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A new ergotaxonomy of the family Salamandridae Goldfuss, 1820 (Amphibia, Urodela)

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Several recent studies, particularly dealing with molecular phylogeny, have improved our knowledge of the relationships within the salamander family SALAMANDRIDAE. However, some only of these findings have resulted in formal taxonomic changes. In order to homogenize this taxonomy, we hereby recognize several new taxa at various ranks from subfamily to subspecies, and we propose a new comprehensive ergotaxonomy and nomenclature for the whole family. We also discuss some general questions of taxonomy and nomenclature, in particular regarding the concepts of species and genus, the use of taxonomic categories and nomenclatural ranks in taxonomy, the relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology, the various modes of definition of taxa (including diagnoses and cladognoses), the structure and length of scientific nomina, the status of online databases providing taxonomic and nomenclatural data, the designa-tion of nucleospecies of nominal genera and the nomenclatural status of various nomina.
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... The newt genus Tylototriton sensu lato Anderson, 1871 is widely distributed from the eastern Himalayas, Indochina, to central and southern China (Fei & Ye 2016;Frost 2022). Taxonomic assignments of the group have been highly controversial for a long time (Fei et al. 2005(Fei et al. , 2012Dubois & Raffaëlli 2009;Fei & Ye 2016;Dubois et al. 2021;Poyarkov et al. 2021;Lyu et al. 2021). Fei et al. (2005) divided the group into two species groups, i.e. the T. verrucosus species group and the T. asperrimus species group. ...
... Fei et al. (2005) divided the group into two species groups, i.e. the T. verrucosus species group and the T. asperrimus species group. Dubois & Raffaëlli (2009) upgraded the two groups as two subgenera Tylototriton and Yaotriton Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009. Fei et al. (2012 further classified all members of the former genus Tylototriton into three genera, Tylototriton sensu stricto, Yaotriton, and Liangshantriton Fei & Ye, 2012. ...
... Fei et al. (2005) divided the group into two species groups, i.e. the T. verrucosus species group and the T. asperrimus species group. Dubois & Raffaëlli (2009) upgraded the two groups as two subgenera Tylototriton and Yaotriton Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009. Fei et al. (2012 further classified all members of the former genus Tylototriton into three genera, Tylototriton sensu stricto, Yaotriton, and Liangshantriton Fei & Ye, 2012. ...
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A new species of the genus Tylototriton sensu lato from Tongzi County, Guizhou Province, China was described. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 16S and ND2 gene sequences indicated the new species as the most closely related species of T. dabienicus in Henan. The new species could be identified from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological characters: (1) body size medium (TOL 120.5–135.1 mm and SVL 61.1–65.9 mm in males, and TOL 123.5–127.6 mm and SVL 66.7–69.2 mm in females); (2) gular fold present; (3) the tail length shorter than the snout-vent length; (4) the distal ends and ventral surfaces of digits, peripheral area of cloaca, and the lower margin of tail orange; (5) the distal tips of the limbs greatly overlapping when the fore and hind limbs being pressed along the trunk; (6) fingertips reaching to the level beyond the snout when the forelimbs being stretched forward; (7) nodule-like warts on body sides continuous and no obvious. The new species is known only from the montane forests of Huanglian Nature Reserve, Tongzi County, Guizhou Province, China. We recommend the new species to be listed as Critically Endangered.
... The Asian newt genus Tylototriton Anderson, 1871 is widely distributed from the eastern Himalayas, Indochina, to central and southern China (Fei & Ye, 2016;Frost, 2021). The taxonomic study of the genus has been highly controversial for a long time (Fei et al., 2005(Fei et al., , 2012Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009;Fei & Ye, 2016;Dubois et al., 2021;Poyarkov et al., 2021;Lyu et al., 2021). It was once divided into two species groups or subgenera, the T. verrucosus species group and the T. asperrimus species group (Fei et al., 2005), corresponding to subgenera Tylototriton and Yaotriton (Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009). ...
... The taxonomic study of the genus has been highly controversial for a long time (Fei et al., 2005(Fei et al., , 2012Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009;Fei & Ye, 2016;Dubois et al., 2021;Poyarkov et al., 2021;Lyu et al., 2021). It was once divided into two species groups or subgenera, the T. verrucosus species group and the T. asperrimus species group (Fei et al., 2005), corresponding to subgenera Tylototriton and Yaotriton (Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009). To accommodate species within China, Fei et al. (2012) divided the genus into three subgenera: Tylototriton, Yaotriton, and Liangshantriton. ...
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A new newt species, Tylototriton daloushanensis Zhou, Xiao & Luo, sp. nov., is described from Guizhou, China, based on phylogenetic and morphological analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 16S and ND2 genes show that the new species is an independent lineage closely related to T. maolanensis, T. broadoridgus, T. dabienicus, T. anhuiensis, and T. wenxianensis. Morphologically, the new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological characters: (1) large body size (SVL 64.7-83.6 mm in male and 70.5-100.3 mm in female); (2) head longer than wide, prominent bony ridges present; (3) snout rounded in dorsal view; (4) tail length less than snout-vent length in both males and females; (5) dark black body coloration, except for bright orange cranial region, palms and soles, vent region, and ventral ridge of tail; (6) relative length of toes III > IV > II > I > V; (7) fingertips reaching to between the eyes and nostrils when the forelimbs are stretched forward; (8) distal tip of the limbs greatly overlapping when the fore and hind limbs are pressed along the trunk; (9) presence of gular fold; (10) vertebral ridge slightly segmented, slightly flattened rib nodules, indistinct interspaces between rib nodules; and (11) lacking orange color markings on posterior parotoids and rib nodules. The found of the new species suggests that the species diversity of the genus Tylototriton may be underestimated.
... Given our recent findings, another record of T. ziegleri from China (Malipo County, Yunnan), recently published by Ye et al. (2017), should be re-examined whether it in fact represents the species that originally was described from northern Vietnam. The taxonomy for interspecific relationships in the genus Tylototriton is controversial for decades (Zhao and Adler 1993;Dubois and Raffaëlli 2009;Fei et al. 2012;Nishikawa et al. 2013a;Fei and Ye 2016;Dubois et al. 2021;Poyarkov et al. 2021), and several nomenclatures were proposed to accommodate different species, such as Yaotriton Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009, Qiantriton Fei, Ye & Jiang, 2012, and Liangshantriton Fei, Ye & Jiang, 2012 In the nearest study, the genus Tylototriton was partitioned into two subgenera Tylototriton and Yaotriton, and further into five species groups, based on the phylogenetic topology (Poyarkov et al. 2021). Despite the phylogenetic separation of Tylototriton and Yaotriton, the morphological characters for these two subgenera/genera remain unclear (Nishikawa et al. 2013a). ...
... Given our recent findings, another record of T. ziegleri from China (Malipo County, Yunnan), recently published by Ye et al. (2017), should be re-examined whether it in fact represents the species that originally was described from northern Vietnam. The taxonomy for interspecific relationships in the genus Tylototriton is controversial for decades (Zhao and Adler 1993;Dubois and Raffaëlli 2009;Fei et al. 2012;Nishikawa et al. 2013a;Fei and Ye 2016;Dubois et al. 2021;Poyarkov et al. 2021), and several nomenclatures were proposed to accommodate different species, such as Yaotriton Dubois & Raffaëlli, 2009, Qiantriton Fei, Ye & Jiang, 2012, and Liangshantriton Fei, Ye & Jiang, 2012 In the nearest study, the genus Tylototriton was partitioned into two subgenera Tylototriton and Yaotriton, and further into five species groups, based on the phylogenetic topology (Poyarkov et al. 2021). Despite the phylogenetic separation of Tylototriton and Yaotriton, the morphological characters for these two subgenera/genera remain unclear (Nishikawa et al. 2013a). ...
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... Its presence is currently restricted to the provinces of Málaga and Cadiz. Due to the morphological and genetic differences (García-París et al., 1998) and the accumulated isolation of this subspecies, several authors have proposed it as a species (Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009). In view of the genetic isolation and decline of its populations, it is currently considered Vulnerable to Extinction (Pleguezuelos et al., 2002). ...
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Record of abundance of Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758) in its southernmost European populations: S. s. longirostris. In Europe, the southernmost subspecies of Salamandra Salamandra is Salamandra salamandra longirostris, found in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. This subspecies, whose populations are currently in decline, has been proposed as a species due to its genetic differentiation and isolation by distance. In one survey at Fuente del Acebuche (Malaga, Spain), one of its most important breeding sites, we observed 67 adult individuals. These data represent a record density of this subspecies in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and are unique even for communities of Salamandra salamandra in the north.
... The genus is subdivided into three subgenera, Tylototriton, Yaotriton, and Liangshantriton (e.g., Dubois and Raffaëlli 2009;Fei et al. 2012;Nishikawa et al. 2013aNishikawa et al. , 2013bPhimmachak et al. 2015;Wang et al. 2018;Poyarkov et al. 2021a) and includes several, as yet, unnamed taxa, which contain cryptic species that are morphologically difficult to distinguish (Hernandez 2016;Poyarkov et al. 2021a). Recent studies have provided a better understanding of the ecology, biology, taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation of these endangered species that have been highly harvested in recent years throughout South-east Asia (Phimmachak et al. 2015;Hernandez et al. 2018;Wang et al. 2018;Bernardes et al. 2020;Pomchote et al. 2020aPomchote et al. , 2020bPoyarkov et al. 2021a). ...
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We describe a new species of the newt genus Tylototriton from Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary, Tak Province , western Thailand based on molecular and morphological evidence and named here as Tylototriton umphangensis sp. nov. The new species is assigned to the subgenus Tylototriton and differs from other species in having dark-brown to blackish-brown body and limbs, truncate snout, prominent antero-medial ends of the expansion of the dentary bones, laterally protruding quadrate regions, indistinct and small rib nodules, a well-segmented vertebral ridge, and rough dorsolateral bony ridges, which are steeper anterior, and curved medially at the posterior ends. The molecular data show that Tylototriton umphangensis sp. nov. differs from T. uyenoi sensu stricto by a 5% genetic sequence divergence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 region gene. The new species and T. uyenoi are both endemic to Thailand, distributed along the Northwest Thai (Dawna) Uplands of Indochina. To clarify the species boundary between Tylototriton umphangensis sp. nov. and T. uyenoi, additional field research is needed in adjacent areas. Tylototriton umphangensis sp. nov. is restricted to evergreen hill forests in Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary. We suggest that the new species should be classified as Endangered (EN) in the IUCN Red List.
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