ArticlePDF Available

The Phytochemical Composition and Some Biochemical Effects of Nigerian Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Tuber


Abstract and Figures

The phytochemical composition of the tigernut tuber and the effect of the aqueous extract on some biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum protein, albumin and cholesterol, white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and packed cell volume were determined in rats administered different concentrations of the extract. From the result of the phytochemical analysis, the presence of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, resins, tannins, sterols and saponins were observed in the raw tuber, however only alkaloids, sterols and resins were observed in the roasted tuber. Analysis of the antinutrient composition yielded oxalates (0.25±0.65 g/100 g), phytate (1.97±0.81 mg/100 g), saponins (0.88±0.02/100 g), tannins (9.50±0.46 mg/100 g) and cyanogenic glycosides (1.80±0.69 mg/100 g). Roasting numerically decreased the levels of the anti-nutritive factors analyzed. At the end of the treatment period, the mean weights of the animals increased. The blood glucose level decreased significantly in concentration dependent manner (p<0.05) and serum albumin level increased significantly in a concentration dependent manner (p<0.05) in the groups administered the different concentrations of the extract. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) on serum cholesterol and protein and on total and differential white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The results therefore indicate the absence of undesirable effect in the use of the tigernut tuber even in the raw form at least at the administered concentration and for the duration of feeding. The findings are of nutritional, health and industrial relevance since the tuber is currently being used as food in many homes in Nigeria.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (7): 709-715, 2010
ISSN 1680-5194
© Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010
Corresponding Author: Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma, Department of Chemical Sciences, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State,
The Phytochemical Composition and Some Biochemical Effects of
Nigerian Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Tuber
Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma , Njoku Obioma and Ononogbu Ikpendu Christopher
1 2 2
Department of Chemical Sciences, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Abstract: The phytochemical composition of the tigernut tuber and the effect of the aqueous extract on some
biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum protein, albumin and cholesterol, white blood cells,
red blood cells, haemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and packed cell volume were determined in
rats administered different concentrations of the extract. From the result of the phytochemical analysis, the
presence of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, resins, tannins, sterols and saponins were observed in the
raw tuber, however only alkaloids, sterols and resins were observed in the roasted tuber. Analysis of the
antinutrient composition yielded oxalates (0.25±0.65 g/100 g), phytate (1.97±0.81 mg/100 g), saponins
(0.88±0.02/100 g), tannins (9.50±0.46 mg/100 g) and cyanogenic glycosides (1.80±0.69 mg/100 g). Roasting
numerically decreased the levels of the anti-nutritive factors analyzed. At the end of the treatment period, the
mean weights of the animals increased. The blood glucose level decreased significantly in concentration
dependent manner (p<0.05) and serum albumin level increased significantly in a concentration dependent
manner (p<0.05) in the groups administered the different concentrations of the extract. There was no
significant effect (p>0.05) on serum cholesterol and protein and on total and differential white blood cell, red
blood cell, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The results therefore
indicate the absence of undesirable effect in the use of the tigernut tuber even in the raw form at least at the
administered concentration and for the duration of feeding. The findings are of nutritional, health and
industrial relevance since the tuber is currently being used as food in many homes in Nigeria.
Key words: Cyperus esculentus, tigernut, phytochemicals, biochemical effects
The worsening food crisis and the consequent wide
spread prevalence of malnutrition in developing and
underdeveloped countries have resulted in high mortality
and morbidity rates, especially among infants and
children in low income groups (Enujuigba and Akanbi,
2005). The reliance on starchy roots and tubers and
protein deficient cereals as main staples results in
consumption of non-nutritious foods. The insufficient
availability of nutrient rich diets and high cost of available
ones have prompted an intense research into
harnessing the potentials of the lesser known and
underutilized crops, which are potentially valuable for
human and animal foods to maintain a balance between
population and agricultural productivity, particularly the
tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
Cyperus esculentus (Tigernut) is an underutilized plant
of the family Cyperaceae, which produces rhizomes
from the base and tubers that are some what spherical
(Cortes et al., 2005). The plant is not really a nut but a
tuber first discovered some 4000 years ago (Lowe and
Whitewell, 2000). It has other names like yellow
nutsedge, chufa, flatsedge, rush nut, water grass, earth
almond, northern nut grass and nut grass (Shilenko et
al., 1979). Cyperus esculentus is known in Nigeria as
aya in Hausa, ofio in Yoruba and akihausa in Ibo.
Cyperus esculentus grows mainly in the middle belt and
northern regions of Nigeria (Okafor et al., 2003), where
three varieties (black, brown and yellow) are cultivated
(Umerie et al., 1997). Among these, only two varieties,
yellow and brown are readily available in the market. The
yellow variety is preferred to all other varieties because
of its inherent properties like its bigger size, attractive
colour and fleshier body (Belewu and Abodurin, 2006).
Cyperus esculentus can be eaten raw, roasted, dried,
baked or be made into a refreshing beverage called
kuunu (Oladele and Aina, 2007).
Cyperus esculentus was reported as healthy and helps
in preventing heart, thrombosis and activates blood
circulation. It helps in preventing cancer, due to high
content of soluble glucose. It was also found to assist in
reducing the risk of colon cancer (Adejuyitan et al.,
2009). The nut is rich in energy content (starch, fat,
sugars and protein), mineral (phosphorus, potassium)
Pak. J. Nutr., 9 (7): 709-715, 2010
and vitamins E and C (Belewu and Belewu, 2007).
Cyperus esculentus is suitable for diabetic persons and
also helps in loosing weight (Borges et al., 2008).
Food contains various compositions of nutrients and
antinutrients and could have important or deleterious
effects in the body when consumed. The composition of
the nutrients and antinutrients, usually leads to side
effects found in most plants which may lead to toxicity,
hyperlipidaemia, excessive weight gain, hyperglycaemia,
carotenemia, constipation, kidney stones, body odour,
bad breath, allergies, diarrhoea, frequent urination and
acne (Anonymous, 2009). In most of these side effects,
the biochemical and haematological parameters are
usually altered. For a food to be considered safe for
human and animal health, its effect on these
parameters need to be investigated to understand the
nutritional potentials and safety of such foods with a view
to determining their acceptability.
The aim of the present study is to determine the
phytochemical composition of the tuber and to ascertain
if the tuber could have beneficial effect on biochemical
parameters such as blood glucose, serum albumin,
protein, cholesterol, red blood cell, haemoglobin,
erythrocyte sedimentation rate, packed cell volume, and
total and differential white blood cell of the rats as our
model for the research.
Collection and preparation of tigernut tuber flour and
the aqueous extract: Fresh tigernut tuber was
purchased from a local market in Katsina, Katsina state,
Nigeria. The tuber was identified and authenticated by Mr
A. Ozougwu of Botany department, university of Nigeria,
Nsukka, Enugu state. The tigernut tubers were cleaned,
sorted and washed. The fresh tubers were dried in an
oven (GallenKamp, England) at 37 C for one hour,
milled separately using a laboratory electric mill (Retsch,
5657, GmbH, Germany) to pass through a 40-mesh
sieve, packaged in glass jars and stored at 4C in a
refrigerator until analysis. A Quantity, 400 g of the fresh
milled tubers was extracted by shaking it with 3 litres of
n-hexane for one hour, three times to remove the oil. The
defatted milled tubers were dried in a desiccator under
vacuum. The water extract was obtained by stirring the
dry defatted milled tubers with seven (7) litres of distilled
water at room temperature (27±1 C) for twelve hours.
The suspension was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min
and the supernatant was filtered through white muslin
cloth and then whatman filter paper No.1 under vacuum.
The extract was concentrated using water bath at an
optimum temperature of 65 C to avoid the denaturation
of the bioactive compounds. The weight of the dry extract
was determined. The different concentrations (500,
1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg) of the extract were
Table 1: The phytochemical composition of the tigernut tuber
Phytochemical Raw Roasted
Alkaloids +++ +
Glycosides - -
Cyanogenic glycosides + -
Resins +++ +++
Flavonoids - -
Cardiac glycosides - -
Tannins + -
Sterols +++ +++
Saponins + -
+++ = Present in very high concentration, ++ = Present in
moderately high concentration, + = Present in trace
concentration, - = Not detected
Experimental animals: Adult male Wistar albino rats
were purchased from the faculty of biological sciences
animal house, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu
state, Nigeria. The animals were about 12 weeks with
average weight of 112.37±11.7 g. The animals were kept
under standard conditions for 7 days with free access to
water and food before starting the experiment. Albino
mice, 20.50±4.27 g weights were used for the acute
toxicity tests. The animals were housed in standard
cages with food and water ad libitum at room
temperature and provided with pelletized feed.
Experimental design: An acute toxicity study of the
aqueous extract of tigernut was done by the method of
Lorke (1983). Twenty five (25) male Wistar albino rats of
12 weeks were divided into five groups of five rats each
of average weight were randomly assigned to five (5)
cages labelled I, II, III, IV and V respectively and kept at
room temperature (25 C). All the rats were allowed free
access to water and feed ad libitum for a week to
acclimatize them to laboratory conditions. After this
period, the control animals (group I) were administered
0.2 ml of normal saline (0.9% NaCl) while groups II, III,
IV and V were administered different concentrations of
the extract. The extracts were administered for 30 days
to the animals using the oral route by means of
polythene cannula. The weights of the animals were
taken before commencement of the feeding experiment
and then later every six days interval. At the end of the 30
days, blood samples from each rat were collected
through the orbital technique for analysis of
haematological parameters like total and differential
white blood cells, red blood cell, haemoglobin, packed
cell volume, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and
biochemical parameters like blood glucose, serum
protein, albumin and cholesterol.
Phytochemical analysis: The phytochemical test for the
presence and absence of saponins, alkaloids,
flavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins, glycosides,
and sterols were carried out according to the method
described by Harbone (1984).
Pak. J. Nutr., 9 (7): 709-715, 2010
Antinutrient analysis: Percentage compositions of 1984) as most of these phytochemicals are thermally
some antinutrients like oxalates, phytates, cyanogenic unstable.
glycosides, saponins and tannins were determined by Analysis of the antinutrients composition of the raw
the method described by AOAC (1990). All tubers of C. esculentus showed that it contained
determinations were done in triplicate determination. 0.60±0.32 g/100 g oxalates, 2.40±0.40 mg/100 g
Biochemical studies: Serum cholesterol was g/100 g tannins and 1.08±0.69 mg/100 g cyanogenic
determined by the method of Meiatini et al. (1978), glycosides. The roasted C. esculentus tuber contained
serum total protein by the method of Wooten (1964), 0.55±0.36 g/100 g oxalates, 1.06±0.24 mg/100 g phytate,
blood glucose by the glucose oxidase method of Marks 0.67±0.40 mg/100 g saponins, 7.10±0.35 g/100 g
and Dawson (1965), serum albumin by the method of tannins and 0.86±0.44 mg/100 g cyanogenic glycosides.
Doumas et al. (1971). The levels of antinutrients analyzed were very low
Haematological studies: The haemoglobin (Ejigui et al., 2005). The presence of phytates in
concentration was estimated using the cyanome- biological systems may chelate divalent metals like
thaemoglobin photometric method. The packed cell calcium, magnesium, or block the absorption of
volume was estimated using the micro-haematocrit essential minerals in the intestinal tract (Dan, 2005)
centrifuge. The red blood cell and differential white blood thus decreasing their bioavailability (Oberleas, 1973).
cell was estimated using the improved Neubauer Phytates chelate with mineral elements thereby having
haemocytometer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significant effects on the utilization of the minerals. They
determined using the Westergren method (1957). also react with basic residues of protein. Tannins and to
The result of phytochemical screening shows that a
higher content of alkaloids, sterols and resins than
cyanogenic glycosides, saponins and tannins were
detected in the raw Tigernut tuber. However, in the
roasted Tigernut tuber, only alkaloids sterols and resins
were detected and no other phytochemical assayed was
detected. Alkaloids, saponins and tannins are known to
have antimicrobial activity, as well as other physiological
activities (Sofowora, 1993; Evans, 2005). Alkaloids are
known for their toxicity, but not all alkaloids are toxic.
They inhibit certain mammalian enzymic activities such
as those of phophodiesterase, prolonging the action of
cAMP. They also affect glucagons and thyroid stimulating
hormones, while some forms have been reported to be
carcinogenic (Okaka et al., 1992). Some have been used
either as an analgesic, antispasmodic, bactericidal
agents (Frantisek, 1991). Saponins have been reported
to be useful in reducing inflammation of upper
respiratory passage and also chiefly as foaming and
emulsifying agents and detergents (Frantisek, 1991).
Tannins have astringent properties that hasten the
healing of wounds and prevention of decay. Tannin
compounds have antimicrobial activities and are
responsible for preventing and treating urinary tract
infections and other bacterial infections. The result of the
determination of phytochemical test indicated that the
tuber possess some biologically active compounds
which could serve as potential source of vegetable
drugs in herbal medicine. These phytochemicals exhibit
diverse pharmacological and biochemical actions when
ingested by animals (Amadi et al., 2006). They are
usually present at low concentration in edible fruits, nuts,
tubers and vegetables. Roasting reduced the amount of
these phytochemicals in plant products (Piorrock et al.,
phytates, 0.88±0.02 mg/100 g saponins, 9.62±0.29
compared to those reported for nuts like the peanuts
some extent oxalates, binds to proteins thereby making
them difficult to digest in the body. Oxalates can remove
calcium in the form of calcium oxalate (Savage, 1993) in
the blood and thus may result to kidney damage.
Saponin reduces the uptake of certain nutrients
including glucose and cholesterol at the gut through
intra-lumenal physicochemical interaction (Price et al.,
1987). They also exhibit structure dependent biological
activity (Savage, 1993). The potential toxicity of a food
produced from a cyanogenic plant depends on the
likelihood that its consumption will produce a
concentration of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) that is toxic to
exposed humans. Cyanide causes an increase in blood
glucose and lactic acid levels and a decrease in the
ATP/ADP ratio indicating a shift from aerobic to
anaerobic metabolism. Cyanide also activates
glycogenolysis and shunts glucose to the pentose
phosphate pathway decreasing the rate of glycolysis and
inhibiting tricarboxylic acid cycle (Akintonwa and
Tunwashe, 1992). Odumodu (1992) and Okafor et al.
(2003) had earlier reported low contents of these
antinutrients in tigernut tuber flour compared with other
local fruits, nuts, tubers and vegetables. Roasting
numerically reduced the antinutrient composition of
tigernut tuber flour.
Acute toxicity test are generally the first test conducted in
any toxicity study. They provide data on the relative toxicity
likely to arise from a single or brief exposure to any
substance. Different plant extracts have been known to
possess different levels of toxicity which majorly
depends on the levels of antinutrients inherent in the
plants (Sofowora, 1993). Preliminary investigations on
the acute toxicity of the tuber extract of C. esculentus in
mice showed that the aqueous extract of C. esculentus
(tigernut) tuber was not toxic to mice at the administered
Pak. J. Nutr., 9 (7): 709-715, 2010
Table 2: The antinutrient composition of the tigernut tuber
Oxalates Phytate Saponin Tannins Cyanogenic glycosides
Sample (g/100 g) (mg/100 g) (g/100 g) (mg/100 g) (mg/100 g)
Raw 0.60±0.32 2.40±0.40 0.88±0.02 9.62±0.29 1.08±0.69
Roasted 0.55±0.36 1.06±0.24 0.67±0.40 7.10±0.35 0.86±0.44
Values are mean±standard deviation of triplicate determination
Table 3: The biochemical parameters of the animals at the end of experimental period
Group II Group III Group IV Group V
Parameters Group I NS 500 mg/kg 1000 mg/kg 1500 mg/kg 2000 mg/kg
Blood glucose (g/dl) 71.5±4.04 60.25±3.40* 56.75±2.50* 54.00±3.46* 48.50±4.66*
Serum protein (g/dl) 6.92±0.27 7.43±0.63 7.39±0.45 7.16±0.61 7.19±0.35
Serum albumin (g/dl) 3.35±0.48 3.14±0.72 4.08±0.29* 4.18±0.31* 3.93±0.30*
Serum cholesterol (mg/dl) 88.10±15.12 86.49±17.65 91.35±3.24 75.94±18.89 79.91±8.79
Values are mean±standard deviation of quintuplicate determination, *Means significant different (p<0.05) compared to the control.
N = 5, NS = Normal Saline
The result of the effect of administration of the various haematological parameters such as red blood cells,
concentrations (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg) of C. total and differential white blood cells, haemoglobin,
esculentus tuber extract on biochemical parameters packed cell volume and erythrocyte sedimentation rate
such as blood glucose, serum protein, albumin and is presented in Table 4. The result show that there was
cholesterol are presented in Table 3. The result showed no significant effect (p>0.05) on these haematological
that there was significant increase (p<0.05) in serum parameters. The results obtained for all treatment
albumin and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in blood groups indicate nutritional adequacy of the tuber extract
glucose, but there was no significant effect (p>0.05) on and the rat diet since they did not indicate malabsorption
serum protein and cholesterol. Since total serum or under nutrition (Church et al., 1984). These
proteins and albumin are generally influenced by total observations were related to the composition of the
protein intake (Onifade and Tewe, 1993), the results tuber extract and health status of the animals since none
obtained indicate nutritional adequacy of the dietary and of the animals died as a result of any diseases.
the extract proteins. Abnormal serum albumin usually Hackbath et al. (1983) had earlier recorded a strong
indicates an alteration of normal systemic protein influence of food components on haematological traits,
utilization (Apata, 1990). Awosanya et al. (1999) have packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration
demonstrated the dependence of blood protein on the being very strong indicators of nutritional status of
quality and quantity of protein source. The reported low animals. It is well known that various antinutritional
level of phytate in the tuber could also have led to the substances and xenobiotics can cause haemolysis,
increased absorption of protein from the rat diet. Phytate nutrients malabsorption and abnormal haemopoesis
acts as a chelator, forming proteins and mineral which could arise from liver damage (Chubb, 1982),
bioavailability (Davies and Gathlin, 1991). Since glucose antinutrient analysis of the tigernut tuber shows that it
level was significantly (p<0.05) lowered and cholesterol has low concentration of these antinutrients. The result
levels were not affected abnormally, possibilities of of the total and differential white blood cell count indicate
anorexia, diabetes, liver dysfunction and mal-absorption that the animals were healthy because decrease in
of fat, which are the symptoms of abnormal glucose and number of white blood cells is an indication of allergic
cholesterol levels in blood (Bush, 1991) are ruled out. conditions, anaphylactic shock and certain parasitism
The glucose lowering potentials of the extract may be while elevated value indicate to the existence of a recent
ascribed to modifications in glucose uptake in the infection, usually with bacteria (Ahamefule et al., 2008).
intestine. It is well known that soluble fibres generally The mean body weight change in rats after every six
increase transit time through the gut, slow emptying of days following administration of 500, 1000, 1500 and
the stomach and slow glucose absorption 2000 mg/kg body weight extract of C. esculentus tuber
(Swaminathan, 2002). Cyperus esculentus tubers have extract are presented in Table 5. A general increase in
high dietary fibre content (Umerie and Enebeli, 1997), so physical activities, food and water intake were observed
they may play a major role in lowering blood glucose for all the animals during the feeding experiment. There
level. This observation supports an earlier hypothesis was initial increase in weight which was sustained. The
that the tuber may be important for diabetics and those increased weight could be due to increased feed and
seeking to reduce weight (Kordyias, 1990). water intake observed all through the experimental
The result of the effect of administration of the various period. The increase in weight of the animals suggests
concentrations (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg) of C. that they increasingly accumulated calories from the
esculentus (tigernut) aqueous tuber extract on normal rat diet and from the nutrient rich extracts.
Pak. J. Nutr., 9 (7): 709-715, 2010
Table 4: The red blood cell count, total and differential white blood cell count haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation
rate and packed cell volume of the animals at the end of experimental period
Group II Group III Group IV Group V
Haematological indices Group I NS 500 mg/kg 1000 mg/kg 1500 mg/kg 2000 mg/kg
RBC (x10 /µL) 8.50±0.19 8.74±0.58 8.63±0.67 8.54±1.55 8.67±0.15
Hb (g/dl) 17.25±1.28 16.94±1.29 16.99±0.95 17.71±1.00 17.91±0.63
PCV (%) 44.37±2.56 46.00±1.08 45.63±4.23 45.00±0.00 44.13±1.32
ESR (mmHr) 0.76±0.12 0.73±0.07 0.82±0.10 0.70±0.55 0.69±0.07
tWBC (x10 /µL) 13.96±2.64 13.51±1.82 13.57±2.72 16.61±2.72 14.53±1.33
Neutr (x10 /µL) 2.78±0.82 2.52±0.46 1.59±0.44 2.77±1.00 3.18±1.24
Lymph (x10 /µL) 10.69±1.88 10.73±1.50 11.62±2.61 13.38±2.62 11.03±1.42
Eosin (x10 /µL) 0.06±0.07 0.07±0.08 0.11±0.13 0.09±0.10 0.00±0.00
Mono (x10 /µL) 0.39±0.20 0.24±0.15 0.24±0.18 0.33±0.13 0.18±0.67
Baso (x10 /µL) 0.03±0.06 0.03±0.07 0.00±0.00 0.40±0.80 0.12±0.15
Values are mean±standard deviation of quintuplicate determination, *Means significant different (p<0.05) compared to the control.
N = 5, NS = Normal Saline. RBC = Red Blood Cell, Hb = Haemoglobin, PCV = Packed Cell Volume, ESR = Erythrocyte Sedimentation
Rate, tWBC = total White Blood Cell, Neutr = Neutrophil, Lymph = Lymphocyte, Eosin = Eosinophil, Mono = Monocytes, Baso = Basophils
Table 5: The mean body weight of rat administered aqueous tuber extract of tigernut
Group II Group III Group IV Group V
Periods Group I NS 500 mg/kg 1000 mg/kg 1500 mg/kg 2000 mg/kg
0 day 113.25±15.09 113.50±6.62 114.74±12.20 111.24±9.62 110.47±5.83
6 day 138.05±8.00 115.20±9.97 139.00±16.02 121.50±17.65 134.40±13.00
12 day 147.30±11.47 130.32±9.35 142.94±15.35 125.38±17.26 139.34±12.42
18 day 157.07±8.60 141.90±8.20 149.40±14.57 133.90±17.92 152.14±14.02
24 day 160.15±9.47 143.80±9.30 158.10±15.06 141.02±18.45 159.14±15.40
30 day 174.95±7.61 149.92±10.45 166.48±15.87 148.36±19.06 171.28±11.53
Values are mean±standard deviation of quintuplicate. N = 5, NS = Normal Saline
Although the animals used in this study were fed with Ahamefule, F.O., B.E. Obua, I.A. Ukweni, M.A. Oguike and
normal rat diet, the tigernut tuber extract might have
allowed proper absorption of the nutrients which have
allowed proper utilization of the nutrients. Low level of
active/toxic principles may have stimulated appetite and
increased feed utilization resulting in increased weight
gain. The tuber of C. esculentus is used in making a
refreshing beverage called kuunu in Nigeria which is
consumed mostly in the Northern region of Nigeria
(Belewa and Abodurin, 2008). There have not been any
reported cases of toxicity in humans.
The present study confirms the tigernut tuber contains
important nutrients and some essential macro and
micro nutrient necessary for good human and animal
health. Roasting the tuber as a processing step reduced
the antinutrients composition. But unlike several other
underutilized crops, it does not produce any undesirable
effects even when consumed raw. The findings indicate
that the tigernut tuber which is popularly eaten raw is rich
in important food properties when compared with other
crops has no negative effect, at least in rats and
considering the economic situation in Nigeria and the
near zero economic value of this tuber, its cultivation and
consumption should be encouraged.
Adejuyitan, J.A., E.T. Otunola, E.A. Akande, I.F. Bolarinwa
and F.M. Oladokun, 2009. Some physicochemical
properties of flour obtained from fermentation of
tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) sourced from a
market in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci., 3:
R.A. Amaka, 2008. Haematological and biochemical
profile of weaner rabbits fed raw and processed
pigeon pea seed meal based diets. Afr. J. Agric.
Res., 3: 315-319.
Akintonwa, A. and O.L. Tunwashe, 1992. Fatal cyanide
poisoning from cassava-based meal. Human
Exptal Toxicol., 11: 47-49.
Amadi, B.A., C.O. Ibegbulem and A.C. Egbebu, 2006.
Assessment of the effect of aqueous extract of
(Asimina triloba) root on organ weights and liver
function of albino rats. Int. J. Nat. Appl. Sci., 2: 79-81.
Anonymous, 2009. Twenty nine (29) food side effects
you may not know.
sideeffects/side-effects.shtml. Retrieved August, 16,
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1990.
Official methods of Analysis. Association of official
chemists, 15th Edn., Washington DC., Association
of official analytical chemists, pp: 10-30.
Apata, D.F., 1990. Biochemical, nutritional and
toxicological assessment of some tropical Legume
seeds. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Awosanya, B., J.R. Joseph, D.F. Apata and M.A. Agbola,
1999. Performance, blood chemistry and carcass
quality attributes of rabbits fed raw and processed
pueraria seed meal. Trop. J. Anim. Sci., 2: 89-96.
Belewa, M.A. and O.A. Abodurin, 2008. Preparation of
kuunu from unexploited rich food source, Tigernut
(Cyperus esculentus). Pak. J. Nutr., 7: 109-111.
Pak. J. Nutr., 9 (7): 709-715, 2010
Belewu, M.A. and K.Y. Belewu, 2007. Comparative Hackbath, H., K. Buron and G. Schimansley, 1983. Strain
physicochemical evaluation of tigernut, soybean
and coconut milk sources. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 5: 785-
Belewu, M.A. and A.O. Abodurin, 2006. Preparation of
kuunu from unexploited rich food source, Tigernut
(Cyperus esculentus). Pak. J. Nutr., 7 : 109-111.
Borges, O., B. Goncalves, L. Sgeoeiro, P. Correia and A.
Silva, 2008. Nutritional quality of chest nut cultivars
from Portugal. Food Chem., 106: 976-984.
Bush, B.M., 1991. Interpretation of Laboratory results for
small animal clinicians. Blackwell Scientific
Publications, london, United Kingdom, pp: 32-67.
Chubb, L.G., 1982. In: Recent advances in animal
nutrition. W. Harvesign Butterworts, London, pp: 21-
Church, J.P., J.T. Judd, C.W. Yomg, T.L. Kebay and W.W.
Kim, 1984. Relationship among dietary constituents
and specific serum clinical components of subjects
eating self selecting diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 40:
Cortes, C., M. Estere, A. Frigola and F. Torregrosa, 2005.
Quality characteristics of Horchata (a Spanish
vegetable beverage) treated with pulsed electric
field during shelf life. Food Chem., 91: 319-315.
Dan, I., 2005. Health-fresh controversy over safety of
soya bean. The punch news paper, 26: 46.
Davies, D.A. and D.M. Gathlin, 1991. Dietary mineral
requirement of fish and shrimp. Akiyama, D.M. and
R. Tan (Eds.). Proceedings of the aquaculture feed
processing and nutrition workshop, Thailand and
Indonesia, 19-25 September, 1991. American
soybean association, Singapore, pp: 49-67.
Doumas, B.T., W.A. Watson and H.G. Biggs, 1971.
Albumin standards and the measurement of serum
albumin with bromocresol green. Clinica Chimica
Acta, 31: 87-96.
Enujuigba, V.N. and C.T. Akanbi, 2005. Compositional
changes in African oil bean (Pentaclethra
macrophylla Benth) seeds during thermal
processing. Pak. J. Nutr., 4: 27-31.
Ejigui, J., L. Savoie, J. Martin and T. Dearosiers, 2005.
Influence of traditional processing methods on the
nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of
red peanuts (Arachihypogea) and small red kidney
beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). J. Biol. Sci., 5: 597-605.
Evans, N.S., 2005. Trease and Evans. Pharmocognosy,
15th Edn., Elsevier, India, pp: 1-24.
Frantisek, S.S., 1991. The natural guide to medicinal
herbs and plants. Tiger Barks Cast, Twinkemhan,
United kingdom, pp: 1-5.
Harbone, B.I., 1984. Phytochemical methods: A guide to
modern technology of plants analysis. 2nd Edn.,
New York, Chapman and Hall, pp: 88-185.
differences in inbred rats: influence of strain
selection and diet on haematological traits.
Laboratory Anim., 17: 7-12.
Kordyias, J.M., 1990. Processing and preservation of
tropical and subtropical food. J. Agric. Food Tech.,
13: 28-40.
Lorke, D., 1983. A new approach to acute toxicity testing.
Arch. Toxicol., 53: 275-289.
Lowe, D.B. and T. Whitewell, 2000. Yellow nutsedge
(Cyperus esculentus) management and tuber
reduction in Bermuda grass turf with selected
herbicide programs. Weed Technol., 14: 72-76.
Marks, V. and A. Dawson, 1965. Rapid Sticks method for
determining blood glucose concentration. Br. Med.
J., 30: 293-294.
Meiatini, F., F. Bardelli, G. Giamini and P. Tarli, 1978.
The 4-hydroxybenzoate 4-aminophenazone chromo-
Genic system used in the enzymic determination of
serum cholesterol. Clinical Chem., 24: 2161-2165.
Oberleas, D.C., 1973. Phytate content in cereals and
legumes and methods of determination of Cereals.
J. Food Chem., 28: 352-357.
Odumodu, C.U., 1992. Antinutrients content of some
locally available legumes and cereals in Nigeria.
Trop. Geographical Med., 44: 260-263.
Okafor, J.N.C., J.I. Mordi, A.U. Ozumba, H.M. Solomon,
and I. Olatunji, 2003. Preliminary studies on the
Characterization of contaminants in Tigernut (yellow
variety). In proceeding of 27th annual Nigeria
Institute of food science and technology (NIFEST)
conference, 13-17 october, pp: 210-211.
Okaka, J.C., N.J. Enoch and N.C. Okaka, 1992. Human
nutrition: an integrated approach. Enugu, ESUT
Publications, pp: 57-58.
Oladele, A.K. and J.O. Aina, 2007. Chemical
composition and functional properties of flour
produced from two varieties of tigernut. Afr. J.
Biotech., 6: 2473-2476.
Onifade, A.A. and O.O. Tewe, 1993. Alternative tropical
energy feed performance in rabbit diets: Growth
performance, diet digestibility and blood
composition. World Rabbit Sci., 1: 17-24.
Piorrock, M., K. Baasch and P. Pohl, 1984. Biomass
production, total protein, chlorophylls, lipids and
fatty acids of fresh water greens and blue green
algae under deficient Nitrogen Regime.
Phytochemicals, 23: 207-216.
Price, K.R., L.I. Johnson and H. Feriwick, 1987. The
chemical and biological significance of saponins in
foods and feeding stuffs. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci.
Nutr., 26: 127-135.
Savage, G.P., 1993. Saponins. In: Encyclopedia of food
science, food technology and nutrition. R. Macre,
R.K, Robinson and M.J Sadler (eds) Academic
press 24/28 oval road, London, NW17DX, pp: 3998-
Pak. J. Nutr., 9 (7): 709-715, 2010
Shilenko, M.P., G.S. Kalacheva, G.N. Lisovski and I.N. Umerie, S.C., E.P. Okafor and A.S. Uka, 1997. Evaluation
Trubachev, 1979. Cyperus esculentus L. as a
source of vegetable oil in a closed life support
system. KOSM Biol. Aviakosm Med., 13: 70-74.
Sofowora, E.A., 1993. Medicinal plants and Traditional
Medicine in Africa. Ibadan-Owerri-Kaduna-Lagos
Spectrum Books Limited, pp: 159-238.
Swaminathan, M., 2002. Essentials of food and nutrition.
Volume 1. The Bangalore Printing and Publishing
Co. Ltd.
of the tubers and oil of Cyperus esculentus.
Bioresource Technol., 61: 171-173.
Umerie, S.C. and J.N.C. Enebeli, 1997. Malt caramel
from the nuts of Cyperus esculentus. J. Biol.
Resource Technol., 8: 215-216.
... Horchata, or tiger nut milk (TNM), is a natural drink typical of Valencia, Spain, that can be obtained from the tiger nut tuber (Cyperus esculentus Lativum) [9], is a sweet milkytextured drink, popular in the summer for its refreshing properties and with a rapid beneficial action against intestinal bacteria [10]. It has also been associated with preventing heart attacks and thrombosis, improving blood circulation [11,12], and reducing the risk of colon cancer [13]. heart attacks and thrombosis, improving blood circulation [11,12], and reducing the risk of colon cancer [13]. ...
... It has also been associated with preventing heart attacks and thrombosis, improving blood circulation [11,12], and reducing the risk of colon cancer [13]. heart attacks and thrombosis, improving blood circulation [11,12], and reducing the risk of colon cancer [13]. ...
Full-text available
The global COVID-19 pandemic has warned scientists of the requirement to look for new antimicrobial compounds to prevent infection by this type of viral pathogen. Natural compounds are becoming a promising avenue of research thanks to their renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic properties. In this work, tiger nut milk's (TNM) antiviral properties, with and without sugar, were studied against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. The antiviral properties of TNM were evaluated at different concentrations. The antiviral tests showed that TNM is antiviral against the enveloped bacteriophage phi 6, which is commonly used as a surrogate for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), although it did not have any antiviral effect against the non-enveloped bacteriophage MS2. We also found that adding sugar to this natural drink can improve its antiviral properties against enveloped viruses and render it antiviral against non-enveloped viruses like bacteriophage MS2. The antiviral activity of TNM depends on the TNM concentration. TNM is a natural bioproduct that could help to fight against viral infections and protect against a wide range of viral illnesses. These results confirm that the typical sweetened drink made from tiger nut extract and sugar (known as horchata in Spain) possesses broad-spectrum antiviral properties.
... The main threats to human health associated with exposure to heavy metals can be linked to carcinogens (lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic). Tiger nuts are rich in dietary fiber, which may be effective in the treatment and prevention of many diseases, including colon cancer [1], coronary heart disease [4], obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders [17]. The determinations of inorganic and organic contaminants in beverages are a matter of concern for both safety and nutritional aspects. ...
Full-text available
The need for cheap, nutritional, refreshing and local content development has increased the demand and consumption of Tiger nut drink by residents of Port Harcourt and its environs in recent years. However, the inadequate nutritional information and without nutritional facts label has made it difficult for the Tiger nut consuming populace to ascertain its health benefits. Hence, the objective of this paper was to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, and Zn), macro-minerals (Mg and Ca) and human health risk assessment of spiced and unspiced Tiger nut drink commercialized in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using standard analytical techniques after mixed acid digestion. The mineral elements were found in the order of Mg (79.87 mg/L) > Ca (50.79 mg/L) and Mg (96.82 mg/L) > Ca (68.18 mg/L) in unspiced and spiced tiger nut drinks respectively [< WHO: Mg (150 mg/L), Ca (200 mg/L)] while heavy metals concentrations in the samples analyzed were Fe (1.82 mg/L) > Zn (1.16 mg/L) > Cu (0.4160 mg/L) and Fe (2.12 mg/L) > Zn (1.51 mg/L) > Cu (0.45 mg/L) in unspiced and spiced tiger nut drinks respectively. Pb and Ni were undetected (< 0.00 mg/l) in both unspiced and spiced gingered tiger nut drinks studied. Only Fe and Cu concentrations exceeded WHO standards (0.3 and 0.02 mg/L). However, intake of these heavy metals is unlikely to pose any non-carcinogenic health risk to consumers (target hazard quotient (THQ) < 1, HI<1 for adults and children) in both spiced and unspiced tiger nut drink. Generally, results from this study showed higher concentrations of metals in spiced tigernut drink than in the unspiced tiger nut drink. This could be attributed to the combined bioaccumulated levels of heavy metals in the tiger nut tubers and in the spice used. Frequent consumption of spiced tiger nut drink may rapidly increase the levels of heavy metals in the human body and pose chronic risk to human health and also beneficially increase the levels of macrominerals in the body. Standard production processes and regulated spicing of tiger nut drink needs to be provided by regulatory agencies (NAFDAC) and made available to producers of tiger nut drink.
... In 1000 cc of clean, warm water, 5g of dry TN was dissolved, mixed, and left for 48 hours. The residue from the extraction process was utilized to determine the dosage and yield residue percentage (Chukwuma et al., 2010). ...
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Cyperus esculentus extract on Testicular Morphology and Biochemistry post streptozotocin-treatment in Male Guinea Pigs. Twenty guinea pigs were divided into four groups containing five pigs each. Group A served as the negative control was treated with 5ml/kg body weight of normal saline orally, Group B were treated with a single dose of 65mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally, Group C were treated with a single dose of 65mg/kg body weight of STZ and daily treatment with 150mg/kg of CEE orally and Group D were treated with a single dose of 65mg/kg body weight of STZ and daily treatment with 150mg/kg of CEE orally for 20days. Morphological scores and biochemical evaluation were done. Results showed a significant decrease in testicular weight, number of spematogonia, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells, levels of SOD and CAT as well as a significant increase in the level of MDA after the administration of STZ alone when compared to the control. A significant decrease in the levels of testosterone and FSH as well as a decrease in the level of LH was observed in group B when compared to the control. However, the groups that were co-treated with the extract had a better parameters and histological profiles when compared to the positive control group. CEE has a dose-dependent ameliorative effect on STZ-induced testicular hormonal, oxidative and histomorphometric degeneration.
... Besides, tiger nut tuber also has some medical values thousands of years ago (Negbi, 1992). It is generally believed that the consumption of tiger nut has a positive influence on activating blood circulation and preventing heart disease and cancer (Chukwuma et al., 2010). The tuber also helps reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, and is benefit for human's gastrointestinal health (Viuda-Martos et al., 2010). ...
Full-text available
Tiger nut is a tuber of a plant native in the Mediterranean coastal countries, which is of great interest in food industry due to its richness in carbohydrates, lipids, starches, minerals, etc. Recent studies have focused on the analysis of the phytochemical composition of tiger nut, including six essential nutrients, polyphenols, and the extraction of proteins, starches, and phenolic compounds from the by-products of tiger nut milk ‘horchata’. Few works were focused on the possibility of using tiger nut oil, a nutritious oil comparable to olive oil, as an edible oil. Therefore, this review discussed some extraction technologies of tiger nut oil, and their effects on the properties of oil, such as bioactive compounds, oxidative stability and potential hazards. The information on the emerging applications of tiger nut oil was summarized and an outlook on the utilization of tiger nut oil by-products were also reviewed.
... It was observed in the findings that the concentrations of the phytochemical properties of the tiger nut juice produced in this study were different, when compared to the reports from other studies report (Ekeanyanwu et al., 2010;Bando et al., 2020). This could be linked to the difference in pre and post harvesting methods, which the tiger nuts were subjected to. ...
Full-text available
Plants’ juices are widely consumed due to their presumed high nutritional and medicinal qualities. This research evaluated the phytochemical properties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tuber juice/milk fortified with a mixture of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Negro pepper (Xylopia aethiopica) extract. The freshly prepared tiger nut juice was fortified with 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of the plants extracts, and accordingly coded TME 0, TME 1, TME 2 and TME 3; and their Phytochemical parameters measured through standard procedures. The findings indicated that the plants’ extract significantly increased, regardless of the phytochemical parameter investigated. The cardiac glycoside level in the juice fortified with 2%, 4% and 6% plants’ extract was 4.40%, 5.11% and 5.53% respectively; while the saponin content in the TME 0, TME 1, TME 2 and TME 3 juice samples was 6.68%, 6.82%, 7.40% and 7.70% respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the anthocyanins and alkaloid levels in the juice increased from 3.12% - 3.93% and 5.13% - 7.34%, as the plants’ extract concentration increased from 0 to 6%. It was observed that the anti-nutrien compositions (phytate and tannin) of the tiger nut juice, increased in an uneven pattern as the fortification degree increased from 0% to 6%. This study’s findings will be useful in food industries in optimizing nutrient enhancement of foods and drinks, without accumulating excessive anti-nutrients in the fortified products.
... Many essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, and digestive enzymes like catalase, lipase, and amylase, are abundant (Adejuyitan, 2011). Raw tiger-nut has been shown to contain several phytochemicals and antinutrients, including alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, resins, tannins, sterols, oxalates, phytates, and saponins (Chukwuma et al. 2010). Europe, South America, Asia, and Africa all have tigernut plantations. ...
Full-text available
Fresh tigernut drink (Cyperus esculentus) was investigated for its proximate composition for ungingered and gingered tigernuts drink in some commercialized towns in Rivers State, Nigeria using the various methods described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC), 2010. The proximate analysis of the fresh tigernut drinks revealed that moisture content (86.51 ±2.10; 82.26 ± 1.36) has the highest value followed by carbohydrate (7.20 ± 2.05; 10.17 ± 1.82), crude protein (2.83 ± 0.25; 3.34 ± 0.42) crude fat (1.62 ± 0.17; 2.50 ± 0.23), crude fiber (1.52 ± 0.18; 1.43 ± 0.31) and ash content (0.320 ± 0.16; 0.30 ± 0.03) respectively for ungingered and gingered tigernuts drinks. This study observed statistically significant variation (P<0.05) in the moisture content, protein value, fat concentration and carbohydrate between the ungingered and gingered tigernut drinks. However, the fibre and ash contents showed no significant statistical variations (P>0.05). In conclusion, the results provide additional information about the nutritional value of ungingered and gingered tigernuts drinks. The gingered tigernut drinks were revealed to contained higher level of energy-giving nutrients which is found to be beneficial for consumer's population in Port Harcourt metropolis.
... Hlízky šáchoru jedlého obsahují sacharidy (cca 44 %), mastné kyseliny (cca 25 %), bílkoviny (5 %), vlákninu (9 %), minerály (draslík, fosfor, vápník) a vitaminy E a C. Ze sekundárních metabolitů jsou zastoupeny flavonoidy, steroly, alkaloidy, saponiny a taniny. Obsah alkaloidů se snižuje pražením (13,6,7,14). Olej lisovaný z hlízek šáchoru jedlého se skládá převážně z mastných kyselin, v největším množství je zastoupena kyselina olejová (67-73 %), v menším pak linolová, palmitová a stearová. ...
Full-text available
SOUHRN Šáchory (Cyperus L.) jsou jednoleté nebo vytrvalé byliny z čeledi šáchorovitých (Cyperaceae). Rod zahrnuje asi 600 druhů, mezi nimiž najdeme i jedlé a léčivé druhy. Cyperus esculentus je jedlá a léčivá rostlina, široce používaná pro své četné účinky podporující zdraví, včetně zmírnění pří-znaků spojených s neurologickými poruchami. Také Cyperus rotundus se v tradiční medicíně široce používá jako nervové tonikum a sedativum. V extraktech oddenku těchto rostlin bylo objeveno několik bioaktivních látek (například fenolické kyseliny, fenylpropanoidy, terpeny a zejména flavonoidy). Tyto mohou působit jako modulátory funkcí imunitních buněk, proti zánětu a oxidačnímu stresu, ale mají také významné neuropro-tektivní účinky, jako jsou neurogeneze a regenerace neuronů, které vedou ke zlepšení výkonu učení a paměti. SUMMARY Sedges (Cyperus L.) are annual or perennial herbs of the Cyperaceae family. The genus includes about 600 species, including edible and medicinal species. Cyperus esculentus is an edible and medicinal plant, widely used for its numerous health-promoting effects, including alleviating the symptoms associated with neurological disorders. Cyperus rotundus is also widely used in traditional medicine as a nerve tonic and sedative. Several bioactive substances (for example phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids, terpenes and especially flavonoids) have been found in the rhizome extracts of these plants. These can act as modulators of immune cell function, against inflammation and oxidative stress, but also have significant neuroprotective effects, such as neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration, which lead to improved learning and memory performance. Úvod Šáchory jsou jednoleté nebo vytrvalé byliny z čeledi šá-chorovitých (Cyperaceae). Rod zahrnuje cca 600 druhů, které jsou svým stanovištěm obvykle vázány na zamokřená místa či mělké vody. K nejznámějším druhům patří bezesporu šáchor papírodárný (Cyperus papyrus), využívaný ve starověkém Egyptě k výrobě papyru. Mezi šáchory však najdeme i jedlé a léčivé druhy. Šáchor jedlý (Cyperus esculentus) tvoří pod zemí jedlé hlízky, ze kterých je možné také lisovat olej. Jako léčivá bylina se v tradiční čínské medicíně hojně používá šá-chor hlíznatý (Cyperus rotundus) (1). Těmto dvěma druhům a jejich léčivým účinkům je věnován následující článek. Botanická charakteristika Šáchor hlíznatý (Cyperus rotundus L.) je vytrvalá 30-40 cm vysoká bylina s podzemním oddenkem se zpočátku bílými, později černohnědými až černými hlízkami specifické vůně (obr. 1). Rostliny mají trojhranné tmavě zelené přímé lodyhy, čárkovité listy a drobné květy uspořádané v květenstvích, plodem je nažka. Květenství mají načervenalou barvu, proto je rostlina nazývána purple nutsedge. Šáchor hlíznatý pochází z jižní Asie, Afriky a jižní Evropy, v současné době je rozšířen v tropických a subtropických oblastech celého světa (2,3,4). Šáchor jedlý (Cyperus esculentus L., obr. 2) je vytrvalá rychle rostoucí bylina s podzemními oddenky, které na konci tvoří drobné hlízky, tzv. zemní mandle (earth almonds, též tiger nuts, chufa, obr. 3). Hlízky mohou mít žlutou, černou nebo hnědou barvu. Rostliny jsou cca 20-50 cm vysoké, mají trojhranné světle zelené přímé lodyhy, čárkovité listy a drobné květy uspořádané v květenstvích, plodem je nažka. Šáchor jedlý pochází z tropické východní Afriky, v současné době je rozší-řen v tropických oblastech celého světa. Pěstuje se především ve Španělsku, Austrálii, Africe a Severní a Jižní Americe (5,6,7). Tradiční medicína V tradiční čínské medicíně patří šáchor hlíznatý mezi hojně využívané byliny. V kombinaci s dalšími rostlinami se používá k léčbě zažívacích potíží, bolestí břicha, neplodnosti,
Full-text available
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a root crop which is grass-like, edible and perennial plant. Tigernut has long been utilized as functional food with a lot of health benefits such as vitamins, minerals, sugar, dietary fibre and rich in protein. It is consumed raw, fried, toasted or blended with milk, dates fruits, coconut and so on. as smoothie which provides the body with essential nutrients required per daily intake. The processed tiger nut milk has a beverage like appearance to natural milk but differs in their consistency and viscosity which is obtained through blending, addition of water, filtration as well as addition of spices and sweeteners although. The tiger nut drinks are rich in sugar. This review documents microorganisms associated with tiger nut milk spoilage, different extraction methods and their effects on nutritional composition and shelf stability. Some of the preservation techniques employed especially in large scale production. Finally, this review summarize various preservation techniques that can be employed in enhancing a better shelf life of the milk derived from tiger nut.
Full-text available
Fruit seeds are leftovers from a variety of culinary sectors. They are generally unutilized and contribute greatly to global disposals. These seeds not only possess various nutritional attributes but also have many heath-beneficial properties. One way to make use of these seeds is to extract their bioactive components and create fortified food items. Nowadays, researchers are highly interested in creating innovative functional meals and food components from these unconventional resources. The main objective of this manuscript was to determine the usefulness of seed powder from 70 highly consumed fruits, including Apple, Apricot, Avocado, Banana, Blackberry, Blackcurrant, Blueberry, Cherry, Common plum, Cranberry, Gooseberry, Jackfruit, Jamun, Kiwi, Lemon, Mahua, Mango, Melon, Olive, Orange, and many more have been presented. The nutritional attributes, phytochemical composition, health advantages, nanotechnology applications, and toxicity of these fruit seeds have been fully depicted. This study also goes into in-depth detailing on creating useful food items out of these seeds, such as bakery goods, milk products, cereal-based goods, and meat products. It also identifies enzymes purified from these seeds along with their biochemical applications and any research openings in this area.
Full-text available
Twenty four weaner rabbits of 6-8 weeks of age and averaging 550 g in weight were divided into four groups of six (6) rabbits per group and used in a 60 - day feeding trial for blood chemistry and haematological studies. The rabbits were fed raw or processed pigeon pea seed based diets in a Completely Randomized Design. Diet A contained raw (control), Diet B boiled, Diet C toasted and Diet D soaked pigeon pea seed meal (PSM) incorporated at 20% level in weaner rations. The haematological parameters investigated were haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (N), lymphocyte (L) and eosinophil (E), while the biochemical components were urea, serum creatinine, bilirubin (total and conjugated), total protein, globulin, serum glutamic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxalo acetic transaminase (SGOT). Results showed that white blood cells, lymphocytes, globulin and PCV values were influenced (P0.05) for all groups. Not affected (P>0.05) by diets were blood urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total protein, SGOT and SGPT concentrations. Most haematological and biochemical values obtained were out of normal range for rabbits. Raw or processed pigeon pea did not support remarkable changes in haematological and biochemical profile for weaner rabbits at 20% dietary level of inclusion.
Full-text available
Milk of tiger nut (A), coconut (B) and soybean (C) were evaluated for their nutritional quality potentials and for possible inclusion in the preparation of various confectionary products. The milk were analyzed for the total solids, pH, protein, fat, titrable acidity, calcium and phosphorus contents. The results revealed a crude protein content of 8.07, 7.87 and 8.90% for the milk of tiger-nut, coconut and soybean respectively. The fat content was highest in coconut milk and tiger-nut while soymilk had the least. The dry matter was highest for coconut milk while soymilk and tiger-nut milk had similar (P > 0.05) percentage. The calcium content was 8.75% (A), 3.01% (B) and 9.25% (C). The phosphorus was greatest for C followed closely by A and the least for B. The total energy ( 100-1g) was estimated as 388.30 (A), 332 (B) and 100.52 (C). The study also revealed highest oleic acid (68.83%) in tiger-nut while lauric acid and capric acids were highest in coconut milk compared with other sources. It was concluded that all the milk samples are potentially good source of dietary protein and energy supplement for human consumption.
Full-text available
Yellow variety of tiger nut used was obtained from Sabo market, in Ogbomoso, Nigeria The nuts were cleaned, sorted, washed, and were soaked in water and left to ferment for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. The nuts were drained, dried in an oven and ground into flour. The flour samples were passed through a 45 m mesh size sieve. The flour was analyzed for proximate composition and some functional properties. There were changes in some constituents of the flour with fermentation time. There was an increase in protein content (7.73 -9.23%) and reduction in fat content, likewise with the ash, and starch content. There was also an increase in the sugar content over the fermentation time (7.31 -9.69%). For the functional properties, 0.56 -0.62 g/ml were recorded for loose bulk density, within the fermentation time of 24 – 72 h. For packed bulk density 0.83 -0.91 g/ml were recorded, 123 – 141 g/100 g for water absorption, 67.6 -71.3 g/ml for oil absorption capacity within the fermentation time of 24 -72 h. Changes in the pasting characteristics of the flour samples were also noticed.
This work was done to ascertain the feasibility of obtaining caramel from malted tubers of Cyperus esculentus. The tubers of C. esculentus were partially germinated for 10 days and sun-dried for 24 h. The sun-dried samples were then kilned at 70°C for 24 h and at 120°C for 5 h for further caramelization. The kilned samples were finely crushed, infused with deionized water at 60°C and the malt extract heated up to 127°C, to give a brown-black syrupy substance, caramel, with specific gravity 38.97±0.77°Bé. Reducing sugars as d-glucose in the unmalted tubers before and additional sugars after hydrolysis for 30 min were 24.75±4.54 and 64.80±2.28 mg/g of sample, and in the green malt 123.13±4.28 and 82.07±4.13 mg/g of sample, respectively.
A 4-yr field study was conducted to evaluate yellow nutsedge suppression in 'Tifway' bermudagrass. Herbicide programs included preemergence (PRE) applications of metolachlor (3.4 kg ai/ha) and postemergence (POST) applications of imazaquin (0.28 kg ai/ha) plus MSMA (2.2 kg ai/ha) or halosulfuron (0.07 kg ai/ha) plus MSMA (2.2 kg/ha). Herbicides were applied to the same plots each year. Yellow nutsedge shoot suppression and tuber numbers were determined each year. Suppression of yellow nutsedge shoots increased over the 4-yr period from < 74% in 1993 to > 83% by 1996 with two annual applications of imazaquin plus MSMA or halosulfuron plus MSMA. PRE metolachlor applications did not suppress shoot production in any year, nor did they enhance suppression from POST treatments. Sequential applications of halosulfuron plus MSMA and imazaquin plus MSMA increased shoot suppression by 17 to 24% at 3 mo after initial treatment (MAIT) compared to single applications. All treatments reduced tuber numbers (> 60%) after 3 years compared to untreated plots.
The paper reports the proximate evaluation of dry Cyperus esculentus tubers and the characterization of the oil fraction. The proximate composition was 3.63 ± 0.28, 2.48 ± 0.33, 12.88 ± 0.91, 2.68 ± 0.08, 29.67 ± 0.47 and 52.29 ± 1.46% for moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude protein, oil and carbohydrate, respectively. The quality of the oil extracted by Soxhlet was assessed in terms of acid value, iodine value, saponification value, free fatty acid content, specific gravity, melting point, solidification point and heat of combination. These implicated the oil as a lauric acid-grade oil which was non-acidic, stable, non-drying and of very low unsaturation. The value of the heat of combustion came within range for edible oils and a subzero solidification point qualified it for use in oils and oil products required to remain uniformly liquid at refrigeration temperatures.