When drug risk information is presented in paragraph form, highly consumer aliterate individuals display lower levels of drug risk comprehension and different levels of perceived drug risk than their less-consumer aliterate peers. Providing the same information in a bullet format attenuated consumer aliteracy driven differences in comprehension and eliminated differences in perceived drug risk. These results hold important ethical implications regarding how risk information is disclosed in direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising.
Chapter
Chapter 2 focuses on deception as a communicative behavior and establishes, in broad strokes, what deceptive strategies can be used by deceivers and mass disinformers, and what motivates deceptive communication. We consider definitions of deception and typological distinctions, assuming some deceptive strategies have found their way into the digital realm. What do people deceive about? Why can digital media users be susceptible to mis- and disinformation? Interpersonal social psychology and communication research on deception informs us about characteristics, content, and language of deceit that can be identified with analytical thinking or by automated means. Fact-checking and content moderation are typical responses to mis- and disinformation. Other coordinated countermeasures include preemptive inoculation, warning labeling, and literacy campaigns.
Research Proposal
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For a variety of reasons, printed newspapers end up being the last resort for obtaining information, and reading culture, as well as the cost of printed newspapers, are all factors. Newspapers have been found to be a useful source of information for historians and linguists in the past, but their potential is not fully realized due to limitations in access to newspaper collections and difficulties in storing and searching for information from newspaper content. Evidently, there are still many obstacles to overcome in terms of maintaining, making accessible, and improving the usability of printed newspapers in order to ensure that they are well-known and used for future generations. The goal of this study is to figure out why UiTM Shah Alam Mass Communication students don't read printed newspapers. This study was carried out utilizing a quantitative method that takes into account the evaluation of the factors under discussion. As a result, the data was gathered utilizing a survey research approach in which a questionnaire was distributed to Mass Communication students in the faculty. The survey research method was chosen because it provides for the easy collecting of a large amount of data from a diverse group of people.
Article
Objectives To report on the rates of misinterpretation, confusion, and attribution of the anhedonia question in the PHQ-4 and Whooley questions by pregnant women. Background The NICE Perinatal Mental Health guidelines recommend the use of the anhedonia question for depression screening, yet evidence suggests it may be misinterpreted or not be related to mood. Method Women attending a public hospital’s antenatal clinic, communicating in English as their language of choice, completed either the PHQ-4 or the Whooley questions. Following comments to general evaluation questions in the first sample, women were asked a targeted anhedonia interpretation question, an anhedonia attribution question, and an ease of understanding question (PHQ-4: N = 37–119; Whooley: N = 31–100). Results Across the PHQ-4 and Whooley formats around 15% of participants completely misinterpreted the anhedonia question, with a further 17% finding it difficult to understand. Around two-thirds of those experiencing the symptom said it was due to normal symptoms of pregnancy, and not related to their mood. In the PHQ-4 format, which included all three questions, 48% of the women had one or more of these issues. While CALD women appear to have greater difficulty understanding the question, there were no meaningful associations with whether English was spoken at home. Conclusion Almost half of the women incorrectly interpreted the anhedonia question, or said that it was confusing, or that it did not reflect low mood. These data indicate that the anhedonia question should not be used in screening women in the antenatal period, whether in the PHQ-4 or Whooley formats.
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study is to use web serer logs in analyzing the changes of user behavior in reading online news, in terms of desktop and mobile users. Advances in mobile technology and social media have paved the way for online news consumption to evolve. There is an absence of research into the changes of user behavior in terms of desktop versus mobile users, particularly by analyzing the server logs. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the authors investigate the evolution of user behavior using logs from the Malaysian newspaper Berita Harian Online in April 2012 and April 2017. Web usage mining techniques were used for pre-processing the logs and identifying user sessions. A Markov model is used to analyze navigation flows, and association rule mining is used to analyze user behavior within sessions. Findings It was found that page accesses have increased tremendously, particularly from Android phones, and about half of the requests in 2017 are referred from Facebook. Navigation flow between the main page, articles and section pages has changed from 2012 to 2017; while most users started navigation with the main page in 2012, readers often started with an article in 2017. Based on association rules, National and Sports are the most frequent section pages in 2012 and 2017 for desktop and mobile. However, based on the lift and conviction, these two sections are not read together in the same session as frequently as might be expected. Other less popular items have higher probability of being read together in a session. Research limitations/implications The localized data set is from Berita Harian Online ; although unique to this particular newspaper, the findings and the methodology for investigating user behavior can be applied to other online news. On another note, the data set could be extended to be more than a month. Although initially data for the year 2012 was collected, unfortunately only the data for April 2012 is complete. Other months have missing days. Therefore, to make an impartial comparison for the evolution of user behavior in five years, the Web server logs for April 2017 were used. Originality/value The user behavior in 2012 and 2017 was compared using association rules and Markov flow. Different from existing studies analyzing online newspaper Web server logs, this paper uniquely investigates changes in user behavior as a result of mobile phones becoming a mainstream technology for accessing the Web.
Article
Environmentalists and scientists are agreed that the rapid growth of the global economy and human activities has become the reason for the environmental deterioration. The typical energy resources like fossil fuels are considered ecological devastation factors. This research investigates the relationship between a sustainable environment and economic growth in the European and Central Asian Countries by using yearly data series from 1971 to 2016. The ARDL approach is used to determine the short and long-run relationship among the selected set of variables. The CO2 emission represents environmental sustainability while energy consumption, personal remittances, GDP, and FDI are independent variables and archetypal of economic growth. The CO2 emission is the Granger cause of GDP while energy consumption and FDI Granger cause CO2 emission. The results confirm long and short-run relationships among variables. Conclusively, a significant negative relationship for the long run and a positive relationship for the short-run between CO2 emission and GDP authorizes the worsening of environmental sustainability is because of economic growth for a longer term. By analyzing data series and determining their impact on the environment, this research suggested that the adaptation of the green resource is necessary for the individual sector of the economy sooner rather than later to maintain the environment for the living being. This research will be a healthy contribution to the discussion of green growth and help policymakers establish the normative ground for economic sectors to contribute to environmental sustainability.
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For success in education and life in our informationally saturated digital society, one must be able to select and interpret digital texts of different genres, choose optimal ways of interacting with these texts, and extract and assess information from them. Contemporary education specialists believe that skills of working with digital texts are an integral part of reading literacy; their publications model successful results of interacting with digital texts. Nevertheless, the means of attaining these results remains a very important and topical question for the education system. What strategies allow one to interact with digital texts effectively? How should one teach these strategies to contemporary schoolchildren? The present article aims to identify and classify metacognitive strategies used by competent Russian-speaking lower secondary students for performing learning assignments based on digital texts. It is based on the analysis of think-aloud protocols and data from the online monitoring of readers’ activities on the screen. The study describes and analyzes seven groups of digital reading strategies. The results contribute to basic knowledge about the processes at the root of effective digital reading and hence of the development of approaches to teaching and assessing reading literacy in the digital age.
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Scholarly communication is undergoing transformation under the confluence of many forces. The purpose of this article is to explore trends in transforming scholarly publishing and their implications. It examines how collaboration and volume of information production were changed over the past century. It also explores how older documents are used under today’s network environment where new information is easily accessible. Understanding these trends would help us design more effective electronic scholarly publishing systems and digital libraries, and serve the needs of scholars more responsively.
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This is a paper at the intersection of two topics now receiving considerable attention. The question of reading - of what it is to read and how reading has changed over time - has been attracting some interest in recent days, no doubt due in part to the very visible transformation of technology now under way. To a lesser but still substantial extent, the topic of human attention is also the subject of increasing discussion. There is growing awareness or attention as a highly limited resource, stemming in part from the realization that an abundance of information, good though it is in many ways, is also a tax on our attention. This paper examines current assumptions about what it means (or will mean) to read digital documents and to read 'in' digital libraries. It suggests that current work in digital library design and development is participating in a general societal trend toward shallower, more fragmented, and less concentrated reading and, by calling attention to this phenomenon, offers an opportunity to question this movement.
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The article focuses on the evolution of paperless office as an inevitable result of technology advances. The introduction of new technologies has often stimulated dynamic interactions between old and new. New technologies are commonly misperceived as total replacements for old ones, when in fact the introduction of a new technology can stimulate a synergy between old and new. Electronic media and printed media complement, and in some ways even reinforce each other. Today, paper remains the most popular document medium because of its credibility, tangibility, and ease of use, portability and compatibility with all imaging devices, such as facsimile units, copiers, printers, and scanners. Despite the enormous popularity of computers and personal digital assistants, along with the improvements in screen technology, mobile computing technology and navigational and input tools, paper usage in the U.S. continues to increase. While paper will not become obsolete any time soon, a shift is occurring in how it is being used.
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Reasons for lack of trust in digital storage of information are discussed. Five such reasons are Inaccessibility, Lack of tangibility, Fear of alteration, Short life of preservation media, and Improper security and lack of privacy. The similarities between currency and paper documents and the dissimilarity of digital information with currency are also elaborated. Although electronic storage is economical and convenient but to realize the full benefits of electronic storage trust on electronic storage has to be developed.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Cornell University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 92-96). Photocopy of typescript.
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Hypertext has been promoted as a vehicle that will change literary reading, especially through its recovery of images, supposed to be suppressed by print, and through the choice offered to the reader by links. Evidence from empirical studies of reading, however, suggests that these aspects of hypertext may disrupt reading. In a study of readers who read either a simulated literary hypertext or the same text in linear form, we found a range of significant differences: these suggest that hypertext discourages the absorbed and reflective mode that characterizes literary reading.
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Obra que analiza las propiedades, ventajas, reacciones y significados que ofrece la narrativa interactiva frente a la narrativa lineal para entender cómo las historias median nuestra forma de pensar el mundo.
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Readers annotate paper books as a routine part of their engagement with the materials; it is a useful practice, manifested through a wide variety of markings made in service of very different purposes. This paper examines the practice of annotation in a particular situation: the markings students make in university-level textbooks. The study focuses on the form and function of these annotations, and their status within a community of fellow textbook readers. Using this study as a basis, I discuss issues and implications for the design of annotation tools for a digital library setting.
Electronic literacy in school and home: a look into the future
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Text demands respect on the web
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Endangered Minds: Why Our Children Don't Think
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Reading habits: 50 years of research on reading and threats to reading: cultural foundations
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Electronic journals: what do users think of them?
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Eye-tracking study conducted by the Poynter Institute and Stanford University
  • Poynter Institute
Reading habits: 50 years of research on reading and threats to reading: cultural foundations Hypertext: The Convergence of Technology and Contemporary Critical Theory
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Information Payoff Electronic literacy in school and home: a look into the future
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The places of books in the age of electronic production Future Libraries A comparison of reading paper and on-line documents
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