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The Use of Virtual Fixtures as Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments

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Abstract

This report introduces the notion of virtual fixtures for use in telepresence systems. Tools and fixtures in the real world (e.g., a ruler guiding a pencil) enhance human performance by guiding manual operations, providing localizing references, reducing mental workload, and increasing precision. Virtual fixtures are computer-generated percepts overlaid on top of the reflection of a remote workspace which can provide similar benefits. Because such perceptual overlays are virtual constructions they can be diverse in modality, abstract in form, and custom tailored to individual situations. This study investigates the potential of virtual fixtures by implementing simple combinations of haptic surfaces and auditory sensations as virtual perceptual aids in a standardized telemanipulation task. Subjects viewed the remote environment through a vision system while wearing an upper-body exoskeleton. Eight subjects controlled a slave robot arm to perform standard Fitts' law peg-insertion tasks with and without the aid of a variety of virtual fixtures. Fixtures composed of haptic and auditory perceptual overlays increased operator performance up to 70%. Simple fixtures devised from basic elements can be powerful perceptual aids; a workstation environment might be developed to allow a teleoperator to design and implement virtual fixtures interactively. (Keywords: Telepresence, Telerobotics, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, AR, VR, MR, HCI )
... In 2021, HTC have released the HTC VIVE Focus 3 and HTC VIVE Pro2 with higher configurations in quick succession. Currently, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) technologies, which perform excellently in providing users with an interactive and immersive environment, have been rapidly recognized and widely used in many fields [16][17][18][19]. The education in the architec- Currently, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) technologies, which perform excellently in providing users with an interactive and immersive environment, have been rapidly recognized and widely used in many fields [16][17][18][19]. ...
... Currently, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) technologies, which perform excellently in providing users with an interactive and immersive environment, have been rapidly recognized and widely used in many fields [16][17][18][19]. The education in the architec- Currently, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) technologies, which perform excellently in providing users with an interactive and immersive environment, have been rapidly recognized and widely used in many fields [16][17][18][19]. The education in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry always has high requirements for students in terms of knowledge understanding and application ability. ...
Article
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With updated equipment and maturing technology, the applications of augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) technologies in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry are receiving increasing attention rapidly. Especially in education and training, an increasing number of researchers have started to implement AR/VR technologies to provide students or trainees with a visual, immersive, and interactive environment. In this article, a systematic review of AR/VR technologies for education and training in the AEC industry is conducted. First of all, through comprehensive analysis, 82 related studies are identified from two databases, namely Scopus and Web of Science. Secondly, the VOSviewer is used to analyze the current status of AR/VR for education and training in the AEC industry. Thirdly, the identified studies are classified into different categories according to their application domains by qualitative analysis. Fourthly, after a further filtering, 17 out of the 82 studies are included in the meta-analysis to quantify the actual impact of AR/VR. The results indicate that there are some limitations in the applications of AR/VR for education and training in the AEC industry. Finally, to further explore the reasons for the existence of limitations, the 82 studies are summarized to analyze the current challenges of AR/VR for education and training in the AEC industry. This study also provides insights into future trends in AR/VR for education and training in the AEC industry.
... This will be especially invasive in the augmented metaverse in which user gaze, gait, and reach will be monitored in the real world, for example while shopping in augmented physical stores. This may sound extreme, but real-time tracking of manual interactions with real objects goes back to the first interactive augmented reality system developed in 1992 at Air Force Research Laboratory (Virtual Fixtures platform) [7,24,26]. ...
Chapter
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The core Immersive Media (IM) technologies of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) have steadily advanced over the last thirty years, enabling high fidelity experiences at consumer prices. Over the same period, networking speeds have increased dramatically, culminating in the deployment of 5G networks. Combined, these advancements greatly increase the prospects for widespread adoption of virtual and augmented worlds. Recently branded "the metaverse" by Meta and other large platforms, major corporations are currently investing billions to deploy immersive worlds that target mainstream activities from socializing and shopping to education and business. With the prospect that corporate-controlled metaverse environments proliferate society over the next decade, it is important to consider the risks to consumers and plan for meaningful regulation. This is especially true in light of the unexpected negative impact that social media platforms have had on society in recent years. The dangers of the metaverse are outlined herein along with proposals for sensible regulation. Keywords: Metaverse, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, Regulation, Virtual Product Placements (VPPs), Virtual People, Virtual Spokespeople
... Based on this work, Clamping. To implement the clamping force, we opted to use a virtual fixture [30] which corresponds to sensory information that overlays the environment feedback. This sensory information is used to establish limits or virtual borders, in order to restrain the user movements. ...
... This will be true even in augmented reality, which will monitor as users reach for real objects in the real world, for example when shopping in physical stores that are augmented with virtual content. This may sound extreme, but real-time tracking of manual interactions with real objects goes back to the first interactive augmented reality system developed at Air Force Research Laboratory in 1992 (see Fig 3) [10,27]. Immersive platforms will also track facial expressions, vocal inflections, and vital signs, while intelligent algorithms use such data to predict each person's real-time emotional state [19][20][21]. ...
Conference Paper
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Over the last thirty years, the immersive technologies of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have steadily advanced, enabling high fidelity experiences at consumer prices. Over the same period, networking speeds have increased dramatically, culminating in the deployment of 5G cellular networks. Combined, these advancements have greatly increased the prospects for widespread adoption of VR and AR worlds. Recently branded “the metaverse” by Facebook (now Meta) and other platform providers, major corporations have begun investing billions of dollars to deploy immersive environments aimed at mainstream activities from socializing and shopping to education and business. With the likelihood rising that metaverse platforms greatly impact society over the next decade, it is prudent to consider the risks and plan for meaningful regulation. This is especially true in light of the negative impacts that social media has had on society in recent years. The dangers of the metaverse are outlined herein along with proposals for regulation.
... Active constraints or virtual fixtures were firstly introduced in tele-robotic manipulation by Rosenberg providing force feedback from virtual environments to reduce the cognitive load of the user [27,28] and have been utilized for both hands-on and teleportation applications in surgical [4-6, 9, 12, 29, 30] industrial [2,7,8,31,32] or even in underwater robotic tasks [11]. They can be classified as either virtual fixtures for enforcing barriers around forbidden regions [1,[9][10][11][12]30] or virtual fixtures for assisting guidance achieving an attractive behavior towards a desired path [2,[4][5][6][7][8]29]. ...
Preprint
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------------------ ****To be published in: Robotics and Autonomous Systems.****----------------------------------------------------------\\ This is the preprint version \\----------------------------------------------- The restriction of feasible motions of a manipulator link constrained to move through an entry port is a common problem in minimum invasive surgery procedures. Additional spatial restrictions are required to ensure the safety of sensitive regions from unintentional damage. In this work, we design a target admittance model that is proved to enforce robot tool manipulation by a human through a remote center of motion and to guarantee that the tool will never enter or touch forbidden regions. The control scheme is proved passive under the exertion of a human force ensuring manipulation stability. Its performance is demonstrated by experiments with a setup mimicking a hands-on surgical procedure comprising a KUKA LWR4+ and a virtual intraoperative environment.
... Augmented reality relates to overlaying digital environment on real-world environment (Fernández Del Amo et al., 2018), thus providing an improved sense of reality enriched by digital content, which has proven to be effective in a variety of fields involving healthcare Ramirez et al., 2013;Webel et al., 2013), and industrial applications (Lambrecht et al., 2021;Ong et al., 2020;Suárez-Warden et al., 2015;Tatić & Tešić, 2017). The emergence and application of augmented reality dates back to early 1990s with the first AR system "Virtual Fixtures" developed by the Armstrong Laboratory of U.S. Air Force (Rosenberg, 1992). For commercial purposes, the technology was initially applied in gaming and entertainment businesses (Rosenberg, 2021). ...
Chapter
polyurethane (PU) was electrospun to produce a nanofibrous scaffold by electrospinning technique and systematically examined. To increase sensitivity, the surfaces of the . Research & Reviews in Engineering 67 scaffolds were cleaned with ethanol before and after cell culture. Chemical analysis of nanofibers showed that polyurethane was mainly composed of Carbon (C) and Oxygen (O). X-ray diffraction (XRD) results suggested that PU nanofibers existed in a crystalline form. Morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before cell culture confirmed that PU scaffolds consisted of nanofibers with diameters between 100 and 150nm and randomly oriented. Cell culture showed that cleaning the PU scaffold with or without ethanol affected adhesion, proliferation, migration and morphology of cancer cells, since a high density of 4T1 cells was observed on untreated material. The shape of cancer cells changed considerably with treatment of the surface; the untreated scaffold had more rounded cells compared to treated scaffolds.
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Augmented Reality (AR) interfaces have happened intentional widely over the last few decades, accompanying a increasing number of consumer-located experiments. In this paper, we orderly review 10 age of ultimate effective AR consumer studies, from 2005 to 2014. A total of 291 documents accompanying 369 individual consumer studies have existed inspected and top-secret established their request fields. The basic offering of the review search out present the broad countryside of consumer-located AR research, and to determine a high-ranking view of by what method that countryside has exchanged. We rehash the high-ranking gifts each type of documents, and present instances of ultimate powerful consumer studies. We again label fields place skilled have happened few consumer studies, and convenience for future research. Among other things, we find that skilled is a increasing flow toward handheld AR consumer studies, what most studies are administered in workshop backgrounds and do not include ship experiment. This research will suffice for AR scientists the one be going to attend best practices in plotting their own AR consumer studies.
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