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Stability Operations and State-Building: Continuities and Contingencies

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Abstract

The purpose of this academic colloquium was to identify principles and supporting policies of state-building that will enhance America's ability "to win the peace" while stabilizing chaotic regions. Basic to the concept of the colloquium was the idea that just as there are acknowledged principles of war that enhance the possibility of victory on the battlefield, there should be principles that, if applied during the state-building process, will enhance the chances of "winning the peace." The idea that principles should constitute the foundation of state-building and that supporting policies and procedures then flow from those principles was fundamental to the colloquium's process. The participants included scholars from a wide range of academic disciplines, active duty military personnel, nongovernmental organization staff, and governmental administrators. The colloquium's sponsors endeavored to blend the expertise of civilian academics and military professionals. Each speaker was asked to nominate several principles of peace that represent parallel ideas to the principles of war. As expected, some duplication in naming the principles occurred. The speakers addressed their respective lists of principles during their presentations. After all scheduled presentations, six independent breakout groups distilled the consolidated list of principles to a common core for each group. Next, a plenary session considered the resulting six lists of principles for further consolidation into a core list of six principles. Those principles are as follows: (1) rule of law, (2) security (military, economic, and civil), (3) legitimacy, (4) development (the encouragement thereof), (5) self-empowerment/self-sufficiency, and (6) communications (intergovernmental and international). In the process of refining these principles, the group also identified 15 specific policies and procedures which will serve to assist in implementing the principles.

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... 2 of 20 develop both their capability and capacity [2,10] to become an emerging society [4,9,11]. An extensive example of such nation-building efforts was the stability operations in Afghanistan, in which the United States Government (USG) invested enormous amounts of funds and military resources for reconstruction (i.e., restoration of war-torn societies) and infrastructure development (i.e., creation of new institutions) since 2002 [12,13]. ...
... Fundamental requisites for nation-building efforts typically include establishing basic services and functional security, governance, and economic and infrastructure systems in conflict zones [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. The constructive outcomes from these extensive efforts are deeply interrelated for encouraging conflict-ridden states to develop and attain stable, safe communities that can enable sustainable development. ...
... Nearly two-thirds of the security forces killed by insurgent attacks between January 2007 and July 2008 were Afghan police [52]. In the midst of the Afghanistan effort from 2002 to 2014, scholars from a wide range of disciplines outlined various ways to improve security while creating alliances and gathering support from local people [52][53][54], and defined the principles of state building as enhancing "winning the peace" while stabilizing chaotic regions [9] and suppressing violence, preserving life, liberty, and property [55,56]. Fluctuating security forces in Afghanistan has impacted public confidence. ...
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