Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex gelidus
Unit of Nanotechnology and Bioactive Natural Products, Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam - 632 509, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
(Impact Factor: 0.93).
02/2013; 6(2):95-101. DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60002-4
To investigate the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) utilizing aqueous bark extract of Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa) was tested against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and japanese encephalitis vectors, Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus).
The synthesized Ag NPs was characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The larvicidal activities were assessed for 24 h against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. gelidus with varying concentrations of aqueous bark extract of F. racemosa and synthesized Ag NPs. LC(50) and r(2) values were calculated.
The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous extract of F. racemosa against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. gelidus (LC(50)=67.72 and 63.70 mg/L; r(2)=0.995 and 0.985) and the synthesized Ag NPs (LC(50)=12.00 and 11.21 mg/L; r(2)=0.997 and 0.990), respectively. Synthesized Ag NPs showed the XRD peaks at 2 θ values of 27.61, 29.60, 35.48, 43.48 and 79.68 were identified as (210), (121), (220), (200) and (311) reflections, respectively. The FTIR spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3 425, 2 878, 1 627 and 1 382 in the region 500-3 000 cm(-1). The peaks correspond to the presence of a stretching vibration of (NH) C=O group. SEM analysis showed shape in cylindrical, uniform and rod with the average size of 250.60 nm.
The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of F. racemosa and its larvicidal activity against the larvae of disease spreading vectors. The maximum larvicidal efficacy was observed in the synthesized Ag NPs.
Available from: Selvaraj Mohana Roopan
- "Biosynthetic routes can actually provide nanoparticles of a better defined size and morphology than some of the physicochemical methods of production . In view of its simplicity, the use of live plants or whole-plant extract and plant tissue for reducing metal salts to nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention within the last 30 years    . The processes for making nanoparticles using plant extracts are readily available and less expensive. "
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ABSTRACT: Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. Biological methods
were used to synthesize metal and metal oxide nanoparticles of specific shape and size since they enhance the properties of
nanoparticles in greener route. Plant-mediated methods devoid the use of toxic chemicals in the synthetic protocols which has
adverse effects on the environment. Owing to the rich biodiversity of plants and their potential secondary constituents, plants and
plant parts have gained attention in recent years as medium for nanoparticles’ synthesis. In this review, we present the current status
of nanoparticles synthesis using devastated crops.
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ABSTRACT: Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that have emerged in reference to the combination of nanotechnology and biology. Through the convergence of these disciplines, the production of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) using biological material as reducing agents is rapidly progressing. In the near future, the application of clean, non-toxic, and eco-friendly nanostructured material will be possible in industry and/or biomedicine. Currently, there is a wide range of organisms that have been reported to be useful in producing NPs. However, the development of finer protocols and the applicability of biosynthesized nanostructures are presently under study. Silver and gold are among the most studied metals due to their potential use in medical treatment. In fact, silver NPs have been evaluated as antimicrobial agents, having been successfully used against several types of fungi and bacteria. However, the use of such material in our daily life must be carefully evaluated. This article summarizes some of the most significant results using organisms to produce metallic NPs as well as the microscopic analyses used to characterize the nanostructured material obtained, providing a valuable database for future research.
Available from: Anakkathil Sudeep
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ABSTRACT: Culex gelidus Theobald has emerged as a major vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in India, Southeast Asian countries and Australia. The species has expanded its geographic distribution from the Indian subcontinent to Japan, China, other Southeast Asian countries, Island nations in Australasian region and Australia. In recent years, a sudden increase in its population especially in the urban and sub-urban areas has been observed in several countries, thus, becoming a dominant mosquito species. The virus has been repeatedly isolated from from different geographical locations making it one of the most important vectors of JEV. Apart from JEV, other viruses of public health importance, viz. Getah, Ross River (RRV), Sindbis and Tembusu have been isolated from the mosquito. Experimental studies have shown that the mosquito Cx. qelidus is highly competent to transmit West Nile, Kunjin and Murray valley encephalitis viruses with infection and transmission rates of >80 and >50%, respectively for each virus. The species is also found competent to transmit RRV, but at a lower rate. Experimental studies have shown that the species is susceptible to chikungunya, Chandipura and Chittoor (Batai) viruses. Development of resistance to DDT and malathion has also been detected in the species recently. The invasive nature, ability to breed both in fresh and dirty waters, development of resistance to insecticides, high anthropophily and its potential to transmit important human viruses pose an increased threat of viral encephalitis in India and Oriental region especially in the light of explosive increase in its population.
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