Article

Did You See the Unicycling Clown? Inattentional Blindness while Walking and Talking on a Cell Phone

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

We investigated the effects of divided attention during walking. Individuals were classified based on whether they were walking while talking on a cell phone, listening to an MP3 player, walking without any electronics, or walking in a pair. In the first study, we found that cell phone users walked more slowly, changed directions more frequently, and were less likely to acknowledge other people than individuals in the other conditions. In the second study, we found that cell phone users were less likely to notice an unusual activity along their walking route (a unicycling clown). Cell phone usage may cause inattentional blindness even during a simple activity that should require few cognitive resources.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Research suggests that the use of a smartphone while walking leads to a higher incidence of risky road-crossing behaviour than is the case for pedestrians who are not thus distracted. Although the research varies in several specific manifestations of this risky behaviour (such as walking speed), most studies agree that pedestrians distracted by smartphones look less before entering the road (Horberry et al., 2019;Byington & Schwebel, 2013;Thompson et al., 2012) and perceive the situation less clearly (Lamberg & Muratori, 2012;Lin & Huang, 2017;Mwakalonge et al., 2015;Haga et al., 2015;Hyman et al., 2009), which increases the risk of a traffic accident. When attitudes to the use of smartphones while walking across the road were examined, it was found that a positive attitude to the use of smartphones while walking increases the likelihood that a person will behave in this way in a real situation (Barton, Kologi, & Siron, 2016). ...
... Using a smartphone while walking reduces the available information processing capacity (Lamberg & Muratori, 2012). Pedestrians who use a mobile device when walking register fewer objects than undistracted pedestrians, which reduces their ability to respond appropriately to environmental conditions (Hyman et al., 2009;Neider et al., 2010;Kuzel et al., 2008in Mwakalonge et al., 2015. We found that pedestrians who had a smartphone in their hand when crossing failed to deal with what was happening around them more often than pedestrians who were not occupied with their phone. ...
... Therefore, in further research, following the example of foreign studies (e.g. Hyman et al., 2009;Neider et al., 2010), we would recommend examining whether pedestrians who are calling or use headphones only see things or actually perceive them. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article deals with the behaviour of pedestrians using a smartphone. The work aims to describe the behaviour of pedestrians using a smartphone while walking and to survey the factors that lead pedestrians to this behaviour. The data gathering was performed at a marked pedestrian crossing without signals in Olomouc. The statistics in question were collected via observation and interviews. A total of 2689 pedestrians were observed and 90 people took part in a structured interview. We observed that 15% of pedestrians use their smartphone while walking. We found out that pedestrians who are holding a smartphone in their hand walk safely across a pedestrian crossing less often, rely on others more often when they are walking in a group, and step into the road more often when cars are supposed to give way to them. Furthermore, we found that pedestrians who were walking in a group and at the same time were on the phone or had on headsets were more likely to be guided by their companions than pedestrians who were not distracted.
... In addition to studies based on casualty statistics, the deleterious effects of distraction while walking/crossing the street have been investigated in a number of experimental and observational studies (Mwakalonge et al., 2015;Zhang et al., 2019;Simmons et al., 2020). Existing studies typically suggest that distracted pedestrians interacting with their mobile phones (e.g., talking, texting) while crossing the street are more likely to perform unsafe behaviors; they are less likely to obey traffic lights and look both before crossing, while they are more likely to cross at wrong time/places, spend more time on crossing, change directions more frequently, and get hit or nearly get hit by a vehicle (Thompson et al., 2013;Wells et al., 2018;Horberry et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2019;Hyman et al., 2010;Neider et al., 2010;Hatfield and Murphy, 2007;Stavrinos et al., 2011;Schwebel et al., 2012;Byington and Schwebel, 2013). Furthermore, experimental results have demonstrated that cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces the situational awareness of pedestrians (Nasar et al., 2008;Hyman et al. 2010) found that mobile phone use may cause inattentional blindness. ...
... Existing studies typically suggest that distracted pedestrians interacting with their mobile phones (e.g., talking, texting) while crossing the street are more likely to perform unsafe behaviors; they are less likely to obey traffic lights and look both before crossing, while they are more likely to cross at wrong time/places, spend more time on crossing, change directions more frequently, and get hit or nearly get hit by a vehicle (Thompson et al., 2013;Wells et al., 2018;Horberry et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2019;Hyman et al., 2010;Neider et al., 2010;Hatfield and Murphy, 2007;Stavrinos et al., 2011;Schwebel et al., 2012;Byington and Schwebel, 2013). Furthermore, experimental results have demonstrated that cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces the situational awareness of pedestrians (Nasar et al., 2008;Hyman et al. 2010) found that mobile phone use may cause inattentional blindness. Pedestrians talking on mobile phones were less likely to notice unusual activities (i.e., a unicycling clown) along their walking routes and were unaware of their poor performance (Hyman et al., 2010). ...
... Furthermore, experimental results have demonstrated that cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces the situational awareness of pedestrians (Nasar et al., 2008;Hyman et al. 2010) found that mobile phone use may cause inattentional blindness. Pedestrians talking on mobile phones were less likely to notice unusual activities (i.e., a unicycling clown) along their walking routes and were unaware of their poor performance (Hyman et al., 2010). ...
Article
Pedestrians may be the most vulnerable group among road users, and mobile phone use while crossing the street is ubiquitous worldwide in this information era. However, previous studies have found that such distracting behaviors may increase the risk of injury and death. The present study primarily aimed to explore the effect of reinforcement sensitivity theory components (i.e., Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), Behavioral Approach System (BAS)), risk perception, attitudes towards red light running, and fear of missing out (FoMO) on mobile phone use while crossing the street among pedestrians. Risk perception was measured in three ways (i.e., assessing the probability of a negative outcome (RP-Pro), judging the severity of the consequence (RP-Se), and evaluating the general riskiness of the behavior (RP-Ri)). An online questionnaire survey was conducted, and only valid responses (N = 425) were used for subsequent data analyses. The results indicated significant differences in the responses across the risk perception questions with different focuses. Participants who reported engaging in more distracted street-crossing (i.e., high-risk takers) perceived a significantly lower risk, and this difference did not depend on the focus of risk perception. Three path analysis models with differential risk perception constructs (RP-Pro, RP-Se, and RP-Ri) were developed to examine the relationship between risk perception and distracted street-crossing. The results suggest that the relationship between these two variables does not depend on the focus of the risk perception questions. Moreover, FoMO was a predictor of mobile phone use while crossing the street, while attitudes had both direct and indirect effects on behavior. BIS and BAS had the lowest total effect on mobile phone use among pedestrians. In particular, a direct association between BAS and distracted street-crossing was found only in the model in which risk perception was measured by judging the severity of crashes caused by mobile phone use distraction. This study may be meaningful for understanding the associations between psychological factors and mobile phone use among pedestrians. The implications of the findings for the development of safety interventions are discussed in this study.
... Many studies in cognitive psychology found that the individual's attention to the main task is the main cause of inattentional blindness. Moreover, researchers already discovered several factors that affect inattentional blindness (Mack & Rock, 1998;Most et al., 2001;Simons & Chabris, 1999), including the location, shape, color, and size of unpredictable stimuli (Hyman et al., 2010;Most et al., 2001;Simons & Chabris, 1999), the eye movement effects (Beanland & Pammer, 2010b), previous experience of drivers (Beanland & Pammer, 2010a), and the difficulty of the main task (Cartwright-Finch & Lavie, 2007;Lavie, 1995). Some studies also found that although the incidence rate is relatively low, individuals still experience inattentional blindness even without the main task. ...
... The result confirmed that the high-complexity road environment induced a higher workload, indicating that our manipulation of workload was effective (Paxion et al., 2015). We also concluded that a higher workload would lead to more inattentional blindness or prolonged reaction to unpredictable stimuli, which was in accordance with the findings of previous studies (Hyman et al., 2010;Murphy & Greene, 2015. Many cognitive studies of inattentional blindness also come up with the same conclusion and can help to explain this phenomenon (Cartwright-Finch & Lavie, 2007). ...
... To optimize the existing AR HUD design, additional factors affecting inattentional blindness in AR HUD need to be investigated. Previous studies have suggested that the shape and color of unpredictable stimuli affect the occurrence of inattentional blindness (Hyman et al., 2010;Simons & Chabris, 1999). With regard to the design of the AR HUD interface, the effect of some properties of AR warning graphic, such as the shape and color and appropriate timing on inattentional blindness in driving is still an open question (H. ...
Article
Augmented reality head-up display (AR HUD) is a new technology in assisted driving, which can add extra information to the driving environment in real-time to help the driver better perceive road situation. AR HUD can enhance driving safety but may also encourage inattentional blindness. Hence, this study aims to examine whether AR HUD-induces inattentional blindness and determine whether workload intensifies their relationship. In experiment 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to three groups and watched three types of augmented reality (AR)-augmented driving videos, respectively. They were instructed to respond to any critical events, but only their responses to road-crossing pedestrians were recorded. Results show that AR HUD reduces inattentional blindness when pedestrians are augmented but encourages inattentional blindness when pedestrians are not augmented. In experiment 2, 20 participants viewed AR-augmented driving videos of high and low workloads. Pedestrians were not augmented in all videos. Result reveals that a high workload induces more inattentional blindness than low workload. The finding confirms that AR HUD induces inattentional blindness, and a high workload will intensify this relationship. The future design of the AR HUD assisted-driving system should consider the risk of inattentional blindness and come up with corresponding countermeasures.
... When focused on counting passes, people often miss a variety of other events, such as a woman with an umbrella or a gorilla walking through the basketball game (Becklen & Cervone, 1983;Neisser, 1979;Simons & Chabris, 1999). Similarly, people focused on their cell phones while walking frequently experience Crime Blindness 5 inattentional blindness for unusual events such as a unicycling clown and money hanging on a tree (Hyman et al., 2010;Hyman et al., 2014). ...
... The standard explanation of inattentional blindness is that people are unaware of the unusual event (Fougnie & Marois, 2007;Hyman, 2016;Hyman et al., 2010;Mack, 2003;Neisser, 1976;Simons, 2000;Simons & Chabris, 1999). If participants become focused on the primary task of counting basketball passes, for example, they may not have enough remaining attentional capacity to notice the gorilla or the umbrella woman (Lavie, 2010;Macdonald & Lavie, 2011). ...
... Asking both a general question and a follow-up specific question is fairly standard in studies of inattentional blindness (e.g., Hyman et al., 2010). All participants were next asked to describe the thief, including any details they could recall. ...
Article
Full-text available
People do not constantly watch for accidents and crimes. With their attention focused elsewhere, potential witnesses may fail to notice a crime and experience inattentional blindness. We investigated the impact of inattentional blindness on eyewitness awareness and memory. Participants watched a video in which a theft occurs. We manipulated the attentional focus of the participants – some watched for the crime, others simply watched the video, and some counted the number of people wearing white shirts. Participants counting white shirts and those simply watching more often experienced inattentional blindness for the crime and failed to identify the culprit than those watching for the theft. Participants, particularly those watching for the theft, often falsely identified an innocent bystander, displaying a potential unconscious transference effect. Attention plays a critical role in eyewitness awareness and memory. Eyewitness researchers should investigate situations in which people are not explicitly watching for a crime or accident. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Researchers have found that roughly 20 -25 % of pedestrians were distracted by technology products (Barkley and Lepp, 2016;Basch et al., 2014;Thompson et al., 2013). Distracted pedestrians are more likely to have reduced situational awareness (Nasar, Hecht, & Wener, 2008), exhibit decrement in gait performance (Lamberg and Muratori, 2012;Russo et al., 2018), and have more near collisions with others (Hyman et al., 2010) compared to the individuals who are not distracted. Furthermore, as suggested by Smith et al. (2013) and Nasar et al. (2013), walking injuries caused by phone distractions have been increasing since 2000, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. ...
... Anderson and Perrin (2017) found that cellphone ownership among adults over 65 had increased to 80% in late 2016. However, much of the research on distracted walking has focused on younger participants (Hyman et al., 2010;Schwebel et al., 2012;Tian et al., 2018). Older individuals are likely to suffer from poorer locomotor performance (Nigg et al., 1994), and may have a harder time during distracted walking conditions (Hollman et al., 2007). ...
Article
Using phones while walking has been a factor that has led to accidents and injuries. However, few studies have analyzed the propensity of injuries due to distracted walking for different age groups and in different types of walking environments. This study aims to examine the number of emergency department (ED) visits due to distracted walking across different age groups and walking environments using a publicly available dataset, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database. The results suggest that there were an estimated 29140 distracted walking injuries between the years 2011-2019. Individuals between 11 and 20 years old had the most injuries, followed by 21 to 30, and 31 to 40. Furthermore, the proportion of estimated injuries that occurred in different walking environments differed across age groups. Safety-orient interventions for future research for stairs and home environments were also recommended in the present study.
... Smartphones are undoubtedly beneficial in many ways, such as connecting with loved ones and supporting our productivity goals [3]. However, smartphone use has also been demonstrated to have negative influences in a number of important life outcomes, such as "real-world" social interactions [4], walking and driving abilities [5,6], and educational outcomes [7,8]. Other research demonstrates a negative association between smartphone overuse (i.e., more than 2 hours per day) and psychological well-being [9]. ...
... In conclusion, we found partial support to the proposal that cognitive control may be the mechanism for the effect of smartphone notifications reported in the literature, such as their potential unwanted interruption of social interactions [4], walking and driving [5,6], and educational activities [7,8]. Further research is needed to clarify the extent to which cognitive control serves as the primary underlying neural mechanism by which these smartphone interruptions negatively impact day-to-day outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since their release in 2007, smartphones and their use have seemingly become a fundamental aspect of life in western society. Prior literature has suggested a link between mobile technology use and lower levels of cognitive control when people engage in a cognitively demanding task. This effect is more evident for people who report higher levels of smartphone use. The current study examined the effects of smartphones notifications on cognitive control and attention. Participants completed the Navon Letter paradigm which paired visual (frequent and rare target letters) and auditory (smartphone and control sounds) stimuli. We found that overall, participants responded slower on trials paired with smartphone notification (vs. control) sounds. They also demonstrated larger overall N2 ERP and a larger N2 oddball effect on trials paired with smartphone (vs. control) sounds, suggesting that people generally exhibited greater levels of cognitive control on the smartphone trials. In addition, people with higher smartphone addiction proneness showed lower P2 ERP on trials with the smartphone (vs. control) sounds, suggesting lower attentional engagement. These results add to the debate on the effects of smartphones on cognition. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
... According to the appraisal theory of empathy (Wondra & Ellsworth, 2015), a lack of attention causes "empathy failure." Prior study demonstrates that when individuals are using ICT, they are likely to exhibit "inattentional blindness" (Simons, 2000, p. 150) to other people in surrounding environment (Hyman et al., 2010), which means they may pay insufficient attention to the emotional situations of coworkers around them. Besides, even employees are using ICT for communication, they prefer to pay more attention to work-related contents and engage in fewer social interactions (Siampou et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2020). ...
... By contrast, we suggest that cooperative goal interdependence mitigates the negative relationship between ICT use intensity and empathy. Previous studies have found that when employees are using ICT, they easily ignore surroundings (Hyman et al., 2010). However, in the context of cooperative goal interdependence, employees show more concern for their coworkers (Wu et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The research explores a novel phenomenon in which information and communication technology (ICT), which is originally designed for knowledge transferring, may result in employees' knowledge hiding due to increasing use intensity. Specifically, drawing upon the appraisal theory of empathy, we develop a moderated mediation model of empathy linking ICT use intensity and knowledge hiding. The hypothesized model is tested by conducting a scenario-based experimental study (Study 1, N = 194) and a multi-wave field study (Study 2, N = 350). Results show that ICT use intensity is positively related to employees' knowledge hiding through the mediating role of their empathy. Moreover, competitive goal interdependence strengthens the negative relationship between ICT use intensity and employees' empathy, and the indirect positive effect between ICT use intensity and employees' knowledge hiding. Overall, the research answers the questions of how and when ICT use intensity may influence employees' knowledge hiding. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the research findings are discussed. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10551-022-05245-4.
... First, even when one looks at a place as shown by the eye-tracker, it does not necessarily mean that the information from the location was processed by attention. This well-known phenomenon called inattentional blindness (i.e., looked but not see; Simons and Chabris, 1999) is a significant cause of overlooked vital visual information in a natural environment especially when the information is unexpected (e.g., Hyman et al., 2010). One study showed that among people who did fixate on an unexpected stimulus as shown by the eye-tracker while engaging with a cognitively demanding task, 35% of them could not report that they had seen the visual stimuli afterward (Richards et al., 2012). ...
Article
Visuospatial attention during walking has been associated with pedestrian safety and fall risks. However, visuospatial attention measures during walking remained under-explored. Current studies introduced a newly-developed Standing and Walking Visual Attention Field (SWAVF) task to assess visuospatial attention during walking and examined its reliability, validity, and stability. Thirty young adults completed a traditional computerized Attention Visual Field (AVF) task while sitting, and the SWAVF task under walking and standing settings. Nine participants also performed the SWAVF task under additional distraction conditions. Results showed good split-half reliability during standing (r = 0.70) and walking (r = 0.69), moderate concurrent validity with the sitting AVF task (r = 0.42), moderate convergent validity between the standing and walking settings (r = 0.69), good construct validity, and moderate rank-order stability (r = 0.53). Overall, the SWAVF task showed good psychometric properties. Potential applications to the evaluation of prosthetic and other exoskeleton devices, smart glasses, and ground-level traffic lights or signs were discussed.
... They found that pedestrians using cell phones were less likely to notice any unusual activity along their route. Individuals talking on cell phones or walking in pairs crossed the street more slowly than pedestrians using music players or no electronics [19]. Bungum et al. (2005) observed 866 people and assessed the relationship of pedestrian walking speed with the type of distraction (e.g., talking on a cell phone, wearing headphones, drinking, eating, smoking, or talking to other pedestrians) while they crossed the road. ...
Article
Risk of pedestrian-vehicle crashes increased with distraction of pedestrians at roadway crossings. Aims of the study included analysing distracted pedestrian crossing behavior, identifying factors that influence pedestrian crossing speed at a midblock crosswalk, and determining the influence of road cross-section (RCS) on pedestrian walking speed. Three cities in Oregon State in the USA were included in the study: Corvallis, Albany, and Eugene. A combination of digital video and researcher field notes were used to obtain the data at each site. A total of 1045 pedestrian crossings from 23 midblock crossings were observed and analysed to determine the association of distraction type, road cross-section, and other in situ factors with pedestrian walking speed. Data analysis was conducted in two stages. First, the effect of each distraction type (looking at a handheld device, talking on a cell phone, wearing headphones, walking in a pair, walking in a group, and other distractions) on the pedestrian walking speed was examined. The results showed that average walking speed was 4.8 ft./s (1.46 m/s). Pedestrians walking with headphones crossed more quickly (0.91 ft./s) (0.28 m/s) than those with no distractions (5.14 ft./s) (1.57 m/s). In addition, talking on a cell phone was not significantly correlated with walking speed. Moreover, the other four distraction types were associated with decreasing the walking speed by 0.29 ft./s (0.09 m/s) to 0.83 ft./s (0.25 m/s). Second, the influence of pedestrian distraction, crosswalk configuration, land use, compliance rate, and pedestrian demographics on the pedestrian walking speed were examined in this study. Findings indicated that distracted pedestrian in two road cross-sections would require more crossing time than an elderly pedestrian. Pedestrian safety is a key concern in transportation research, and improved understanding of the factors contributing to pedestrian fatalities could enable safer roadways to be designed.
... However, the second-highest number of accidents (22%) occurs when pedestrians dart out of somewhere suddenly. According to the Hyman et al. [26], the distraction caused by 265 electronic devices can make pedestrians less attentive. Consequently, they could either change their walking direction or walking speed unintentionally. ...
Article
Full-text available
Road accident data includes detailed information about incidents that occurred, such as where they happened, the severity of the accident, and the number of people on the road at the time. Such information is useful in determining the causes of accidents and developing potential countermeasures. This research aims to determine the factors that contribute to pedestrian fatalities and injuries in traffic accidents. This study examined 150 pedestrian-vehicle accidents that took place between 1990 and 2021 in forty countries. Eleven factors have been identified as the major causes of accidents. The categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) technique is used to reduce the number of dimensions and identify the elements that contribute to accidents. The eleven variables are classified into three groups: human factors, roadway environment, and vehicle attributes. The study found that car speed, weather, lighting, traffic conditions, area types, accident locations, and road conditions all had a significant impact on pedestrian accidents and fatalities. The findings show that a pedestrian's state (walking, running) and intention significantly increase the risk of serious injuries and death. The analysis of the driver's status suggests that the driver's intentions may also play a role in car accidents. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA license.
... These statistics are a concern because distracted walking can negatively impact walking safety. Pedestrians who used mobile devices while walking are more likely to have reduced situation awareness (Nasar et al., 2008), exhibit unsafe walking behaviors (i.e., violation, cross outside crosswalks; Russo et al., 2018;Thompson et al., 2013), walk slower (Russo et al., 2018), increase their lateral deviation from a straight line (Lamberg and Muratori, 2012), and have more near collisions with other pedestrians (Hyman et al., 2010). These findings indicate that distraction puts pedestrians at risk compared to normal walking through behavioral changes, lowered situation awareness, and increased collision risk. ...
Article
Objective The present study aims to: 1) determine whether the risks associated with distracted walking are influenced by walking environment by estimating the incidence and severity of phone-related distracted walking injuries; and 2) investigate individuals’ perceptions of distracted walking risk within different walking environments to understand whether individuals are aware of the potential risks and the manner in which they understand those risks. Background Distracted walking has been increasingly considered a public safety issue over the past few years. Research has focused on understanding the many factors that may influence pedestrians’ engagement with smart-devices in order to address this issue. Risk perception may be one factor that guides engagement decisions but has not been widely studied in the context of distracted walking. Risk perception and the consequences of distracted walking are likely to be impacted by the walking environment, however, current research has typically focused on a subset of locations— streets and intersections. Method This study used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a national database of injuries due to consumer products, to understand the number and severity of distracted walking injuries and locations where it occurred. Phone related injury cases from 2011 to 2019 were extracted and categorized by two independent raters in terms of cause of injury and location of injury. An online questionnaire, N = 207, was used to understand how individuals’ perception of risk in five different walking environments (intersections, stairwells, hallways, pedestrian plazas, and parking lots) were related to distraction engagement. Risk perception was measured through three different framings: risk of distracted walking (i.e., overall risk of engaging with the behavior), risk of collision and risk of falls (e.g., risks associated with the consequences of engaging with the behavior). Results The NEISS analysis showed an upward trend of distracted walking injuries from 2011 (2184 incidents) to 2019 (4711 incidents) and that the number of injuries differed across the different walking environments. The survey results showed that individuals varied their risk perception levels (risk of distracted walking, collision, and falls) based on the walking environment and distraction status (distraction and no distraction). The relationship between overall risk of distracted walking and the risks of the different consequences (falls & collision) differed by walking environment. Finally, significant negative correlations were found between risk perception and actual distraction engagement for each location.
... The lifeworlds of lived bodies and lived things are intimately connected with the scooters users' experiences of attitudinal barriers (lived relation). Resentment held by pedestrians toward wheeled mobility users that was described by some of the participants have been previously reported (Hyman et al., 2010) As a result, the feelings of invisibility (i.e., not being noticed by pedestrians who are distracted by their cell phones) or hypervisibility (i.e., being stared at or made to feel ashamed for doing things differently) can be heightened (Jang et al., 2020;Frost et al., 2015;Korotchenko and Hurd Clarke, 2014). ...
Article
Research Objectives To explore the lived experiences of new mobility scooter users. Design Data were collected as part of a larger mixed-methods intervention study. Based on critical phenomenology1,2 each participant was interviewed multiple times before and after their scooter training. Examples of the questions included: What kind of problems do you have getting around currently (using manual wheelchair/walker/cane, if applicable)? How do you feel about using a manual wheelchair/power wheelchair/walker/cane? How do other people respond to you when you are using your scooter? Setting Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants Participants were a convenience sample of 20 community dwelling, scooters users (with less than one-month experience using their devices) who were able to transfer in and out of a scooter independently. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Not applicable. Results The analysis revealed five themes. Transitioning to scooter use described how participants struggled to embrace scooters into their daily lives. Experiencing accessibility challenges revealed the challenges of navigating the outdoor and the indoor spaces in a scooter. Strategic and personalized use of devices for mobility illustrated how and why participants rely on other mobility devices. Navigating the social environment and being (un)seen demonstrated the stigma that participants experience from other people. Scooter appropriation over time revealed how participants see themselves and their use of scooters over time. Conclusions The experiences of new scooter users reflected the complexities of navigating the structural barriers and the challenges of integrating scooters into their lives3, 4, 5. The tension between the lived spaces and the scooters suggests that the design and specifications of some of these spaces do not meet the needs of modern wheeled mobility devices. Author(s) Disclosures There are no conflicts of interest for any author.
... it comprises slow walking speed, increased variability, lack of awareness, and late initiation for crossing roads [8,9]. This reduced performance results from cognitive loading that distracts the sensory distribution from prioritizing the tasks because of performing double activities in parallel [10]. Then, it engages the executive function concerning the cognitive process while obtaining information when walking [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Smartphone is one of the essential tools but may be inappropriate during locomotion or transportation owing to cognitive distractions. The study aimed to investigate the main effects of smartphone tasks, obstacle conditions, and their interaction on the spatiotemporal gait and centre of mass (COM) variables among healthy young adults. Methods The study used a single group with repeated measures design. Overall, 20 participants completed 4 smartphone tasks (no task, texting, calling, and watching), combined with 2 conditions of obstacle confrontation (with and without). Spatiotemporal gait (step length, step time, cadence, and gait speed) and COM variables during gait (excursion and velocity in mediolateral and vertical directions) were collected. Results Significant effects of smartphone tasks and obstacle conditions were found, while no interaction effect between smartphone tasks and obstacle was found. There were alterations of the spatiotemporal gait and COM variables during walking, both with and without obstacle. The obstacle condition significantly influenced the different tasks of mobile perturbation, all spatiotemporal gait and COM variables, except for the COM mediolateral velocity. Conclusions Confronting smartphone tasks and obstacle conditions concurrently challenges young adults to adjust their movement and balance control systems to perform the tasks successfully.
... Mobile phone use among pedestrians leads to increased cognitive, physical, visual and auditory distraction, reduced situation awareness and increased unsafe traffi c behav- The study in Russo et al., 2018 showed that talking or texting on a smartphone may not be signifi cantly associated with walking speed, but pedestrians who were texting were more likely to commit crosswalk violations. Compared to the pedestrians that were not using mobile phones while crossing, pedestrians distracted by mobile phones are shown to walk more slowly (Schabrun et al., 2014), change directions more often (Hyman et al., 2010), take longer and miss safe opportunities to cross (Byington and Schwebel, 2013) and usually make more errors (Pešić et al., 2016). ...
Article
Mobile phone use at pedestrian crossings has been recognized as a growing problem in the field of traffic safety. The objective of the paper is to analyze the impact of mobile phone use at pedestrian crossings considering specific territory. Signalized and unsignalized intersections are observed in the study. Several factors having the impact on unsafe pedestrian crossing behaviour are identified such as: age, location and the type of mobile phone using. The model of unsafe pedestrian behaviour based on displayed mobile phone use while crossing the intersection is constructed. It has been shown in this research that talking and texting on mobile phone distract pedestrians. Listening to music does not affect pedestrians to behave unsafely because it requires less cognitive activity than talking or texting. Also, location affects the pedestrian crossing behavior. The results of this research can serve the purpose of preventing the mobile phones use and reduce the negative impact on pedestrian crossing behavior.
... It is conceivable that authorities may need to declare a location dangerous and advise residents to avoid it through signage or any other form. However, multiple studies found that pedestrians and drivers do not notice such signs [3], [4]. Therefore, there should be other ways to reach out to the community, which will work even in the absence of Internet or cellular communication network availability. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alerts and warnings are intended to educate the public and keep them safe in an emergency or natural disaster. Historically, public alerts and warnings have been delivered mainly via broadcast media and roadside signage. However, deploying these signals is time-consuming and they may not be noticed by people who need them. With the increasing use of smart devices and other technological advancements, the nation's alerting capabilities must be upgraded to target vulnerable sub-populations more effectively. An easy-to-deploy, automatic alert/warning system with no need for a line of sight would be useful. To this end, we developed Insight - an alerting system that detects signals from Bluetooth beacons indicating danger zones. It requires no Internet or communication infrastructure and thus, it is robust to communications failures during catastrophes. Here, we demonstrate the use of the Insight mobile application and the underlying ad hoc Beacon infrastructure.
... Etwa die Hälfte der Teilnehmenden bemerkt diese Person aber nicht, weil sie mit einer anderen Aufgabe, nämlich dem Zählen von Pässen zwischen Spieler*innen eines Teams, beschäftigt ist. Wenn wir uns nun vor Augen führen, wie oft Personen beispielsweise unterwegs an ihrem Mobiltelefon sind, wird schnell deutlich, dass dieser Effekt für Zeugenaussagen in der Praxis durchaus von Bedeutung sein kann (siehe z.B.Hyman et al., 2010).Wird der Sichtkontakt von einem Bild zum nächsten unterbrochen, bemerken wir zudem viele kleinere (z.B. Person trägt nun anstelle eines Hemdes ein T-Shirt), aber auch größere Veränderungen (uns steht plötzlich eine andere Person gegenüber) nicht(Simons & Levin, 1997). ...
... The lifeworlds of lived bodies and lived things are intimately connected with the scooters users' experiences of attitudinal barriers (lived relation). Resentment held by pedestrians toward wheeled mobility users that was described by some of the participants have been previously reported (Hyman et al., 2010) As a result, the feelings of invisibility (i.e., not being noticed by pedestrians who are distracted by their cell phones) or hypervisibility (i.e., being stared at or made to feel ashamed for doing things differently) can be heightened (Jang et al., 2020;Frost et al., 2015;Korotchenko and Hurd Clarke, 2014). ...
Article
The use of motorized mobility scooters has become increasingly prevalent. Drawing on the critical-phenomenology and disability-studies literature, this study explored the embodied nature of scooter use among 20 new scooter users. The analysis revealed four themes: 1) Navigating the social environment and being (un)seen presented a paradox of how hypervisibility and invisibility can both exist; 2) Transitioning to scooter use revealed the affective component of becoming a scooter user despite the underlying desire to avoid unwanted attention; 3) Experiencing accessibility challenges en route and at destinations demonstrated that the inconsistency in accessibility along different routes unavoidably makes disability more visible; 4) Strategic and personalized use of devices for mobility illustrated how reliance on other mobility devices (e.g. canes and walkers) can be used as a strategy to circumvent the barriers and lessen the visibility of disability. The lifeworlds of “lived relation”, “lived body”, “lived space”, and “lived things” encapsulated the multi-faceted experiences of new scooter users. The critical phenomenology of scooter use emphasized the need for creative strategies to address the physical and attitudinal barriers as well as scooter design-related concerns.
... A slight distraction can cause inattentional blindness and hinder the main task. For example, phone usage during walking can lead to inattentional blindness during tasks with just low cognitive demands (Hyman et al. 2010). We do not just ignore trivia objects but also the safety relevant visual stimuli (Murphy and Greene 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed reality technology has been increasingly used for navigation. While most MR-based navigation systems are currently based on hand-held devices, for example, smartphones, head-mounted MR devices have become more and more popular in navigation. Much research has been conducted to investigate the navigation experience in MR. However, it is still unclear how ordinary users react to the first-person view and FOV (field of view)-limited navigation experience, especially in terms of spatial learning. In our study, we investigate how visualization in MR navigation affects spatial learning. More specifically, we test two related hypotheses: incorrect virtual information can lead users into incorrect spatial learning, and the visualization style of direction can influence users’ spatial learning and experience. We designed a user interface in Microsoft HoloLens 2 and conducted a user study with 40 participants. The user study consists of a walking session in which users wear Microsoft HoloLens 2 to navigate to an unknown destination, pre- and post-walking questionnaires, sketch map drawing, and a semi-structured interview about the user interface design. The results provide preliminary confirmation that users’ spatial learning can be misled by incorrect information, even in a small study area, but this misleading effect can be compensated by considerate visualization, for example, including lines instead of using only arrows as direction indicators. Arrows with or without lines as two visualization alternatives also influenced the user’s spatial learning and evaluation of the designed elements. Besides, the study shows that users’ preferences for navigation interfaces are diverse, and an adaptable interface should be provided. The results contribute to the design of head-mounted MR-based navigation interfaces and the application of MR in navigation in general.
... One example is the case of a police officer convicted of perjury for claiming not to have seen an assault en route to another call out (Lehr 2009; see also Chabris et al. 2011). Another is the failure to notice highly unusual and salient stimuli when attention is divided, such as walking while talking on a mobile phone (Hyman et al. 2010). The phenomenon of IB has important real-world relevance, for example, in the context of witness testimony. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Inattentional blindness (IB) describes the failure to notice salient but unexpected stimuli in one’s focal visual field. It typically occurs while performing a demanding task (e.g., tracking and counting basketball passes), which consumes attentional resources. Alcohol intoxication is also known to reduce attentional resources, thereby potentially increasing IB and disrupting task performance. Objectives To test the extent to which acute alcohol intoxication and task difficulty disrupt counting performance and increase the rate of IB across two experimental tasks. Methods To test the effects of alcohol consumption and task difficulty on IB we used the Simons and Chabris (1999; 2010) “gorilla in our midst” basketball clip in Experiment 1, and an analogous computerised alternative to the classic “gorilla” task in Experiment 2. Results The rate of IB increased under more demanding (counting) task conditions but was unaffected by alcohol consumption. However, counting performance was impaired by both alcohol and high task difficulty, with the largest detriment being for alcohol participants who noticed the salient but unexpected stimulus. Conclusion The absence of alcohol effects on IB in these experiments was unexpected and warrants further investigation in field vs lab study comparisons, and in combination with baseline cognitive measures to test for alcohol expectancy and task compensation effects.
... While the changes represented a potentially hazardous situation, they were by themselves not hazardous, which is a limitation of the paradigm. Using gaze to trigger changes could be used to further understand the impacts of other factors that may increase rates of failures of visual awareness while driving, such as distraction (e.g., Hyman et al., 2010;McCarley et al., 2004;Strayer et al., 2003), age (Caird et al., 2005;Rizzo et al., 2009), or when the hazards do not meet the attentional set as determined by the goals of the driver (Most & Astur, 2007;Murphy & Greene, 2016). While those with HVFL failed to detect more changes than those with NV, they still fixated on the pedestrian approximately 97.7% of the time, compared to 100% in those with NV. ...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with homonymous visual field loss (HVFL) fail to perceive visual information that falls within the blind portions of their visual field. This places additional burden on memory to represent information in their blind visual field, which may make visual changes in the scene more difficult to detect. Failing to detect changes could have serious implications in the context of driving. A change blindness driving simulator experiment was conducted with individuals with HVFL ( n = 17) and in those with normal vision (NV; n = 16) where changes (pedestrians appearing) were triggered based on the driver’s gaze location. Gaze was used to ensure that the location of the change was visible before and after the change occurred. There were wide individual differences in both vision groups, ranging from no change blindness to more than 33% of events. Those with HVFL had more change blindness than those with NV (16.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001) and more change blindness to pedestrians appearing in their blind than seeing hemifield (34.6% vs. 10.4%, p < 0.001). Further, there was more change blindness for events appearing in the seeing hemifield for those with HVFL than normal vision ( p = 0.023). These results suggest that individuals with HVFL may be more susceptible to failures of awareness, such as change blindness, than individuals with normal vision. Increased risk for failures of awareness may result in motor vehicle crashes where the driver fails to notice the other road user (looked-but-failed-to-see incidents).
... One study found that pedestrians who text while walking are 50% less aware of environmental changes [9]. Another study found that 75% of participants distracted by a smartphone failed to notice a clown on a unicycle as they walked by it [10]. Such distractions can lead to fatal accidents [5,11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrian safety has emerged recently as a public health challenge worldwide. People are being physically harmed due to losing focus on their surroundings and putting safety at risk. Though pedestrian safety is a shared responsibility, researchers suggest that distractions by smart devices and reduced cognitive skills are major causes of accidents. There is a scope to assist pedestrians through amplifying cognitive skills using heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) and sensors. These technologies could discover and warn users about unanticipated events such as just-in-time warnings about the hazards, distractions, extreme weather, and potential impending dangers. An automated personalized agent helps monitor, diagnose problems, and protect people in an urban environment. Researchers have proposed various systems and implemented them in multiple domains. In this survey, we assessed, analyzed, and compared the most recent research on pedestrian safety. We identified the challenges, research gaps, and future directions towards using technology to improve pedestrian safety.
... Another study from Chen and Pai 2018b indicated that pedestrians playing cell phone games had more unsafe crossing behaviours, such as fewer head-turning frequencies or not looking at traffic before crossing. Such pattern changes caused by distractions are generally referred to as inattentional blindness, where a human fails to notice an unexpected object while engaged in another task or object (Hyman et al., 2009;Hyman Jr et al., 2014). However, existing studies offer different opinions in the case of distraction tasks that require pure listening. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Distractions have been recognised as one important factor associated with pedestrian injuries, as the increasing use of cell phones and personal devices. However, the situation is less clear regarding the differences in the effects of visual-manual and auditory-cognitive distractions. Here, we investigated distracted pedestrians in a one-lane road with continuous traffic using an immersive CAVE-based simulator. Sixty participants were recruited to complete a crossing task and perform one of two distractions, a visual-manual task and an auditory-cognitive task. Moreover, normal and time pressure crossing conditions were included as a baseline and comparison. For the first time, this study directly compared the impacts of visual-manual, auditory-cognitive distractions, and time pressure on pedestrian crossing behaviour and safety in a controlled environment. The results indicated that although pedestrian safety was compromised under both types of distraction, the effects of the applied distractions were different. Whenengaged in the visual-manual distraction, participantscrossed the road slowly, but there was no significant difference in gap acceptance or initiation time compared to baseline. In contrast, participants walked slowly, crossed earlier, and accepted smaller gaps when performing the auditory-cognitive distraction. This has interesting parallels to existing findings on how these two types of distractions affect driver performance. Moreover, the effects of the visual-manual distraction were found to be dynamic, as these effects were affected by the gap size. Finally, compared to baseline, time pressure resulted in participants accepting smaller time gaps with shorter initiation times and crossing durations, leading to an increase in unsafe decisions and a decrease in near-collisions. These results provide new evidence that two types of distraction and time pressure impair pedestrian safety, but in different ways. Our findings may provide insights for further studies involving pedestrians with different distraction components.
... Studies have considered pedestrian distraction with three principal methodologies: (1) behavioral observation: using real-time or recorded behaviors of pedestrians in the real world (Bungum et al., 2005;Hatfield and Murphy, 2007;Hyman et al., 2010;Thompson et al., 2013). This method cannot precisely point to distraction type and only presents the effects of distraction on behavioral factors (Ralph and Girardeau, 2020), (2) simulation: could be examined in a virtual environment or real but controlled environment (Byington and Schwebel, 2013;Larue and Watling, 2021;Lim et al., 2015;Nasar et al., 2008;Neider et al., 2010;Schwebel et al., 2012;Stavrinos et al., 2011;. ...
Article
Due to the high volume of documents in the pedestrian safety field, the current study conducts a systematic bibliometric analysis on the researches published before October 3, 2021, based on the science-mapping approach. Science mapping enables us to present a broad picture and comprehensive review of a significant number of documents using co-citation, bibliographic coupling, collaboration, and co-word analysis. To this end, a dataset of 6311 pedestrian safety papers was collected from the Web of Science Core Collection database. First, a descriptive analysis was carried out, covering whole yearly publications, most-cited papers, and most-productive authors, as well as sources, affiliations, and countries. In the next steps, science mapping was implemented to clarify the social, intellectual, and conceptual structures of pedestrian-safety research using the VOSviewer and Bibliometrix R-package tools. Remarkably, based on intellectual structure, pedestrian safety demonstrated an association with seven research areas: “Pedestrian crash frequency models”, “Pedestrian injury severity crash models”, “Traffic engineering measures in pedestrians’ safety”, “Global reports around pedestrian accident epidemiology”, “Effect of age and gender on pedestrians’ behavior”, “Distraction of pedestrians”, and “Pedestrian crowd dynamics and evacuation”. Moreover, according to conceptual structure, five major research fronts were found to be relevant, namely “Collision avoidance and intelligent transportation systems (ITS)”, “Epidemiological studies of pedestrian injury and prevention”, “Pedestrian road crossing and behavioral factors”, “Pedestrian flow simulation”, and “Walkable environment and pedestrian safety”. Finally, “autonomous vehicle”, “pedestrian detection”, and “collision avoidance” themes were identified as having the greatest centrality and development degrees in recent years.
... Pedestrians who use smartphones are always distracted, which increases the risk of negative consequences in traffic [1,[8][9][10]. An experimental study showed that 75% of pedestrians using smartphones while crossing did not response to visual stimuli [11]. Thus, it is not surprising that traffic accidents caused by distracting smartphone use have increased steeply in recent years [12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This was a large-scale multicenter study with two objectives. One was to study the factors influencing pedestrian smartphone use while crossing roads, and the other was to study the effect of combined visual and auditory intervention on smartphone zombies (smombies) at crossroads. Methods: This study was conducted in four different Chinese cities. By observing pedestrians crossing intersections, the weather, time, and characteristics of the pedestrians were recorded by four researchers. Then, its influencing factors and the effects of the intervention were studied in two consecutive periods. Results: A total of 25,860 pedestrians (13,086 without intervention and 12,774 with visual and auditory intervention) were observed in this study. Logistic regressions showed that gender, age of the pedestrians, weather, and time were the factors influencing smombies crossing roads. The number of smartphone users decreased from 4,289 to 3,579 (28.1%) ( χ 2 = 69.120, p < 0.001) when the intervention was conducted. Conclusion: Based on large-sample, multicenter research, this study revealed the factors influencing pedestrian smartphone use while crossing roads, contributing to our understanding of the current situation of smombies in China. Furthermore, the effect of visual and auditory intervention was demonstrated, providing a new paradigm for global prevention of smombie behavior.
... However, the detrimental impact of technology is not limited to traffic situations. Research also shows that pedestrians who are making a phone call are more likely to miss events in their immediate environment: for example, the unlikely event of a clown on a unicycle crossing their path (Hyman, Boss, Wise, McKenzie, & Caggiano, 2010), or of them walking past a tree with money in it (Hyman, Sarb, & Wise-Swanson, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the effects of technological support on citizen searches during missing persons cases. A qualitative experimental design was used to investigate the effects of the prototype of an app, Sarea, developed by the Dutch police to help citizens initiate and coordinate a search. Two conditions were used: intervention groups, who were given phones with the app installed, and control groups without this support. A total of seven searches were conducted—four intervention groups and three control groups with group sizes between three and five people (N = 33). Data were collected through the System Usability Scale and one-to-one observation of individual searchers. The results showed that technology provides valuable support to citizens in coordinating and visualizing a citizen search. However, divided attention due to increased cognitive load during the search, and the unwarranted legitimization of human choices by a technological interface, can make collaboration between humans and technology problematic.
... For example, one survey showed that 51% of young adult phone users bumped into other person or objects while walking distracted [13]. Another study showed that 75% of participants distracted by a smartphone failed to notice a clown on a unicycle as they walked by it [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, an estimated 7,005 (crude rate 2.13) pedestrians were killed in traffic crashes in 2020, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This statistic is currently increasing annually and research suggests that distraction by smartphones may be a primary reason for the increasing number of pedestrian injuries and deaths. Timely interruptions may alert inattentive pedestrians and prevent fatalities. To this end, we developed StreetBit, a Bluetooth beacon-based system that warns distracted pedestrians with a visual and/or audible interruption when they approach a potentially dangerous traffic intersection while distracted by their smartphones. We posit that by using StreetBit, we can educate distracted pedestrians and elicit behavioral change to reduce or remove smartphone-based distractions when they enter and cross roadways. To demonstrate the feasibility of StreetBit, we conducted a field study with 385 participants. Results show that the system demonstrates adequate feasibility and behavior change in response to the StreetBit program.
... Another study from Chen and Pai 2018b indicated that pedestrians playing cell phone games had more unsafe crossing behaviours, such as fewer head-turning frequencies or not looking at traffic before crossing. From a general perspective, such pattern changes caused by distractions are referred to as inattentional blindness, where a human fails to notice an unexpected object while engaged in another task or object (Hyman et al., 2009;Hyman et al., 2014). Current research results share a general consensus that visual and manual distractions impair most aspects of road crossings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Distractions have been recognised as one important factor associated with pedestrian injuries, as the increasing use of cell phones and personal devices. However, the situation is less clear regarding the differences in the effects of visual-manual and auditory-cognitive distractions. Here, we investigated distracted pedestrians in a one-lane road with continuous traffic using an immersive CAVE-based simulator. Sixty participants were recruited to complete a crossing task and perform one of two distractions, a visual-manual task and an auditory-cognitive task. Moreover, normal and time pressure crossing conditions were included as a baseline and comparison. For the first time, this study directly compared the impacts of visual-manual, auditory-cognitive distractions, and time pressure on pedestrian crossing behaviour and safety in a controlled environment. The results indicated that although pedestrian safety was compromised under both types of distraction, the effects of the applied distractions were different. When engaged in the visual-manual distraction, participants crossed the road slowly, but there was no significant difference in gap acceptance or initiation time compared to baseline. In contrast, participants walked slowly, crossed earlier, and accepted smaller gaps when performing the auditory-cognitive distraction. This has interesting parallels to existing findings on how these two types of distractions affect driver performance. Moreover, the effects of the visual-manual distraction were found to be dynamic, as these effects were affected by the gap size. Finally, compared to baseline, time pressure resulted in participants accepting smaller time gaps with shorter initiation times and crossing durations, leading to an increase in unsafe decisions and a decrease in near-collisions. These results provide new evidence that two types of distraction and time pressure impair pedestrian safety, but in different ways. Our findings may provide insights for further studies involving pedestrians with different distraction components.
Article
Objectives Distracted walking is a major cause of pedestrian road traffic injuries, but little is known about how distraction affects pedestrian safety. The study was designed to explore how visual and auditory distraction might influence pedestrian safety. Methods Three experiments were conducted to explore causal mechanisms from two theoretical perspectives, increased cognitive load from the distraction task and resource competition in the same sensory modality. Pedestrians’ behavior patterns and cortex oxyhemoglobin changes were recorded while they performed a series of dual tasks. Results Four primary results emerged: (a) participants responded more slowly to both visual and auditory stimuli in traffic, as well as walked more slowly, while talking on the phone or text messaging compared to when undistracted or listening to music; (b) when participants completed pedestrian response tasks while distracted with a high cognitive load, their response was significantly slower and poorer than when they carried out a lower cognitive load distraction task, (c) participants had higher levels of oxy-Hb change in cortices related to visual processing and executive function while distracted with a higher cognitive load; and (d) participants' responses to traffic lights were slower and resulted in a higher activation in prefrontal cortex and occipital areas when distracted by a visual distraction task compared to when distracted with an auditory task; similarly, brain activation increased significantly in temporal areas when participants responded to an auditory car horn task compared to when they responded to visual traffic lights. Conclusions Both distracting cognitive load demands and the type of distraction task significantly affect young adult pedestrian performance and threaten pedestrian safety. Pedestrian injury prevention efforts should consider the effects of the type of distracting task and its cognitive demands on pedestrian safety.
Article
In this research, we investigated the situation of texting while walking in railway stations for the purpose of understanding it and clarifying the features that lead to effective interventions. In survey I, the number of people walking in a station with operating a cell phone was investigated. Results indicated that young people operate their cell phones frequently while walking compared to elderly people, and people do it especially after the evening, when passengers are crowded. In survey II, we did a questionnaire survey in a railway station by collecting answers directly from who walking with operating a cell phone at the moment and who walking without operating it. Results indicated that whether they are operating their cell phone at the time of getting off the train has a great influence on whether they walk in railway stations with operating it or not. It was showed that people who walking with operating their cell phone want to give priority to completing the operation right away, and they have the confidence that they can operate it even while walking. Besides, it was indicated that there are many people who walking with operating their cell phone despite the low need, and people who doing it unconsciously.
Article
Full-text available
Rather than seeing Zoom as a replacement for practicing movement and dance in a shared physical space, I propose to consider our relationship with the screen on Zoom as a movement in its own right. Using my experience of teaching movement on Zoom, I ask how we can connect with another via the screen without losing awareness of our bodies and the space which we're in. I argue that Zoom is a place of 'moving selfies' in dialogue where we can engage critically with the screen by practicing seeing with the whole body and moving with diffuse awareness and where we can critically reflect on our own habits of framing the world and its biases.
Article
Smartphones are nowadays indispensable devices in daily life. Their rapid technological development makes it possible to have almost all necessary information on them, which facilitates their spread among all users. However, this extensive use has led to many distraction problems while performing other main tasks, such as activities on the road, which can also impact people's safety. Therefore, various experts focused their attention on issues related to drivers looking at their mobile phones; recently, researchers from different disciplines saw the need to deepen knowledge also on the phenomenon of vulnerable road users distracted by digital devices, especially when approaching signalized intersections. This study builds on and seeks to extend this area of research by analyzing the effects of digital distraction on pedestrians as they approach unsignalised intersections located on roundabout entrances and exits. The aim of the research is to understand the extent to which the task of checking social media affects pedestrian reaction and crossing times, as well as to identify which elements attract the most pedestrian attention. To achieve this goal, an eye-tracking study was designed, in which participants wearing eye-tracking glasses were asked to walk a predefined route, once checking their social media apps and once walking without distracting technological elements. The results showed an 84% increase in reaction time when using the phone, while only a slight rise in crossing time was found. The general conclusions about the most observed elements when walking are also consistent with the main findings of previous literature studies.
Article
Objective Unintentional injuries are the leading killer of children in the United States. Caregiver supervision decreases child injury risk; however, little research has examined the effects of distractions (e.g., cell phone use) on caregiver supervision and subsequent ability to protect children from injury. In particular, despite the prevalence of cell phone use, no research has examined the degree to which caregiver cell phone use may impair caregivers’ ability to supervise their children effectively. The present study used a within-subjects design to examine whether caregiver cell phone use impacted caregiver vigilance and child engagement with potential hazards. Methods A total of 51 caregiver–child dyads were observed in a pseudo hazards room across three conditions (cell phone distraction, pen-and-paper distraction, no distraction) to examine the effects of cell phone use on caregiver vigilance and child behavior (i.e., engagement with hazards) related to injury risk. Results Caregiver vigilance was higher in the no distraction condition compared to the two distraction conditions (cell phone and pen-and-paper). Moreover, child engagement with hazards was lower in the no distraction condition than in the two distraction conditions. Although both distraction conditions impaired caregiver vigilance, caregivers were more impaired in the pen-and-paper condition compared to the cell phone condition. Discussion Regardless the form, distracting tasks (both cell phone use and pen-and-paper task) impacted both caregiver and child behavior associated with injury risk. It is important that professionals working with parents educate them about the risks of supervising children while distracted and encourage mindful supervision to ensure safety.
Article
This paper conducts a comparative evaluation experiment of pedestrian navigation systems including smartwatches in terms of both performance of navigation and safety. First, we construct three types of evaluation systems with different navigation information presented by smartwatches. Next, we conduct an evaluation experiment of the pedestrian navigation system with and without a smartwatch, and show that it is possible to achieve both performance of navigation and safety by using the smartwatch to present only the notifications, recommended directions, and supplementary information that most users of the pedestrian navigation system need. Finally, we perform an evaluation experiment of a pedestrian navigation system using a smartwatch that includes a screen display, and show that presenting a large amount of guidance information on the smartwatch degrades not only safety but also navigation performance. These results indicate that one of the important requirements for achieving both performance of navigation and safety in pedestrian navigation systems including smartwatches is to present only the information that is actually necessary for the user.
Article
Aviation places significant demands on pilots' perceptual and attentional capacities. The avoidance of other objects both on the ground and in the air is critical to safe flight. Research on automobile driving has revealed the occurrence of ‘inattentional blindness’ (IB) whereby objects clearly located within the visual field may not detected when drivers are concurrently engaged in another attention capturing task such as a cellphone conversation. Almost no comparable research has been conducted within the aviation domain despite the significance of both ground-based and mid-air collisions. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of diverting attentional resources away from the primary task of safely flying a simulated light aircraft from takeoff to cruising. Flight naïve students were trained to proficiency in a flight-simulator and flew two simulated flights with and without a competing attentional task. Detection of a variety of objects placed in the background was measured. The results showed that when distracted by an engaging cellphone conversation novice pilots failed to detect many of the objects located within the visual scene. Recognition accuracy was greater when pilots' attention was not diverted elsewhere. There was a reduction in time spent looking at some key flight instruments but not on others. Inattentional blindness poses significant flight safety risks and further research into both the stimulus and perceiver characteristics that promote or reduce inattentional blindness would be of significant benefit to aviation safety.
Article
Falls and severe head injuries have been increasingly associated with the use of smartphones while walking. A growing body of academic research identifies cognitive, perceptual, and motor deficits caused by smartphone use while walking. Despite the dangers associated with smartphone use while walking, the true prevalence can be challenging to assess. To better address the growing injury risk related to smartphone-induced distraction, we have built a smartphone-based data collection tool to assess smartphone use frequency while walking. In the current study, 35 participants installed the data collection app on their Android smartphones. On average, the application collected 520 data points per day. The application also indicated participants walked 12% of their day, and 49% of their time walking included smartphone use. The current study demonstrates the prevalence of smartphone-induced distraction while walking and smartphone applications' potential efficacy to collect behavioral data.
Article
Purpose Erroneous pedestrian perception and comprehension of the walking environment have been recognized as the culprit in unsafe walking. There have been many studies to understand how pedestrian perception and comprehension of the surrounding situation are affected in laboratory settings. However, the real walking environment is characterized as a complex combination of various dynamic and static objects, all of which are important for pedestrian safety and diversely affect pedestrians. Therefore, this study aims to understand how pedestrian perception and comprehension of a pedestrian's surroundings are affected by the types and states (i.e., dynamic or static) of the perceived objects as well as the complexity of the walking environment using real-world experiments. Methods In this study, the pedestrians’ level of perception and comprehension of various static (e.g., traffic lights, signs) and dynamic (e.g., other pedestrians, cars) objects were measured using the Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique while they walked through different walking zones. Results and contributions The results indicated that the pedestrians' awareness was more affected by the type of information that the objects delivered (e.g., safety-related information) and the complexity of the walking environment than the objects’ state. This study demonstrates the differences in pedestrian perception and comprehension based on the characteristics of the walking environment to help determine ways that can enhance the awareness of pedestrians to improve walking safety.
Article
Mobile phone distraction is a significant contributor to pedestrian injuries. However, mobile phone engagement among pedestrians has been scarcely explored in a developing country like India. The present study utilized the beliefs-based theory of planned behaviour to examine the association between pedestrian beliefs towards distracted walking (behavioural, normative, and control) and their mobile phone use frequencies. Based on a survey of 560 pedestrians (64.6% males), it was found that the major use of mobile phones was for listening to music (30.7%), followed by receiving a call (25%), making a call (18.9%), texting (9.8%), navigation (8.5%) and internet browsing (7.1%). A series of multivariate ANOVAs and logistic regression models were developed to investigate the relationships between the beliefs and frequencies of mobile phone use in hands-free and hand-held conditions. Significant multivariate differences were found for behavioural and normative beliefs in hands-free conditions and all three types of beliefs in hand-held conditions. The frequency of mobile phone use was significantly predicted by normative beliefs (p < 0.001) in the hands-free condition, and by behavioural (p = 0.041) and normative beliefs (p = 0.004) in the hand-held condition. The findings may assist the road safety countermeasures in addressing the issue of pedestrian distraction.
Article
This article first situates media multitasking in the changing media ecology. Then, grounded in concepts of stress and flow, limited capacity, and threaded cognition, it develops a four-dimensional theory of media multitasking intensity. Based on the key aspects of media multitasking intensity, the subsequent section proposes two primary influences (executive functioning and self-regulation) and one primary outcome (general stress). An application example focuses on several media multitasking issues and the stress outcome for adolescents within their family environment. The final section suggests a few key methodological implications for studying the theory of media multitasking intensity (self-report, and both temporal and social contexts). The theory of media multitasking intensity generates insights about the functional (i.e., valuable) variation within experiences of media as they overlap with and interrupt experiences of the physical and mediated world.
Article
We examine the effect of an integrity pilot campaign on undergraduates' behavior. As with many costly small-scale experiments and pilot programs, our statistical inference has to rely on small sample size. To tackle this issue, we perform a Bayesian retrospective power analysis. In our setup, a lecturer intentionally makes mistakes that favors students' grades, who decide whether to disclose them or not. We find evidence that at least in the short term, the pilot campaign has a positive impact on the students' disclosure probability.
Article
Studies have repeatedly highlighted the inferior performance of mobile users relative to that of personal computer (PC) users, largely due to lower usability and higher search costs arising from the use of smaller screens. Research, however, has yet to substantively address the situation in which mobile users perform tasks that require information processing without information search, implying an absence of device-related performance differences in such situations. Against this background, we propose that mobile task performance may be inferior in cognitive tasks, even when usability and search costs cannot be used as explanatory mechanisms, due to the predisposition of users to process information differently on different devices. We provide evidence in support of this proposition in two experiments. We find that mobile users perform worse (less accurately) than PC users do when the tasks demand high cognitive load. By contrast, when the tasks demand low cognitive load, performance is comparable across devices. We observe this interaction effect for different types of cognitive load – intrinsic and extraneous – despite their opposite effects on task performance. In so doing, we extend existing explanations of mobile task performance and shed light on the boundary conditions under which mobile use negatively affects task performance.
Article
The present study aims to investigate the impact of social information on pedestrians’ red-light violation compared to non-social information. The binary logistic regression model predicting signal violation behaviour highlighted that crossing speed, waiting time for safe crossing, and signal cycle length significantly influence the signal violation behaviour. According to the social information estimates, the more pedestrians waiting at the intersection, the more it reduces the likelihood of an oncoming pedestrian’s signal violation. Interestingly, an oncoming pedestrian is more likely to cross in the red light signal when neighbours were doing the same. These results provide insightful information for planners and policymakers. Practical implications such as adjusting the red-light duration and information dissemination on the ‘‘positive value of social control’’ through community campaigns could eventually encourage people to obey traffic light rules.
Article
Full-text available
Inattentional blindness occurs when one fails to notice a fully visible stimulus because one's attention is on another task. Researchers have suggested that expertise at this other task should reduce rates of inattentional blindness. However, research on the topic has produced mixed findings. To gain clarity on the issue, we meta-analyzed the extant studies ( K = 14; N = 1153). On average, experts showed only a slight reduction in rates of inattentional blindness: 62% of novices experienced inattentional blindness compared to 56% of experts, weighted odds ratio = 1.33, 95% CI [0.78, 2.28]. The relevance of the stimuli to the experts’ domain of expertise showed no notable moderating effects. The low number of the included studies, and the small sample sizes of the original studies, weaken our conclusions. Nonetheless, when taken together, the available evidence provides little support for any reliable influence of expertise on rates of inattentional blindness.
Article
Introduction: This study sought to examine stairway safety by identifying associations between fall-related events on stairways, distractions, gait speed, drifting, as well as handrail use and proximity. Method: Video recordings captured 11,137 observations of stair users in two public stairways and recorded distractions (e.g., looking at a mobile device, talking on a mobile device, using earbuds or headphones, holding a mobile device, or talking with a peer), gait speed (m/s), drifting (change of direction), as well as handrail use and proximity to a handrail. Results: In our sample, consisting of primarily young adults (observed 18-40 years old), we found that when a distraction was present, gait speed was reduced (p <.001), drifting increased (p <.001), and handrail use negatively impacted (p <.001) compared to stair users who were not distracted. Conclusions: These results indicate that distractions, such as mobile devices, used during stair negotiation can reduce handrail use and increase behaviors associated with fall-related events. Practical applications: Mobile device use during stairway negotiation increases the likelihood of distraction-induced events. Stair users should be encouraged to limit or avoid mobile device use in public stairway environments. Mobile manufacturers and mobile app developers could aim to develop strategies or mobile app alerts to reduce the impact of distractions (e.g., mobile device use) during stair negotiation to lessen the health and financial burden associated with fall-related events on stairways.
Article
Cél: Napjaink rohanó világában a közúti közlekedésben részt vevő járművezetők hajlamosak fő tevékenységük – a járművezetés – mellett más, számukra fontos, és ezáltal jelentős szellemi kapacitást igénylő tevékenységet is végezni, például technikai eszközök segítségével szóban vagy írásban kommunikálni, a járművezetéstől teljesen független témában. Az ilyen figyelemelvonó tevékenységeket – azok baleseti kockázatot fokozó jellege miatt – a jogrendszerek általában tilalmazzák, bár nem teljes mértékben. A kézben tartott mobil rádiótelefon használata tilos ugyan, de a kihangosítóval való kommunikáció nem. Jelen tanulmány célja annak vizsgálata, hogy mennyire biztonságos azonos időben vezetni és telefonon beszélni, s miként befolyásolja a telefonhasználat a vezető figyelmét.Módszertan: A tanulmány azon korábbi kutatások rendszerbe foglalt bemutatása, melyek a menet közbeni telefonhasználat és a közlekedési balesetek bekövetkezésének összefüggéseit vizsgálták. Az egyre korszerűbbnek tekintett járművekben elhelyezett fedélzeti számítógépek egyre nagyobb számú és szélesebb körű szolgáltatást kínálnak, mellyel kapcsoltban felmerül a kérdés: képes-e a technikai újítás csökkenteni a közlekedési balesetek gyakoriságát?Megállapítások: Közúti közlekedésbiztonsági szempontból a figyelemelterelés, és ezáltal a telefonhasználat legfontosabb negatív hatásai közé tartoznak a kognitív zavarok, amelyet számos pszichológiai vizsgálattal támasztottak alá. Bár a járművezető alkalmas lehet kétféle tevékenység végrehajtására, azonban az autóvezetés során a megosztott figyelem súlyos következményekkel járhat. Sőt bizonyított az is, hogy a mobiltelefonos beszélgetés a befejezése után is zavaró hatást gyakorol a vezetőre. A közlekedési szituáció kimenetele a járművezető helyzettudatosságától is függ.Érték: A megállapítások alapot szolgáltatnak egyfelől a járművezető-képzés során folytatott pedagógia munkához, másfelől a rendőrség ellenőrző és szabályszegéseket szankcionáló tevékenységéhez. A jövőbeni kutatásokkal az is bizonyíthatóvá válik, hogy a telefonbeszélgetéseken kívül az egyre gyorsabb fejlődést mutató telefonos applikációk használata milyen veszélyt jelenthetnek a járművezetőkre, ha vezetés közben használják azokat.
Article
The growing prevalence of technological distractions amongst pedestrians makes it an important road safety concern. Observational studies are considered a reliable method to investigate the influence of mobile phone distraction on pedestrian road crossing behaviour and crash risks. The present study conducts a systematic review of international literature on pedestrian distraction observations by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 792 studies were identified from the literature search on six research databases: Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Transportation Research International Documentation (TRID). Finally, 39 research articles were assessed using the systematic classification scheme based on the following five research aspects: prevalence of mobile phone distraction, study locations, performance measures, analysis techniques, and additional factors associated with mobile phone use among pedestrians. Over 35% of the studies were conducted in the United States of America (USA) and 69% of the investigations were done in the last five years. Overall, the findings across the studies indicate that mobile phone distraction plays a major role in pedestrian risky road crossing behaviour and violation tendencies. Visual distractions (such as texting) exhibited higher behavioural impairment compared to cognitive distractions (e.g., listening to music, and conversations). Pedestrian characteristics such as gender and age were the key factors examined in 77% and 67% of the observational studies. Finally, important directions for future research are illustrated to aid the researchers working in the area of pedestrian safety.
Article
Full-text available
In previous years, concerns have been repeatedly raised regarding the impact of parental use of smartphones and other portable digital devices (PDD) in the presence of infants and young children on children's development. Recently, this topic gainedmore attention by researchers. Therefore, this review aimed at answering the following questions based on the current state of research: How does parental use of PDD in the presence of their 0-3-year-old child affect the quality of the parent-child interaction and relationship, their child's affective and physiological regulation as well as social-emotional and cognitive development? The literature search of six databases based on previously established criteria resulted in 22 articles. The results suggest that parents are less sensitive and responsive towards their children while using PDD. Furthermore, negative effects on children's affect and physiological regulation during parental device use were reported, which appear not to persist beyond the period of use. Moreover, parental technoference in everyday life might affect the parent-child relationship, although respective findings are inconsistent. Furthermore, parental technoference appears to be associated with impaired child learning. Further research is needed to determine the extent of parental use and specific patterns of use leading to lasting negative consequences for child development.
Preprint
Full-text available
Article
Background Dual-task interference is a concern when users attempt to use head mounted displays (HMD) while performing seated manual control tasks. Auditory warnings of information displayed on the HMD may or may not assist users while multi-tasking. Objective In this study, we investigated the dual-task interference of words, to be remembered later, presented on a HMD and motor control in a manual tracking task. The word presentations were warned or not warned with auditory signals and the impact of audio warnings were examined. Methods Participants were required to perform five tasks: (1) a compensatory tracking task performed alone, (2) a word memory task performed alone, (3) a tracking and word memory task, (4) a word memory task with words preceded by audial signals, and (5) a tracking and word memory task with words preceded by audial signals. In addition, in the dual-tasks, half of the word presentations were paired with directions changes in the tracking task to test for immediate perceptual interference. Results There were significant dual task costs for both mean tracking error and later word recall. Additionally, participants took significantly longer to respond to motion changes paired with word presentations than motion changes not paired with word presentations. However, the impact of auditory warnings on tracking performance was nuanced. Conclusion Even with an in field of view transparent HMD momentary and sustained cognitive dual-task interference remains. Reaction times are affected most in the worst case scenario, when task critical events occur at the same time as a text message. Application The use of HMDs in time critical manual control tasks (such as operating machinery) should be limited. The use of audial warnings to alert operators to information displayed on an HMD requires further research; it may disrupt appropriate or natural task ordering.
Article
Full-text available
The 1st of 2 experiments with a total of 8 undergraduates examined whether Ss would take intermittent advantage of the redundancy of stories to switch to a writing task. Some Ss were trained to copy words while reading highly redundant material (short stories); others were trained with less redundant encyclopedia articles. On reaching criterion, each S was switched to the other type of reading material. Three of the 4 Ss trained with stories transferred their skill immediately to the encyclopedia, suggesting that they had not been using the redundancy of the stories to accomplish their task. In Exp II, 2 Ss were trained to copy complete sentences while reading. Several tests then showed that they understood the meaning of the sentences. Results strengthen the hypothesis that the ability to divide attention is constrained primarily by the individual's level of skill, not by the size of a fixed pool of resources. Postulated capacity limits may provide plausible accounts of unskilled performance but fail to explain the achievements of practiced individuals. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Using a closed-circuit driving track environment, we investigated the influence of using a hands-free mobile (or cell) phone on various biomechanical and perceptual factors that underlie the control of driving. Results showed that in three tasks representative of everyday driving conditions, the perceptual control of action was compromised when compared to a control condition where no mobile phone conversation was present. While conversing, critical control actions related to braking were postponed on approach to a corner. During controlled braking, as when approaching a stationary car at a traffic light, the degree of braking was reduced and braking style was altered in a non-optimal manner. During an obstacle avoidance task, car dynamics were affected as a result of the conversation. Interpretation of the results is motivated by the ecological approach to perception–action and the theory of affordances. It is concluded that a driver’s sensitivity to prospective information about upcoming events and the associated perception and awareness of what the road environment affords may both significantly be degraded when simultaneously using a hands-free mobile phone. Implications for intervention and policy are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were instructed to converse with a friend about past experiences in which their life was threatened. The results show that the number of driving errors was highest in the cell phone condition; in passenger conversations more references were made to traffic, and the production rate of the driver and the complexity of speech of both interlocutors dropped in response to an increase in the demand of the traffic. The results indicate that passenger conversations differ from cell phone conversations because the surrounding traffic not only becomes a topic of the conversation, helping driver and passenger to share situation awareness, but the driving condition also has a direct influence on the complexity of the conversation, thereby mitigating the potential negative effects of a conversation on driving.
Article
Full-text available
Subjects in a selective-looking paradigm (Neisser & Becklen, 1975) attended to one of two visually superimposed videotaped ballgames by responding every time the ball was passed in the target game. An unexpected, yet highly visually conspicuous, event, occurring about halfway through the l-rain game sequence, was noticed by only 18 of 85 subjects. Noticing was unrelated to the delay between the event and the posttrial inquiry, and explicit “iconic” instructions to describe the last image seen immediately after interruption proved ineffective in enhancing noticing rates, despite optimal visual conditions). Instead, noticing appeared to be related to the specific anticipatory possibilities within the attended sequence itself. Content analysis indicated that the latter part of the unexpected event sequence afforded greater anticipatory opportunities, and the findings suggested that noticers who were skilled at the main task were more likely to detect the event during this part, whereas unskilled noticers showed no such pattern. Results were consistent with and interpreted in terms of Neisser’s (1976) notion of the “perceptual cycle.”
Article
Full-text available
With each eye fixation, we experience a richly detailed visual world. Yet recent work on visual integration and change direction reveals that we are surprisingly unaware of the details of our environment from one view to the next: we often do not detect large changes to objects and scenes ('change blindness'). Furthermore, without attention, we may not even perceive objects ('inattentional blindness'). Taken together, these findings suggest that we perceive and remember only those objects and details that receive focused attention. In this paper, we briefly review and discuss evidence for these cognitive forms of 'blindness'. We then present a new study that builds on classic studies of divided visual attention to examine inattentional blindness for complex objects and events in dynamic scenes. Our results suggest that the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object depends on the similarity of that object to other objects in the display and on how difficult the priming monitoring task is. Interestingly, spatial proximity of the critical unattended object to attended locations does not appear to affect detection, suggesting that observers attend to objects and events, not spatial positions. We discuss the implications of these results for visual representations and awareness of our visual environment.
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. The authors found that these conversations impaired driver's reactions to vehicles braking in front of them. The authors assessed whether this impairment could be attributed to a withdrawal of attention from the visual scene, yielding a form of inattention blindness. Cell phone conversations impaired explicit recognition memory for roadside billboards. Eye-tracking data indicated that this was due to reduced attention to foveal information. This interpretation was bolstered by data showing that cell phone conversations impaired implicit perceptual memory for items presented at fixation. The data suggest that the impairment of driving performance produced by cell phone conversations is mediated, at least in part, by reduced attention to visual inputs.
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of automobile drivers talking on cell phones is growing, but the effect of that behavior on driving performance is unclear. Also unclear is the relationship between the difficulty level of a phone conversation and the resulting distraction. This study used a driving simulator to determine the effect that easy and difficult cell phone conversations have on driving performance. Cell phone use caused participants to have higher variation in accelerator pedal position, drive more slowly with more variation in speed, and report a higher level of workload regardless of conversation difficulty level. Drivers may cope with the additional stress of phone conversations by enduring higher workloads or setting reduced performance goals. Because an increasing number of people talk on the phone while driving, crashes caused by distracted drivers using cell phones will cause disruptions in business, as well as injury, disability, and permanent loss of personnel.
Article
Full-text available
The rates of deaths and injuries among pedestrians have fallen in recent years, but still remain public health problems as about 5000 pedestrians die each year. Because pedestrians have been shown to be responsible or partially responsible for many of the crashes in which they are involved, we sought to assess the relationship of distracted walking and performing routine cautionary behaviors of pedestrians crossing a busy street in a southwestern city at an intersection, adjacent a university. The behavior of 866 individuals was recorded by trained observers as pedestrians walked across a 105-foot wide street served by a stop light and zebra painted crosswalk. We defined distracted pedestrians as those wearing headphones, talking on a cell phone, eating, drinking, smoking or talking as they crossed the street. Caution was measured by looking left and right, and entering the crosswalk only when the white proceed light was illuminated. We found that only 13.5% of walkers looked left and right and entered the crosswalk while the white light was flashing. Approximately 20% of walkers were distracted as they crossed the street. Regression analysis indicated that distraction was negatively, but weakly associated with displaying cautious pedestrian behaviors. Because traffic lights were routinely ignored and lack of caution was predicted by distraction, we suggest that inexpensive education efforts target pedestrians near college campuses.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this research was to determine the relative impairment associated with conversing on a cellular telephone while driving. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the relative risk of being in a traffic accident while using a cell phone is similar to the hazard associated with driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit. The purpose of this research was to provide a direct comparison of the driving performance of a cell phone driver and a drunk driver in a controlled laboratory setting. We used a high-fidelity driving simulator to compare the performance of cell phone drivers with drivers who were intoxicated from ethanol (i.e., blood alcohol concentration at 0.08% weight/volume). When drivers were conversing on either a handheld or hands-free cell phone, their braking reactions were delayed and they were involved in more traffic accidents than when they were not conversing on a cell phone. By contrast, when drivers were intoxicated from ethanol they exhibited a more aggressive driving style, following closer to the vehicle immediately in front of them and applying more force while braking. When driving conditions and time on task were controlled for, the impairments associated with using a cell phone while driving can be as profound as those associated with driving while drunk. This research may help to provide guidance for regulation addressing driver distraction caused by cell phone conversations.
Article
Full-text available
When attention is engaged in a task, unexpected events in the visual scene may go undetected, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness (IB). At what stage of information processing must attention be engaged for IB to occur? Although manipulations that tax visuospatial attention can induce IB, the evidence is more equivocal for tasks that engage attention at late, central stages of information processing. Here, we tested whether IB can be specifically induced by central executive processes. An unexpected visual stimulus was presented during the retention interval of a working memory task that involved either simply maintaining verbal material or rearranging the material into alphabetical order. The unexpected stimulus was more likely to be missed during manipulation than during simple maintenance of the verbal information. Thus, the engagement of executive processes impairs the ability to detect unexpected, task-irrelevant stimuli, suggesting that IB can result from central, amodal stages of processing.
Article
When are involved in a crash with a motor vehicle, their injuries are typically high if the vehicle is travelling at more than 40 km/h ( , 1981
Article
Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell-phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that even when participants looked directly at objects in the driving environment, they were less likely to create a durable memory of those objects if they were conversing on a cell phone. This pattern was obtained for objects of both high and low relevance, suggesting that very little semantic analysis of the objects occurs outside the restricted focus of attention. Moreover, in-vehicle conversations do not interfere with driving as much as cell-phone conversations do, because drivers are better able to synchronize the processing demands of driving with in-vehicle conversations than with cell-phone conversations. Together, these data support an inattention-blindness interpretation wherein the disruptive effects of cell-phone conversations on driving are due in large part to the diversion of attention from driving to the phone conversation.
Article
Driver inattention is thought to cause many automobile crashes. However, the research on attention is fragmented, and the applied research on driving and attention is further split between three largely independent traditions: the experimental research, the differential crash rate research, and the automation research. The goal of this review is to provide a conceptual framework to unify the research—a framework based on the combination of two fundamental dimen-sions of attentional selection: selection with and without conscious awareness (controlled and automatic), and selection by innate and acquired cognitive mechanisms (exogenous and endogenous). When applied to studies chosen to represent a broad range within the experimental literature, it reveals links between a variety of factors, including inexperience, inebriation, distracting stimuli, heads-up displays, fatigue, rumination, and secondary tasks such as phone conversations. This framework also has clear implications for the differential crash literature and the study of automated systems that support or replace functions of the driver. We conclude that driving research and policy could benefit from consideration of the different modes of attentional selection insofar as they integrate literatures, reveal directions for future research, and predict the effectiveness of interventions for crash-prevention.
Article
We performed two experiments comparing the effects of speech production and speech comprehension on simulated driving performance. In both experiments, participants completed a speech task and a simulated driving task under single- and dual-task conditions, with language materials matched for linguistic complexity. In Experiment 1, concurrent production and comprehension resulted in more variable velocity compared to driving alone. Experiment 2 replicated these effects in a more difficult simulated driving environment, with participants showing larger and more variable headway times when speaking or listening while driving than when just driving. In both experiments, concurrent production yielded better control of lane position relative to single-task performance; concurrent comprehension had little impact on control of lane position. On all other measures, production and comprehension had very similar effects on driving. The results show, in line with previous work, that there are detrimental consequences for driving of concurrent language use. Our findings imply that these detrimental consequences may be roughly the same whether drivers are producing speech or comprehending it. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study examined the impact of cell phone conversation on situation awareness and performance of novice and experienced drivers. Driving performance and situation awareness among novice drivers ages 14–16 (n = 25) and experienced drivers ages 21–52 (n = 26) were assessed using a driving simulator. Performance was measured by the number of driving infractions committed: speeding, collisions, pedestrians struck, stop signs missed, and centerline and road edge crossings. Situation awareness was assessed through a query method and through participants’ performance on a direction-following task. Cognitive distractions were induced through simulated hands-free cell phone conversations. The results indicated that novice drivers committed more driving infractions and were less situationally aware than their experienced counterparts. However, the two groups suffered similar decrements in performance during the cell phone condition. This study provides evidence of the detrimental effects of cell phone use for both novice and experienced drivers. These findings have implications for supporting driving legislation that limits the use of cell phones (including hands-free) in motor vehicles, regardless of the driver’s experience level.
Article
The study was concerned with the effects of mobile phone conversation on simulated driving in different traffic environments. Forty-eight participants drove a distance of 70 km on a route which led through different environments. The environments were: rural environment with a speed limit of 90 km/h, rural environment with a speed limit of 70 km/h, urban environment of low complexity, urban environment of medium complexity and urban environment of high complexity. The experimental design was mixed with phone mode (handsfree/handheld) as a between-subjects factor and phone use (yes/no) and traffic environment as within-subjects factors. Performance on a peripheral detection task (PDT) – a measure of mental workload – presented while driving, was impaired by mobile phone conversation in all environments. PDT performance was, however, remarkably poor at the complex urban environment, even when the participants were not using the phone. Driving speed was reduced by conversation in all environments for handheld mode, but only in two environments for handsfree mode – the rural environment with a speed limit of 90 km/h and the complex urban environment. The effects on speed could be interpreted as a compensatory effort for the increased mental workload.
Article
Subjects looked at two optically superimposed video sccreens, on which two different kinds of things were happening. In the principal condition, they were required to follow the action in one episode (by pressing keys when significant events occurred) and ignore the other. They could do this without difficulty, although both were present in the same fully overlapped visual field. Odd events in the unattended episode were rarely noticed. It was very difficult to monitor both episodes at once. Performance was no better when the two episodes were presented to different eyes (dichoptic condition) than when both were given binocularly. It is argued that selective attention does not involve special mechanisms to reject unwanted information, but is a direct consequence of skilled perceiving.
Article
Two subjects read short stories while writing lists of words at dictation. After some weeks of practice, they were able to write words, discover relations among dictated words, and categorize words for meaning, while reading for comprehension at normal speed. The performance of these subjects is not consistent with the notion that there are fixed limits to attentional capacity.RésuméOn a demandé à deux sujets de lire des petites histoires tout en écrivant sous dictée des listes de mots. Après quelques semaines de pratique les sujets ont pu écrire les mots dictés, découvrir des relations entre ces mots et les classer selon leur sens tant en lisant à une vitesse normale et en comprenant ce qu'ils lisaient. La performance de ces sujets est en désaccord avec l'idée que la capacité d'attention à des limites fixes.
Article
Although we intuitively believe that salient or distinctive objects will capture our attention, surprisingly often they do not. For example, drivers may fail to notice another car when trying to turn or a person may fail to see a friend in a cinema when looking for an empty seat, even if the friend is waving. The study of attentional capture has focused primarily on measuring the effect of an irrelevant stimulus on task performance. In essence, these studies explore how well observers can ignore something they expect but know to be irrelevant. By contrast, the real-world examples above raise a different question: how likely are subjects to notice something salient and potentially relevant that they do not expect? Recently, several new paradigms exploring this question have found that, quite often, unexpected objects fail to capture attention, a phenomenon known as ‘inattentional blindness’. This review considers evidence for the effects of irrelevant features both on performance (‘implicit attentional capture’) and on awareness (‘explicit attentional capture’). Taken together, traditional studies of implicit attentional capture and recent studies of inattentional blindness provide a more complete understanding of the varieties of attentional capture, both in the laboratory and in the real world.
Article
Why are hands-free mobile telephones linked to driver distraction and increased involvement in accidents? We suggest that during normal in-car conversation, both the driver and passenger will suppress conversation when the demands of the road become too great. However, a remote speaker on a mobile telephone has no access to the same visual input as the driver, and will be less likely to pace the conversation according to roadway demands. To test this hypothesis pairs of naïve participants drove a circuit of roads including dual carriageways, rural, urban and suburban roads in Nottinghamshire, UK. One of the participants in each pair was the driver, while the other was the conversational partner. Across three laps of the circuit the partner engaged in a verbal task with the driver while sat in the same car (with or without a blindfold), or via a hands-free mobile (cellular) telephone. The number of utterances, words, and questions were analysed for both drivers and passengers across the different types of road. The results demonstrated that the normal in-car conversations were suppressed during the most demanding urban roads. The mobile telephone condition prevented suppression from taking place in the passengers’ conversations, and even encouraged drivers to make more utterances that they would normally do with a normal in-car conversation. The results demonstrate a potential problem when using hands-free mobile telephones while driving.
Article
We used a high-fidelity driving simulator to compare the performance of cell-phone drivers with drivers who were legally intoxicated from ethanol. When drivers were conversing on either a hand-held or hands-free cell-phone, their braking reactions were delayed and they were involved in more traffic accidents than when they were not conversing on the cell phone. By contrast, when drivers were legally intoxicated they exhibited a more aggressive driving style, following closer to the vehicle immediately in front of them and applying more force while braking. When controlling for driving conditions and time on task, cell-phone drivers exhibited greater impairment than intoxicated drivers. The results have implications for legislation addressing driver distraction caused by cell phone conversations.
Article
The effect of the distance between the center of the focus of attention and an unexpected stimulus on detection was examined in two experiments with the use of the inattentional-blindness paradigm [Mack and Rock, 1998 Inattentional Blindness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. In experiment 1, the closer a stimulus was to the center of attention, the more likely it was to be detected. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and controlled for retinal eccentricity. These results suggest that low-level stimulus characteristics (e.g. location) may play an important role in the detection of unexpected stimuli. The data are consistent with previous research on the spatial aspects of attention demonstrating that the distance to the focus of attention is a critical variable. This study demonstrates that the effect of distance is similar under conditions of inattention. Theories put forward to explain inattentional blindness should include 'early' attentional factors, as well as factors resulting from later stages of processing.
Article
Dual-task studies assessed the effects of cellular-phone conversations on performance of a simulated driving task. Performance was not disrupted by listening to radio broadcasts or listening to a book on tape. Nor was it disrupted by a continuous shadowing task using a handheld phone, ruling out, in this case, dual-task interpretations associated with holding the phone, listening, or speaking, However significant interference was observed in a word-generation variant of the shadowing task, and this deficit increased with the difficulty of driving. Moreover unconstrained conversations using either a handheld or a hands-free cell phone resulted in a twofold increase in the failure to detect simulated traffic signals and slower reactions to those signals that were detected. We suggest that cellular-phone use disrupts performance by diverting attention to an engaging cognitive context other than the one immediately associated with driving.
Article
This study examines the effects of conversation mode and split-attention communication training on driving performance. The study is based on an experiment where drivers with and without communication training (pilots vs. nonpilots) completed a simulated driving course while involved in one of three conversation modes: no conversation, conversation with passenger, or conversation on a hands-free cellular telephone. Results indicate that cellular telephone conversations consume more attention and interfere more with driving than passenger conversations. Cell phone conversations lack the nonverbal cues available during close-contact conversations and conversation participants expend significant cognitive resources to compensate for the lack of such cues. The results also demonstrate that communication training may reduce the hazardous effects of cell phone conversations on driving performance.
Article
Prior research has documented the manner in which a variety of driving performance measures are impacted by concurrent cell-phone use as well as the influence of age and gender of the driver. This current study examined the extent to which different driver groups are aware of their associated performance decrements. Subjects' confidence in dealing with distractors while driving and their ratings of task performance and demand were compared with their actual driving performance in the presence of a cell-phone task. While high confidence ratings appeared to be predictive of better driving performance for male drivers (as confidence increased, the size of the distraction effects decreased), this relationship did not hold for females; in fact, for older females, as confidence increased, performance decreased. Additionally, when drivers were matched in terms of confidence level, brake responses of older females were slowed to a much greater extent (0.38 s) than were brake responses of any other group (0.10s for younger males and females and 0.07 s for older males). Finally, females also rated the driving task as less demanding than males, even though their performance was more greatly affected by distraction. These results suggest that many drivers may not be aware of their decreased performance while using cell-phones and that it may be particularly important to target educational campaigns on driver distraction towards female drivers for whom there tended to be a greater discrepancy between driver perceptions and actual performance.
Article
The current study examined the effects of cognitively distracting tasks on various measures of driving performance. Thirty-six college students with a median of 6 years of driving experience completed a driving history questionnaire and four simulated driving scenarios. The distraction tasks consisted of responding to a signal detection task and engaging in a simulated cell phone conversation. Driving performance was measured in terms of four categories of behavior: traffic violations (e.g., speeding, running stop signs), driving maintenance (e.g., standard deviation of lane position), attention lapses (e.g., stops at green lights, failure to visually scan for intersection traffic), and response time (e.g., time to step on brake in response to a pop-up event). Performance was significantly impacted in all four categories when drivers were concurrently talking on a hands-free phone. Performance on the signal detection task was poor and not significantly impacted by the phone task, suggesting that considerably less attention was paid to detecting these peripheral signals. However, the signal detection task did interact with the phone task on measures of average speed, speed variability, attention lapses, and reaction time. The findings lend further empirical support of the dangers of drivers being distracted by cell phone conversations.
Article
Research amongst drivers suggests that pedestrians using mobile telephones may behave riskily while crossing the road, and casual observation suggests concerning levels of pedestrian mobile-use. An observational field survey of 270 females and 276 males was conducted to compare the safety of crossing behaviours for pedestrians using, versus not using, a mobile phone. Amongst females, pedestrians who crossed while talking on a mobile phone crossed more slowly, and were less likely to look at traffic before starting to cross, to wait for traffic to stop, or to look at traffic while crossing, compared to matched controls. For males, pedestrians who crossed while talking on a mobile phone crossed more slowly at unsignalized crossings. These effects suggest that talking on a mobile phone is associated with cognitive distraction that may undermine pedestrian safety. Messages explicitly suggesting techniques for avoiding mobile-use while road crossing may benefit pedestrian safety.
Article
Concurrent mental workload degrades some aspects of driving performance, but drivers might be able to modify their behaviour adaptively to accommodate cognitive impairments. For example, they might maintain longer vehicle headway in dual-task conditions to compensate for slowed response times. Studies documenting such adaptive behaviours typically use steady-state driving scenarios such as car following. Yet, driving often involves tactical control situations in which drivers need to monitor multiple aspects of their traffic environment and to accommodate changing goals. In two simulator experiments, this study examined the impact of mental workload on safety margins (distances) that drivers keep when engaged in a tactical control task: passing other vehicles. Although drivers did increase their headway adaptively when engaged in steady-state car following (experiment 2), they did not adapt their behaviour to accommodate cognitive load when performing tactical control manoeuvres. Implications of this difference between steady-state and tactical control driving contexts, both for driving research and for driving safety, are discussed.
Article
Driver distraction is a major cause of traffic accidents, with mobile telephones as a key source of distraction. In two studies, we examined distraction of pedestrians associated with mobile phone use. The first had 60 participants walk along a prescribed route, with half of them conversing on a mobile phone, and the other half holding the phone awaiting a potential call, which never came. Comparison of the performance of the groups in recalling objects planted along the route revealed that pedestrians conversing recalled fewer objects than did those not conversing. The second study had three observers record pedestrian behavior of mobile phone users, i-pod users, and pedestrians with neither one at three crosswalks. Mobile phone users crossed unsafely into oncoming traffic significantly more than did either of the other groups. For pedestrians as with drivers, cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces situation awareness, increases unsafe behavior, putting pedestrians at greater risk for accidents, and crime victimization.
DOI: 10.1002/acp 606 I Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events
  • E Copyright
  • Hyman
  • Jr
Copyright # 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Appl. Cognit. Psychol. 24: 597–607 (2010) DOI: 10.1002/acp 606 I. E. Hyman Jr et al. Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception, 28, 1059–1074.
  • Klauer