Article

ERP Correlates of Effortful Control in Children with Varying Levels of ADHD Symptoms

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Abstract

As effortful control (EC), the self-regulation aspect of temperament, has been argued to play a key role in the normal and psychopathological course of development, research adding to the construct validity of EC is needed. In the current study, interrelations between the temperament construct of EC and the efficiency of the executive attention network, argued to underlie EC, were investigated, using event-related potentials (ERPs). In general, children scoring low on EC questionnaires made more errors of commission in the Go/No-Go task and showed smaller No-Go N2 or No-Go P3 amplitudes, two ERP components related to the executive attention network. The two EC scales (Effortful Control Scale and Attentional Control Scale), used in the current study, were differentially related to the outcome, indicating that they may measure different constructs. No-Go P3 amplitude was noted to be associated more strongly with EC than No-Go N2 amplitude. EC was found to be implicated in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptomatology, as children scoring high on ADHD symptoms scored low on EC questionnaires, made more errors of commission, and showed smaller No-Go P3 amplitudes.

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... A few studies have examined the association between child temperamental effortful control and the N2 amplitude on inhibition trials in the Go/NoGo task [53,[68][69][70] or in response to a conflict in the flanker task [68,71]. For example, in a study on attentional training, it was found that children with high levels of temperamental effortful control Brain Sci. ...
... Hoyniak and colleagues [69] found that among the different aspects of temperamental effortful control, only temperamental inhibitory control was concurrently associated with the N2 amplitude on inhibition trials, measured in typically developed toddlers. Other studies demonstrated that among the components of effortful control, attentional capacities (i.e., attentional focusing or shifting) were associated with the N2 component [68,70]. For example, attentional shifting-but not other aspects of temperamental effortful control-was negatively correlated with the N2 amplitude among school-age children, even after controlling for ADHD symptomatology [70]. ...
... Other studies demonstrated that among the components of effortful control, attentional capacities (i.e., attentional focusing or shifting) were associated with the N2 component [68,70]. For example, attentional shifting-but not other aspects of temperamental effortful control-was negatively correlated with the N2 amplitude among school-age children, even after controlling for ADHD symptomatology [70]. ...
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We examined the longitudinal predictors of electrophysiological and behavioral markers of inhibitory control in adolescence. Participants were 63 adolescent boys who have been followed since birth as part of a prospective longitudinal study on the developmental pathways to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). At 17 years of age, they completed the stop-signal task (SST) while electroencephalography (EEG) was continuously recorded. Inhibitory control was evaluated by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) as well as by the amplitude of the event-related potential (ERP) component of N2 during successful inhibition. We found that higher inattention symptoms throughout childhood predicted reduced amplitude (i.e., less negative) of the N2 in adolescence. Furthermore, the N2 amplitude was longitudinally predicted by the early precursors of child familial risk for ADHD and early childhood temperament. Specifically, father’s inattention symptoms (measured in the child’s early infancy) and child’s effortful control at 36 months of age directly predicted the N2 amplitude in adolescence, even beyond the consistency of inattention symptoms throughout development. The SSRT was predicted by ADHD symptoms throughout childhood but not by the early precursors. Our findings emphasize the relevance of early familial and temperamental risk for ADHD to the prediction of a later dysfunction in inhibitory control.
... To our knowledge, only two papers to date have examined the P300 in relation to dimensional measures relevant to pediatric ADHD. Wiersema and Roeyers (2009) demonstrated positive associations between measures of effortful control-a dimension of temperament related to executive function-and P300 amplitude in a combined ADHD-community youth sample using a go/no-go task. In contrast, Yamamuro et al. (2016) found a significant correlation between P300 latency, but not amplitude, and severity of ADHD symptoms within a pediatric patient group using an oddball task; this lack of association with P300 amplitude in the Yamamuro et al. study could be due to the restricted range of symptomatology in the clinical sample and low power to detect small, crossmodality effects (r ~ 0.3 with N = 44; see Campbell and Fiske, 1959). ...
... P300. This adds to a small literature on P300 in relation to continuous levels of ADHD symptoms; importantly, this was the first adequately powered study on the topic, given small samples in prior work (Ns = 26 and 44 for Wiersema andRoeyers, 2009, andYamamuro et al., 2016, respectively). Moreover, we found that both parent-report and interview-based dimensional measures of ADHD were each associated with P300 amplitude in adolescent female participants. ...
... P300. This adds to a small literature on P300 in relation to continuous levels of ADHD symptoms; importantly, this was the first adequately powered study on the topic, given small samples in prior work (Ns = 26 and 44 for Wiersema andRoeyers, 2009, andYamamuro et al., 2016, respectively). Moreover, we found that both parent-report and interview-based dimensional measures of ADHD were each associated with P300 amplitude in adolescent female participants. ...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impulsivity and distractibility, has been linked to blunted neural indicators of executive function and motivational processing. In the current study, we examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between P300 to feedback stimuli, the reward positivity (RewP), and interview-based and parent-reported ADHD symptoms in a sample of 300 female adolescents aged 8 to 14 who were re-assessed two years later. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that a smaller P300, but not RewP, was associated with greater interview-based and parent-reported ADHD symptoms. Moreover, both the P300 and RewP predicted interview-based symptom exacerbation among participants with some ADHD symptoms at baseline. These effects were found to be independent, supporting the notion of equifinal neurodevelopmental pathways to ADHD: one related to executive function (P300) and the other to motivational processing (RewP). Our results suggest that incorporating psychophysiological measures into early assessment could be valuable for identifying youths likely to have a persistent course of ADHD.
... Across these studies, a somewhat contradictory pattern of findings has emerged. Using a GNG task, Wiersema & Roeyers [23] found that, in schoolaged children, NoGo N2 amplitudes were negatively associated with an aspect of parent-reported effortful control (attentional shifting), such that children with larger, more negative NoGo N2 amplitudes tended to have better attentional shifting skills [23]. Notably, however, parent-reported levels of other types of effortful control, including attentional focusing, impulsivity and persistence, were not found to be associated with N2 amplitudes [23]. ...
... Across these studies, a somewhat contradictory pattern of findings has emerged. Using a GNG task, Wiersema & Roeyers [23] found that, in schoolaged children, NoGo N2 amplitudes were negatively associated with an aspect of parent-reported effortful control (attentional shifting), such that children with larger, more negative NoGo N2 amplitudes tended to have better attentional shifting skills [23]. Notably, however, parent-reported levels of other types of effortful control, including attentional focusing, impulsivity and persistence, were not found to be associated with N2 amplitudes [23]. ...
... Using a GNG task, Wiersema & Roeyers [23] found that, in schoolaged children, NoGo N2 amplitudes were negatively associated with an aspect of parent-reported effortful control (attentional shifting), such that children with larger, more negative NoGo N2 amplitudes tended to have better attentional shifting skills [23]. Notably, however, parent-reported levels of other types of effortful control, including attentional focusing, impulsivity and persistence, were not found to be associated with N2 amplitudes [23]. Alternatively, using a flanker task, Buss et al. [24] found that smaller, less negative N2 amplitudes during incongruent trials in 4 -8-year-old children were associated with higher levels of parent-reported effortful control. ...
Article
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The current study examined the association between effortful control and a well-studied neural index of self-regulation, the N2 event-related potential (ERP) component, in toddlers. Participants included 107 toddlers (44 girls) assessed at 30, 36 and 42 months of age. Participants completed a Go/NoGo task while electroencephalography data were recorded. The study focused on the N2 ERP component. Parent-reported effortful control was examined in association with the NoGo N2 ERP component. Findings suggest a positive association between the NoGo N2 component and the inhibitory control subscale of the wider effortful control dimension, suggesting that the N2 component may index processes associated with temperamental effortful control. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences’.
... Importantly, the fact that N2 amplitude was not affected in individuals with NF1, but inhibitory control was, further suggests that this signal is not directly related with response inhibition. This has also been suggested by several other studies (Smith et al., 2013;Smith et al., 2010;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). ...
... Frontal P3 has been associated with inhibition of the motor response. It is more prominent when a motor response has been inhibited (Smith et al., 2013;Smith, Johnstone, & Barry, 2008) and it correlates negatively with the number of commission errors (Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). Furthermore, in stop-signal tasks successful motor inhibition, in comparison with failed motor inhibition trials, elicits a frontal P3 with higher amplitude (Dimoska, Johnstone, & Barry, 2006). ...
... In contrast, the parietal P3b response does not modulate with the success of the response inhibition (Dimoska et al., 2006). Importantly, in children, the amplitude of no-go P3 correlates with the outcomes of questionnaires on effortful control, persistence, impulsive behavior and attention focusing (Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). Accordingly, go/no-go P3 amplitude increases with increased motivational incentives (Groom et al., 2010). ...
... more broadly from those associated with the presence of psychosis. The analyses focused on reaction-time and d' measures of response inhibition and the well-characterized cognitive event-related potential (ERP) components that are typically evoked during similar Go/No-Go tasks: The No-Go N2, a negative-going ERP component peaking between 200 and 300ms and representing early, automatic inhibitory (De Sanctis, Butler, Malcolm, & Foxe, 2014;Eimer, 1993;Malcolm, Foxe, Butler, & De Sanctis, 2015;O'Connell et al., 2009) and/or conflict detection processes (Dockree, Kelly, Robertson, Reilly, & Foxe, 2005;Donkers & Van Boxtel, 2004;Morie et al., 2014); the No-Go P3, a positive potential that peaks at about 300-500ms, argued as a marker of response inhibition (Bokura, Yamaguchi, & Kobayashi, 2001;Groom & Cragg, 2015;Kiefer, Marzinzik, Weisbrod, Scherg, & Spitzer, 1998;Waller, Hazeltine, & Wessel, 2019;Wessel & Aron, 2015), stimulus evaluation (Benvenuti, Sarlo, Buodo, Mento, & Palomba, 2015;Bruin & Wijers, 2002;Smith, Johnstone, & Barry, 2008) and adaptive, more effortful forms of control Malcolm et al., 2015;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009); the error-related negativity (ERN or Ne), a component occurring within 100ms of an erroneous response, argued to reflect a mismatch between response selection and response execution (Falkenstein, Hohnsbein, Hoormann, & Blanke, 1991;Nieuwenhuis, Ridderinkhof, Blom, Band, & Kok, 2001), but not remedial action (Nieuwenhuis et al., 2001); and the error-related positivity (Pe), a component peaking between 200 and 500ms post incorrect-response, which has been suggested to reflect conscious error processing or updating of error context (Leuthold & Sommer, 1999;Nieuwenhuis et al., 2001). Additionally, given the visual nature of the Go/No-Go task employed here and the reported differences in early visual-evoked potentials in schizophrenia, when compared to the neurotypical population (Butler & Javitt, 2005;Foxe, Doniger, & Javitt, 2001;Foxe, Murray, & Javitt, 2005;Foxe, Yeap, & Leavitt, 2013;Yeap, Kelly, Sehatpour, et al., 2008) and in 22q11.2DS ...
... adaptive, more effortful forms of control Malcolm et al., 2015;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). Our findings indicate that, in the N2 time window, and as previously shown, differences between hits and correct rejections are reduced in schizophrenia (Groom et al., 2008;Kiehl, Smith, et al., 2000) (but see (Weisbrod et al., 2000) for evidence of an intact N2 but impaired P3 in this population). ...
Article
Full-text available
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (also known as DiGeorge syndrome or velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is characterized by increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric symptoms, with approximately 30% of individuals with the deletion going on to develop schizophrenia. Clinically, deficits in executive function have been noted in this population, but the underlying neural processes are not well understood. Using a Go/No-Go response inhibition task in conjunction with high-density electrophysiological recordings (EEG), we sought to investigate the behavioral and neural dynamics of inhibition of a prepotent response (a critical component of executive function) in individuals with 22q11.2DS with and without psychotic symptoms, when compared to individuals with idiopathic schizophrenia and age-matched neurotypical controls. Twenty-eight participants diagnosed with 22q11.2DS (14-35 years old; 14 with at least one psychotic symptom), 15 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (18-63 years old) and two neurotypical control groups (one age-matched to the 22q11.2DS sample, the other age-matched to the schizophrenia sample) participated in this study. Analyses focused on the N2 and P3 no-go responses and error-related negativity (Ne) and positivity (Pe). Atypical inhibitory processing was shown behaviorally and by significantly reduced P3, Ne, and Pe responses in 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia. Interestingly, whereas P3 was only reduced in the presence of psychotic symptoms, Ne and Pe were equally reduced in schizophrenia and 22q11.2DS, regardless of the presence of symptoms. We argue that while P3 may be a marker of disease severity, Ne and Pe might be candidate markers of risk.
... more broadly from those associated with the presence of psychosis. The analyses focused on already well-characterized cognitive event-related potential (ERP) components that are typically evoked during similar Go/No-Go tasks: The No-Go N2, a negative-going ERP component peaking between 200 and 300ms and representing early, automatic inhibitory (De Sanctis, Butler, Malcolm, & Foxe, 2014;Eimer, 1993;Malcolm, Foxe, Butler, & De Sanctis, 2015;O'Connell et al., 2009) and/or conflict detection processes (Dockree, Kelly, Robertson, Reilly, & Foxe, 2005;Donkers & Van Boxtel, 2004;Morie et al., 2014); the No-Go P3, a positive potential that peaks at about 300-500ms, argued as a marker of response inhibition (Bokura, Yamaguchi, & Kobayashi, 2001;Groom & Cragg, 2015;Kiefer, Marzinzik, Weisbrod, Scherg, & Spitzer, 1998;Waller, Hazeltine, & Wessel, 2019;Wessel & Aron, 2015), stimulus evaluation (Benvenuti, Sarlo, Buodo, Mento, & Palomba, 2015;Bruin & Wijers, 2002;Smith, Johnstone, & Barry, 2008) and adaptive, more effortful forms of control Malcolm et al., 2015;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009); the error-related negativity (ERN or Ne), a component occurring within 100ms of an erroneous response, argued to reflect a mismatch between response selection and response execution (Falkenstein, Hohnsbein, Hoormann, & Blanke, 1991;Nieuwenhuis, Ridderinkhof, Blom, Band, & Kok, 2001), but not remedial action (Nieuwenhuis et al., 2001); and the error-related positivity (Pe), a component peaking between 200 and 500ms post incorrectresponse, which has been suggested to reflect conscious error processing or updating of error context (Leuthold & Sommer, 1999;Nieuwenhuis et al., 2001). Additionally, given the visual nature of the further investigate the relationships between sensory-perceptual and response inhibition neural responses. ...
... In the context of Go/No-Go tasks, while the N2 has been argued to index early, automatic inhibition Eimer, 1993;Malcolm et al., 2015;O'Connell et al., 2009) and/or conflict detection processes (Dockree et al., 2005;Donkers & Van Boxtel, 2004;Morie et al., 2014), the P3 has been theorized as a marker of response inhibition (Bokura et al., 2001;Eimer, 1993;Enriquez-Geppert, Konrad, Pantev, & Huster, 2010;Groom & Cragg, 2015;Kiefer et al., 1998;Waller et al., 2019;Wessel & Aron, 2015), stimulus evaluation (Benvenuti et al., 2015;Bruin & Wijers, 2002;Smith et al., 2008) and adaptive, more effortful forms of control Malcolm et al., 2015;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). Our findings indicate that, in the N2 time window, and as previously shown, differences between hits and correct rejections are reduced in schizophrenia (Groom et al., 2008;Kiehl, Smith, et al., 2000) (but see (Weisbrod et al., 2000) for evidence of an intact N2 but impaired P3 in this population). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (also known as DiGeorge syndrome or velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is characterized by increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric symptoms, with approximately 30% of individuals with the deletion going on to develop schizophrenia. Clinically, deficits in executive function have been noted in this population, but the underlying neural processes are not well understood. Using a Go/No-Go response inhibition task in conjunction with high-density electrophysiological recordings (EEG), we sought to investigate the behavioral and neural dynamics of inhibition of a prepotent response (a critical component of executive function) in individuals with 22q11.2DS with and without psychotic symptoms, when compared to individuals with idiopathic schizophrenia and age-matched neurotypical controls. Twenty-eight participants diagnosed with 22q11.2DS (14-35 years old; 14 with at least one psychotic symptom), 15 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (18-63 years old) and two neurotypical control groups (one age-matched to the 22q11.2DS sample, the other age-matched to the schizophrenia sample) participated in this study. Analyses focused on the N2 and P3 no-go responses and error-related negativity (Ne) and positivity (Pe). Atypical inhibitory processing was shown behaviorally and by significantly reduced P3, Ne, and Pe responses in 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia. Interestingly, whereas P3 was only reduced in the presence of psychotic symptoms, Ne and Pe were equally reduced in schizophrenia and 22q11.2DS, regardless of the presence of symptoms. We argue that while P3 may be a marker of disease severity, Ne and Pe might be candidate markers of risk.
... ADHD has been associated with deficits in both temperamentally-construed effortful control and neuropsychologically-defined executive functioning (Barkley, 1997;Nigg, 2001;Sergeant, Geurts, Huijbregts, Scheres, & Oosterlan, 2003), with neurobiological and theoretical evidence indicating overlap between these broad constructs (Bell & Deater-Deckard, 2007;Wang, Deater-Deckard, Cutting, Thompson, & Petrill, 2012;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). First, they appear to have common neurobiological substrates (Posner & Rothbart, 2000;Posner & Dehaene, 1994). ...
... In addition, ratings of effortful control are correlated with performance on laboratory-based measures (Gerardi-Caulton, 2000;Wolfe & Bell, 2004). Wiersema and Roeyers (2009) demonstrated an association between lower ratings of effortful control, worse performance on an inhibitory control task, and higher ratings of ADHD symptoms. A link has also been established between performance on verbal working memory tasks and temperamentally-rated inhibitory and attentional control in children (Wang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Research examining factors linking early temperament and later attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. The authors used multiinformant/multimethod longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N = 161) with and without ADHD were evaluated 3 times: parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY visual attention at ages 3-4 years; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers' temperament were combined to form an anger/frustration composite. Similarly, an executive functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 executive functioning mediated the relation between early anger/frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers' anger/frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 executive functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early anger/frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that anger/frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Previous research suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in processes of executive attention and the detection of conflict (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001;Rothbart, Sheese, & Posner, 2007) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with inhibitory control (Wiersema & Roeyers, 2008). Notably, the experience of growing up in poverty and the stress associated with such environments has been linked to differences in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated circuitry, which mediate executive control processes (Farah et al., 2006;Hackman & Farah, 2009;Lipina & Posner, 2012;Noble, Norman, & Farah, 2005). ...
... Because our computerized tasks were selected to elicit executive attention and inhibitory control processes, we examined these two components. However, based on previous findings showing a stronger relation between executive control and amplitude of the P3 (Wiersema & Roeyers, 2008) and emerging evidence that condition-related differences in the N2 component may not be observed in children younger than 6 years old (Buss et al., 2011), it was unclear whether a pronounced N2 would be observed in this sample. ...
Article
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This study aimed to specify the neural mechanisms underlying the link between low household income and diminished executive control in the preschool period. Specifically, we examined whether individual differences in the neural processes associated with executive attention and inhibitory control accounted for income differences observed in performance on a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks. The study utilized a sample of preschool-aged children ( N = 118) whose families represented the full range of income, with 32% of families at/near poverty, 32% lower income, and 36% middle to upper income. Children completed a neuropsychological battery of executive control tasks and then completed two computerized executive control tasks while EEG data were collected. We predicted that differences in the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of executive attention and inhibitory control would account for income differences observed on the executive control battery. Income and ERP measures were related to performance on the executive control battery. However, income was unrelated to ERP measures. The findings suggest that income differences observed in executive control during the preschool period might relate to processes other than executive attention and inhibitory control.
... Moreover, the P3 is altered in clinical groups such as those with schizophrenia and ADHD (Bekker et al., 2005;Groom et al., 2008;Groom et al., 2010;Hughes, Fulham, Johnston, & Michie, 2012;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009) and the NGA described by Fallgatter et al is also reduced in these groups (Fallgatter, 2001;Fallgatter et al., 2004;Fallgatter & Muller, 2001). ...
... In particular, reduced N2 amplitude has often been hailed as a marker of impaired inhibitory control in ADHD (Barry et al., 2003;Brandeis et al., 1998;Groom et al., 2010;Liotti et al., 2005). However, this population also tend to show reduced P3 amplitude (Bekker et al., 2005;Groom et al., 2008;Groom et al., 2010;Hughes et al., 2012;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009) and altered P3 topography (Fallgatter et al., 2004) as well as a much wider range of deficits in action control (Johnson et al., 2007;Kuntsi & Klein, 2012;Simmonds et al., 2007). Establishing the parameters that modulate the N2 and P3 will improve the measurement of action control in ADHD and other clinical populations, potentially leading to a more refined understanding of the particular neural systems that underlie in specific disorders or symptom dimensions. ...
Article
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Developing reliable and specific neural markers of cognitive processes is essential to improve understanding of healthy and atypical brain function. Despite extensive research there remains uncertainty as to whether two electrophysiological markers of cognitive control, the N2 and P3, are better conceptualised as markers of response inhibition or response conflict. The present study aimed to directly compare the effects of response inhibition and response conflict on the N2 and P3 event-related potentials, within-subjects. A novel hybrid go/no-go flanker task was performed by 19 healthy adults aged 18-25years while EEG data were collected. The response congruence of a central target stimulus and 4 flanking stimuli was manipulated between trials to vary the degree of response conflict. Response inhibition was required on a proportion of trials. N2 amplitude was measured at two frontal electrode sites; P3 amplitude was measured at 4 midline electrode sites. N2 amplitude was greater on incongruent than congruent trials but was not enhanced by response inhibition when the stimulus array was congruent. P3 amplitude was greater on trials requiring response inhibition; this effect was more pronounced at frontal electrodes. P3 amplitude was also enhanced on incongruent compared with congruent trials. The findings support a role for N2 amplitude as a marker of response conflict and for the frontal shift of the P3 as a marker of response inhibition. This paradigm could be applied to clinical groups to help clarify the precise nature of impaired action control in disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Based on these findings, we expected lower attention control subjects to show lower performance in the absence of threat but that their performance would improve during shock threat. Attention control was measured using the Attentional Control Scale (ACS) (Derryberry & Reed, 2002;Rothbart & Derryberry, 1981), a well-established questionnaire that assesses self-regulatory control associated with goal maintenance, attention shifting, effortful attention and resistance to prepotent responses (Derryberry & Rothbart, 1997;Evans & Rothbart, 2007), such as nogo responses (Herrmann, Jacob, Unterecker, & Fallgatter, 2003, Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009. ...
... Specifically, during the safe condition, low attention control, as assessed with ACS, was associated with lower performance (increased nogo errors of commission) compared to high attention control. This result is consistent with the role of attention control in sustained attention tests such as SART (Herrmann et al., 2003;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). However, during shock threat, performance improvement was associated with low attention control, such that the threat condition permitted individuals with low attention control to perform at the level of individuals with high attentional control. ...
Article
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Anxiety has wide-reaching and complex effects on cognitive performance. Although it can intrude on cognition and interfere with performance, it can also facilitate information processing and behavioural responses. In a previous study, we showed that anxiety induced by threat of shock facilitates performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task, a vigilance test, which probes response inhibition to infrequent nogo stimuli. The present study sought to identify factors that may have contributed to such improved performance, including on- and off-task thinking (assessed with thought probes) and individual differences in attention control, as measured with the Attention Control Scale. Replicating our prior finding, we showed that shock threat significantly reduced errors of commission on the nogo trials. However, we extended this finding in demonstrating that this effect was driven by subjects with low attention control. We therefore confirm that anxiety increases inhibitory control of prepotent responses-a mechanism which is adaptive under threat-and show that this effect is greater in those who rely more upon such prepotent responding, i.e., those with low attentional control.
... Hence, alternative ways to increase the efficiency of early diagnosis is important [5]. For instance, GO/NOGO task has been used in many studies to investigate the behavioral and neuronal aberrations in ADHD children [6][7][8]. In this study, we aim to use an intelligent VR system integrated with 6 channels of electroencephalogram (EEG) and machine learning methods to help diagnose children with ADHD. ...
Article
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Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, but medical diagnosis is usually delayed. Hence, it is important to increase the efficiency of early diagnosis. Previous studies used behavioral and neuronal data during GO/NOGO task to help detect ADHD and the accuracy differed considerably from 53% to 92%, depending on the employed methods and the number of electroencephalogram (EEG) channels. It remains unclear whether data from a few EEG channels can still lead to a good accuracy of detecting ADHD. Here, we hypothesize that introducing distractions into a VR-based GO/NOGO task can augment the detection of ADHD using 6-channel EEG because children with ADHD are easily distracted. Forty-nine ADHD children and 32 typically developing children were recruited. We use a clinically applicable system with EEG to record data. Statistical analysis and machine learning methods were employed to analyze the data. The behavioral results revealed significant differences in task performance when there are distractions. The presence of distractions leads to EEG changes in both groups, indicating immaturity in inhibitory control. Importantly, the distractions additionally enhanced the between-group differences in NOGO α and γ power, reflecting insufficient inhibition in different neural networks for distraction suppression in the ADHD group. Machine learning methods further confirmed that distractions enhance the detection of ADHD with an accuracy of 85.45%. In conclusion, this system can assist in fast screenings for ADHD and the findings of neuronal correlates of distractions can help design therapeutic strategies.
... It is assumed to represent the executive function, working memory, and attention [28][29][30][31]. Previous studies have shown lower P300 amplitude and longer P300 latency in children with ADHD relative to normal subjects [32][33][34]. Moreover, during an auditory oddball task, the P300 amplitude in the central electrode and P300 latency in the frontal electrode positively correlated with symptom severity in treatment-naive children with ADHD [35]. ...
Article
Objective: The loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) is associated with central serotonergic neurotransmission. Recent studies have proposed that LDAEP is also influenced by dopaminergic activity. Evidence shows attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with dopamine dysfunction. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between ADHD symptoms and LDAEP, as well as medication-mediated changes of LDAEP. Methods: A total of 38 male children (6-12 years old) with ADHD were analyzed in this study. Symptom severity was assessed using the ADHD rating scale (ARS) and the continuous performance test. To determine LDAEP, the auditory event-related potential was evaluated before medication. Changes in LDAEP were measured after 12 weeks of treatment with methylphenidate. Results: The subjects had a mean age of 9.24 ± 1.74 years with an average IQ of 109.4 ± 13.8. Before pharmacological treatment with methylphenidate, LDAEP was positively associated with the ARS score after adjusting for age and IQ (r = 0.592, p = 0.005). LDAEP was correlated with inattention (r = 0.522, p = 0.015) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.6, p = 0.004). However, the LDAEP of 15 subjects decreased following methylphenidate treatment (Z = -1.988, p = 0.047). Conclusion: In boys with ADHD, LDAEP appears to be associated with symptom severity. LDAEP showed a significant association with impulsivity and inattention. Importantly, LDAEP was shown to decrease after drug treatment. Our findings support the utility of LDAEP as a noninvasive and clinically useful method to assess symptom severity in children with ADHD.
... While motor response variability has been reproducibly linked to ADHD severity (Adams et al., 2011, Kofler et al., 2013, Levy et al., 2018, Rubinson et al., 2019, the relationship between electrophysiological measures and ADHD severity has rarely been examined. The few existing studies consistently report P3 amplitude as the most sensitive electrophysiological marker of ADHD deficit level (Liu et al., 2020, Marquardt et al., 2018, Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009, at least in idiopathic ADHD (Moavero et al., 2020). Despite trend significance, an attenuation of the P3 amplitude in motor impulsivity should be highlighted, given its previously established role in inhibitory processes (Hong et al., 2017, Nguyen et al., 2016, Shen et al., 2014. ...
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Objective Event-related potentials (ERPs) are reported to be altered in relation to cognitive processing deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, this evidence is mostly limited to cross-sectional data. The current study utilized neurofeedback (NFB) as a neuromodulatory tool to examine the ERP correlates of attentional and inhibitory processes in adult ADHD using a single-session, within-subject design. Methods We recorded high-density EEG in 25 adult ADHD patients and 22 neurotypical controls during a Go/NoGo task, before and after a 30-minute NFB session designed to down-regulate the alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythm. Results At baseline, ADHD patients demonstrated impaired Go/NoGo performance compared to controls, while Go-P3 amplitude inversely correlated with ADHD-associated symptomatology in childhood. Post NFB, task performance improved in both groups, significantly enhancing stimulus detectability (d-prime) and reducing reaction time variability, while increasing N1 and P3 ERP component amplitudes. Specifically for ADHD patients, the pre-to-post enhancement in Go-P3 amplitude correlated with measures of improved executive function, i.e., enhanced d-prime, reduced omission errors and reduced reaction time variability. Conclusions A single-session of alpha down-regulation NFB was able to reverse the abnormal neurocognitive signatures of adult ADHD during a Go/NoGo task. Significance The study demonstrates for the first time the beneficial neurobehavioral effect of a single NFB session in adult ADHD, and reinforces the notion that ERPs could serve as useful diagnostic/prognostic markers of executive dysfunction.
... Participants performed a Go/No-Go task on an Apple iPad using the PEER iOS research application (Suva Inc., Victoria, B.C.) while EEG data were recorded via a MUSE (Interaxon Inc., Toronto, ON.) EEG headband. 1 Effortful control is correlated to Go/No-Go task performance [28,29]; therefore, the Go/No-Go task is relevant for System One and System Two analysis. While performing the Go/No-Go task participants saw a series of green and blue circles (70% probability versus 30% probability each trial) preceded by a fixation cross and were instructed to tap the screen of the iPad each time one of the green (Go) circles appears and to not respond when one of the blue (No-Go) circles appeared. ...
Article
In the present experiment we evaluated the impact of rapid heat stress on decision-making and neural function. Previous work has demonstrated that heat stress has an impact on cognitive and neural function. Here, we hypothesized that a rapid increase in heat stress would result in reduced decision-making ability evidenced by a reduction in frontal theta electroencephalographic (EEG) power. Fifteen participants performed an incremental exercise test to a termination criterion (volitional maximum, core temperature = 39.5 °C, or a 2-h time cap) with or without fire-fighting gear (selection was randomized) in a laboratory with an ambient temperature of 25–26 °C. Immediately following the exercise test, participants completed a Go/No-Go task and we observed an increase in incorrect responses when the subjects were wearing fire-fighting gear; no change was observed without gear. Additionally, an analysis of frontal EEG revealed a decrease in theta power when comparing pre- and post-exercise values with fire-fighting gear on; no change was observed without gear. Importantly, our results suggest that rapid heat stress and the resulting increase in physiological strain causes a decrease in cognitive control that could result in serious consequences in life-saving occupations that require contemplative, effortful decision-making.
... Poor inhibitory control of behavior is proposed as one of the core deficits underlying the expression of ADHD (Barkley, 1997;Wodka et al., 2007). Lower performance on inhibitory control tasks has been reported in ADHD individuals compared to typical population in such paradigms as the Go/no-go (Epstein et al., 2007;Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009;Uebel et al., 2010), and Stop-signal task (Schachar et al., 2007;Alderson et al., 2008;Tillman et al., 2008). Given the consistency of these results, measures related to inhibitory control have been proposed as endophenotypes (Nigg et al., 2005;Crosbie et al., 2008) or intermediate phenotypes of ADHD (Castellanos and Tannock, 2002) In this context, data from oculomotor control measures have been proposed as potential endophenotypes of behavioral disorders that reflect problems with inhibitory control (Malone and Iacono, 2002). ...
Article
Objective: Diminished inhibitory control has been proposed as a core characteristic and potential endophenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If this is the case, one would expect to find this trait among first-degree relatives of individuals with ADHD. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine whether the oculomotor measures typically related to inhibitory control failures in individuals with ADHD are also observed among those relatives. Methods: Using prosaccadic and antisaccadic tasks in gap and overlap conditions, we assessed a group of unaffected parents of children with ADHD symptoms and compared them to a group of unaffected parents of children with typical development. Direction errors, anticipatory errors and saccadic reaction times were analyzed. We also determined the presence of ADHD behaviors (in adulthood and childhood) in all participants. Results: No between-group differences were observed for the antisaccadic measures, but the group of parents of children with ADHD made more anticipatory responses on the prosaccadic-gap task than the parents of controls. A moderate association between these anticipatory errors and dimensional inattention scores was also found. Conclusions: Saccadic performance differed between the two groups of parents, as those with children with ADHD showed a failure to withhold the initiation of responses in the absence of external control references (gap condition) on tasks with low cognitive load (prosaccadic). These anticipatory responses were related to inattention traits. Our results support the familial compound of ADHD as a multifactorial disorder.
... This finding, which might at first seem implausible, is in accordance with behavioral and electrophysiological findings that show that, under certain circumstances, older adults can score higher in sustained attention tasks than younger adults (McVay, Meier, Touron, & Kane, 2013;Staub-Doignon-Camus, Bacon, & Bonnefond, 2014), which in turn has been shown to be associated with attentional control (Herrmann et al., 2003;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). Furthermore, previous studies have also reported small but significant correlations between age and the ACS (Olaffson et al., 2011), albeit in a sample with a restricted age range. ...
Preprint
A growing body of evidence suggests that the reported frequency of certain everyday involuntary and voluntary forms of cognition decreases as people get older. Research in this field has focused on mind-wandering and autobiographical memory, typically exploring them independently of each other; future thinking, semantic memory, and musical imagery remained largely unexplored. Furthermore, the findings about contributing factors to age-related frequency changes remain inconclusive, whereas phenomenological characteristics such as vividness and affective valence have been overlooked. Our study investigates, for the first time, the relation between chronological age and simultaneously the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of involuntary and voluntary mind-wandering, autobiographical memory, future thinking, semantic memory, and musical imagery. In addition, we explore attentional control and confidence ratings as factors that could explain age-related frequency changes in involuntary and voluntary forms of cognition. A sample of 675 individuals, ranging in age from 18 to 90 years, completed an online questionnaire about the characteristics of their involuntary and voluntary forms of cognition, as well as measures of reported attentional control, and confidence in their responses. Our findings point to an age-related decrease in reported frequency for all forms of involuntary and voluntary cognition, which could not be accounted by attentional control or confidence ratings. Vividness and affective valence of involuntary and voluntary cognition forms were associated differentially with age. We discuss the findings in relation to theories of cognitive aging and socioemotional development and their implications for involuntary and voluntary cognition research.
... By using a visual search paradigm, previous behavioral studies have reported selective attention deficits in ADHD children (Mason et al., 2003;Huang-Pollock et al., 2005). Event-related potential (ERP) studies further indicated that children with ADHD showed abnormal components in target selection (Lopez et al., 2006;Cross-Villasana et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2016), distractor suppression (Wang et al., 2016), executive control (Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009;Johnstone and Galletta, 2013) and error monitoring (Liotti et al., 2005;van Meel et al., 2007) processes in visual attention tasks. These EEG/ ERP results imply the occurrence of spatial attention impairments in ADHD. ...
Article
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by problems in directing and sustaining attention. Recent behavioral studies indicated that children with ADHD are more likely to fail to show the orienting effect in response to human eye gaze. The present study aimed to identify the neurophysiological bases of attention deficits directed by social human eye gaze in children with ADHD, focusing on the relationship between alpha modulations and ADHD symptoms. The electroencephalography data were recorded from 8–13-year-old children (typically developing (TD): n = 24; ADHD: n = 21) while they performed a cued visuospatial covert attention task. The cues were designed as human eyes that might gaze to the left or right visual field. The results revealed that TD children showed a significant alpha lateralization in response to the gaze of human eyes, whereas children with ADHD showed an inverse pattern of alpha modulation in the left parieto-occipital area. Importantly, the abnormal alpha modulation in the left hemisphere predicted inattentive symptom severity and behavioral accuracy in children with ADHD. These results suggest that the dysfunction of alpha modulation in the left hemisphere in response to social cues might be a potential neurophysiologic marker of attention deficit in children with ADHD. Keywords: ADHD, Children, Attention, Lateralization, Electroencephalography (EEG), Alpha oscillations
... Here we focused on the correct Go responses, which require the ability to maintain sustained attention but not response inhibition, and this may account for the lack of changes in the earlier components. When comparing our results only to studies which used the Go/ No-Go or the similar Stop Signal task, inconsistent results regarding the Go condition arise: some found differences in early components only for the No-Go condition but not for the Go condition [56][57][58], while others found differences for both Go and No-Go conditions [21,59,60]. ...
Article
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Methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line drug for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the neuronal mechanisms underlying the condition and the treatment are still not fully understood. Previous EEG studies on the effect of MPH in ADHD found changes in evoked response potential (ERP) components that were inconsistent between studies. These inconsistencies highlight the need for a well-designed study which includes multiple baseline sessions and controls for possible fatigue, learning effects and between-days variability. To this end, we employ a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study and explore the effect of MPH on the ERP response of subjects with ADHD during a Go/No-Go cognitive task. Our ERP analysis revealed significant differences in ADHD subjects between the placebo and MPH conditions in the frontal-parietal region at 250ms-400ms post stimulus (P3). Additionally, a decrease in the late 650ms-800ms ERP component (LC) is observed in frontal electrodes of ADHD subjects compared to controls. The standard deviation of response time of ADHD subjects was significantly smaller in the MPH condition compared to placebo and correlated with the increased P3 ERP response in the frontoparietal electrodes. We suggest that mental fatigue plays a role in the decrease of the P3 response in the placebo condition compared to pre-placebo, a phenomenon that is significant in ADHD subjects but not in controls, and which is interestingly rectified by MPH.
... The Attentional Control Scale (ACS; Derryberry and Reed 2002) assesses beliefs about one's attentional control, the ability to regulate attention. Studies using the ACS are common in psychopathology research, where low ACS scores have been linked to anxiety disorders (Armstrong et al. 2011;Mills et al. 2016), depression symptoms (Reinholdt-Dunne et al. 2009), post-traumatic stress disorder (Bardeen et al. 2015) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Wiersema and Roeyers 2009). Such data suggest that self-perceptions of poor attentional control may be a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology (Hsu et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Prior studies suggest that the Attentional Control Scale (ACS) consists of two correlated factors. These models do not include a general factor, though this is assumed often in theory and practice. Using an adult North American sample collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 419), we examined a revised version of the ACS with positive keying of all items (Straightforward Attentional Control Scale; ACS-S) to avoid the potential of a factor produced by mixing positively and negatively keyed items. Exploratory factor analysis using a bifactor approach was used to examine the structure of the ACS-S, which consisted of a general factor and a nuisance variance factor. There was mixed evidence of good fit for the full 20-item version of the ACS, but fit was good for a reduced 12-item version of the ACS-S. The full and reduced version were highly correlated (r = .98). Exploratory structural equation modeling suggested that the general factor of the ACS-S was negatively related to depression and both anxious arousal, as reflected by panic symptoms, and anxious apprehension, as reflected by worry. The findings suggest that perceived attentional control is uniquely related to depression and both dimensions of anxiety. ACS-S Short scores were tested as a moderator of the association between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. The association between these anxiety dimensions was weaker at higher levels of perceived attentional control. Our findings suggest that the ACS-S is best represented as a single dimension of beliefs about attentional control which can be scored by totaling the items and that the ACS-S uniquely related to the internalizing symptoms we assessed. The findings also contribute to the understanding of how anxiety dimensions are influenced by perceived attentional control.
... In the present study, significant correlations were found between pre-treatment stuttering severity and ADHD symptoms, although correlations were weak. Relationships between lower effortful control and increased ADHD symptoms have been well documented (Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009;Samyn, Roeyers, & Bijttebier, 2011) and the correlations found in this study are consistent with those which previously found less effortful control to be correlated with increased stuttering severity (Kraft et al., 2014(Kraft et al., , 2018. Further research is recommended to explore both effortful control and ADHD symptoms in the context of early childhood stuttering to investigate this relationship further. ...
Article
Purpose: This study described the proportion of children who stutter who exhibit Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, manifesting in inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviours. Children who stutter with these challenging behaviours may not respond as quickly and successfully to stuttering treatment. A preliminary exploration of differences in treatment responsiveness for children with and without ADHD symptoms was undertaken. Method: Participants were 185 preschool children who stutter who had completed stuttering therapy within 3 months prior to study commencement. Differences between groups of children who stutter with and without elevated ADHD symptoms were investigated, in terms of pre-treatment stuttering features (stuttering severity and typography), demographic variables (age at onset, time between onset and commencement of therapy, family history and sex) and treatment data (post-treatment stuttering severity and number of sessions to achieve discharge criteria). Results: One-half (50%) of participants exhibited elevated ADHD symptoms. These children required 25% more clinical intervention time to achieve successful fluency outcomes than children without elevated ADHD symptoms. Findings suggest that more ADHD symptoms, increased pre-treatment stuttering severity, and male sex were associated with poorer responsiveness to stuttering treatment. Conclusion: The large proportion of children exhibiting elevated ADHD symptoms, and the increase in clinical contact time required in this subgroup to achieve successful fluency outcomes, is suggestive of the need for clinicians to tailor stuttering intervention to address these concomitant behaviour challenges. Findings support the use of careful caseload management strategies to account for individual differences between children, and strengthen prognostic information available to parents and clinicians.
... Mature P3 amplitudes and latencies are not present until late adolescence and/or early adulthood, especially for the P3b component (Downes et al., 2017), suggesting cognitive processes associated with this component undergo protracted maturation. Although P3 amplitude is related to measures of EF in school-aged children (Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009) and is known to be sensitive to working memory demands in developmental samples (Polich, Ladish, & Burns, 1990), its relationship to EF has not been well-examined during the early childhood period. ...
Article
Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that executive function (EF) develops rapidly during early childhood, few studies have investigated neural systems supporting EF during the preschool years. These systems are sensitive to variations in children’s early life experiences, including preterm birth. The current study collected behavioral and event related potential (ERP) data during an EF task (directional Stroop) in a sample of 150 full-term and low-risk preterm children aged 4-years. Children’s IQ and processing speed (WPPSI-III), and parent report of EF (BRIEF-P), were also measured. Forty-nine children born full-term and 43 low-risk preterm children provided useable ERP data. Similar to prior studies with adults and older children, preschool-aged children showed modulation of ERP components (N2, P3) by cognitive conflict. Effects of trial type were also present for early attentional components (N1 and P2). Exploratory analyses demonstrated that ERP measures of EF were correlated with individual differences in cognitive and behavioral functioning in both full-term and low-risk preterm populations. Future research investigating the neural correlates of early measures of EF in low-risk preterm children and other at-risk groups is warranted to better understand how trajectories of EF development are altered in the first years of life.
... Research suggested that the P3 component elicited by stimulus conflict is larger for incongruent trials than that for congruent ones (13,24) and proposed that the larger P3 amplitude elicited by incongruent trials is related to a more careful assessment of the stimulus to determine the correct response. According to previous studies, the P3 is reduced in clinical groups such as those with schizophrenia and ADHD (25,26). Longer P3 latency elicited by incongruent trials implies the increased stimulus evaluation or categorization time (13,27). ...
Article
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Background It has been observed that trait anxiety easily leads to conflict maladaptation under conflict circumstances. However, it remains unclear whether the precise neural mechanisms underlying the effects of high trait anxiety (HTA) on cognitive control are consistent in high trait anxious individuals, with and without anxiety disorders. Methods The present study recruited 29 healthy volunteers with low trait anxiety (LTA), 37 healthy volunteers with HTA, and 23 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). All participants completed demographic information and self-report measures of trait anxiety and depression. Then, they performed the emotional flanker task with event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded. Results Behavioral data manifested that, relative to LTA individuals, GAD patients displayed prolonged response times and increased error rates, while HTA individuals showed intact response times and accuracies. Event-related potential (ERP) data revealed that HTA individuals exhibited a trend toward more negative N2 amplitudes for conflict detection. By contrast, both HTA and GAD individuals displayed decreased P3 amplitudes for conflict resolution. ERP results indicated that both HTA and GAD individuals exhibited conflict maladaptation on the N2 amplitude. Correlation analyses also showed that the increased anxiety symptoms were associated with longer reaction times, more error rates, lower P3 amplitudes, and more perturbations in conflict adaptation on reaction times and N2 amplitudes. Conclusion Our results demonstrated a severely impaired cognitive control in GAD patients while a moderately impaired cognitive control in HTA individuals. Trait anxiety can indeed serve as a predominant factor at the onset and in the maintenance of GAD. Therefore, the trait anxiety reducing strategies may provide significant therapeutic gains.
... Focusing, when evaluated with the ACS (Derryberry and Reed, 2002), positively corresponds with antisaccade performance (i.e., inhibiting reflexive response) and pro-saccade latency-that is, delaying a response in order to evaluate a target's position before responding (Judah et al., 2014;Munoz and Everling, 2004). ACS-based focusing in children was also found to be positively linked with the No-Go P3 amplitude (Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009), a neurophysiological index of response inhibition (Herrmann et al., 2003). Together, subjective attentional focusing appears to measure the ability to maintain task-relevant goals (e.g., attentional set) while inhibiting prepotent responses. ...
Article
Accumulating data suggest attentional control capability varies across psychiatric diagnostic boundaries. The Attentional Control Scale (ACS) assesses self-reported trait attentional control (TAC) and tracks the anterior attention system. Greater TAC is associated with less negative affect, however, its mechanisms in anxiety and depression are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether individual differences in TAC modulated top-down mechanisms in a clinical sample. During fMRI, 104 patients with social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and/or major depression and 34 healthy participants completed a validated attentional control paradigm comprising strings of letters superimposed on threatening and neutral face distractors. In the low perceptual load condition, a target letter was in a string of identical letters. In the high load condition, a target letter was in a mixed letter string. Whole-brain regression results for low load revealed more activation to threat (vs. neutral) distractors in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex was predicted by better TAC (i.e., higher ACS scores). For high load, regression results showed less activation to threat (vs. neutral) distractors in the inferior frontal gyrus was predicted by better TAC. An exploratory whole-brain ANOVA revealed a main effect of group in the superior temporal gyrus and a main effect of perceptual load in parietal, frontal, and limbic regions. No other effects were detected and activation derived from significant ANOVA results did not correlate with ACS scores. In conclusion, regression findings suggest individual differences in brain-behavioral ACS-related activity in frontal structures may be useful in identifying phenotypes in internalizing conditions.
... Although existing research supports the link between improvements in ADHD symptomatology and improvements in neural indices of attention (Leins et al., 2007;Ogrim, Kropotov, & Hestad, 2012;Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009), the present study did not specifically explore the relation between changes in neural indices of attention and changes in behavioral report of attention (e.g., parent report on the Conners-3). Future examinations of the impact of mindfulness training might consider investigating both neural and behavioral markers of ADHD symptom improvement and the relation between the two. ...
Article
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Objective: The current study examined the impact of an activity-based mindfulness treatment on EEG indices of attention in youth with ADHD aged 11 to 17 years compared with a waitlist control group. Method: Pre- and post-treatment, EEG was recorded as participants completed a single-point focus rest task and two active attention tasks. Theta power, beta power, and theta/beta ratio (TBR) were calculated during each task. Results: A significant group by time by task interaction was found that indicated significant improvement in attentional ability, indexed by decreased TBR, for the treatment group but not controls. Conclusion: Findings support the benefit of mindfulness treatment for enhancing attentional control in youth with ADHD and extend the literature by providing evidence of these gains at a neural level. Findings also offer methodological support for the use of active attention tasks when examining mindfulness-related attentional gains in youth with ADHD. Directions for future research are discussed.
... Used previously in a range of studies as a measure of the executive ability of individuals to direct their attention (e.g. Lonigan and Vasey 2009;Wiersema and Roeyers 2009;Ólafsson et al. 2011), the ACS consists of 20 items that are rated on a four-point Likert scale from 1 (almost never) to 4 (always). Scores are calculated as the total sum of ratings, with higher attentional control indicated by higher test scores. ...
Article
Skilled performance has been characterised, in part, by the capacity to accurately identify and respond to patterns as cues in the environment. The outcome is a reduction in cognitive load and a greater residual capacity to undertake concurrent tasks. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between cue utilisation and temporal pattern recognition in the context of a simulated, rail control task. Sixty-one university students undertook an assessment of cue utilisation and engaged in a rail control simulation. The appearance and movement of trains followed a consistent but implicit (undisclosed) pattern. Throughout the second half of the rail task, a secondary task was included. The results indicated that participants with relatively higher cue utilisation were more likely to identify the implicit pattern of rail movements, were more accurate, and responded more rapidly under increased workload conditions. The results suggest that a propensity to identify patterns as cues may provide an opportunity to reduce cognitive demands, thereby facilitating performance in a novel task. Implications for selection and system design are discussed. Practitioner Summary This study was designed to explain differences in the way in which people learn, particularly when tasks involve recurring patterns. Using simulated rail control, the results indicated that participants who display behaviour that is indicative of the utilisation of cues, also recognise patterns in the movement of simulated trains. This enables them to manage trains more effectively, even while undertaking other tasks.
... These processes require appropriate executive functions such as attention and effortful control, as well as performance monitoring, which can be shared with working memory processes (Aarts et al., 2009;Criaud and Boulinguez, 2013;Crottaz-Herbette and Menon, 2006;Helenius et al., 2011). Moreover, many studies have found that the N2 or P3 component (or both) show differences (usually smaller amplitude) in individuals with ADHD, compared to healthy controls in Go/Nogo tasks (Brandeis et al., 2002;Durston et al., 2003;Fallgatter et al., 2004;Gow et al., 2012;Helenius et al., 2011;Inoue et al., 2012;Liddle et al., 2011;Overtoom et al., 1998;Schachar et al., 2000;Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009;Wiersema et al., 2006;Woltering et al., 2013;Yong-Liang et al., 2000). Therefore, in the current study, we used these two ERP components, in both Go and Nogo trials, as the main neural measures to investigate the effects of CWMT on response control. ...
... Higher scores indicate better attentional control. The previous experimental studies provide data that ACS is a valid measure of attentional control [33,46,47]. In our study, we used the Polish version of ACS [43]. ...
Article
Background The role of cognitive biases in delusion and delusion-like experiences has been widely investigated in recent years. However, little is known about individual differences, which may influence association between cognitive biases and formation of delusional beliefs. The aim of this study was to examine the moderating effect of self-reported attentional control on the relationship between attention to threat bias (ATB) and delusion-like experiences (DLEs) in healthy adults. Methods Participants (n = 138) completed the Davos Assessment of the Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS), the Attentional Control Scale (ACS) and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI). The moderation analysis was performed to check the influence of different components of attentional control (i.e. general ability to allocate attention, focusing, shifting and divide attention) on the interplay between ATB and DLEs. Results The results supported the moderation model. Specifically, we found that a higher level of ability to focus attention is associated with a stronger effect of attention to threat bias on the overall frequency of DLEs. Our results indicate that ATB contributes to the number of DLEs only in individuals with high and moderate capacity to focus attention, whereas in those who scored low on the ACS focusing attention subscale, the presence of attentional bias does not influence the frequency of DLEs. Conclusions Our findings show that the individual difference variable, such as ability to voluntarily focus attention, may moderate the relationship between attention to threat bias and delusion-like experiences in healthy adults.
... Cued go/no-go tasks can be used to study ERP components related to attention and executive processes (Aasen and Brunner, 2016;Brunner et al., 2015;Checa and Rueda, 2011;Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009). The different conditions in such tasks elicit variants of the P3 ERP component, with different timing, amplitude and topography, reflecting different cognitive processes. ...
Article
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Objective: To investigate attention and task-set adaptation in a preterm born very low birth weight (PT/VLBW) population by means of event-related potential components from an adapted cued go/no-go task. Methods: P3 components after target and non-target cues, as well as target, no-go and non-target imperative stimuli were compared in 30 PT/VLBW young adults and 33 term-born controls. Changes in P3 amplitudes as a function of time-on-task were also investigated. Results: The PT/VLBW group had larger P3 amplitudes to non-target cues and non-targets compared with controls. There were no significant group differences in the P3s to target or no-go stimuli. Moreover, the amplitude of the P3 to non-target cues and non-targets decreased significantly over time in the control group but not in the PT/VLBW group. Conclusions: PT/VLBW young adults allocate more attention to behaviorally irrelevant information than term-born controls, and persist in attending to this information over time. Significance: This is the first study to investigate ERP components in an adult population born preterm with very low birth weight.
... Differences between the ADHD subgroup with low levels of emotional lability and healthy controls were small and nonsignificant, suggesting that the abnormal functional connectivity was specific to emotional lability rather than to other ADHD symptoms. Effortful control, or the self-regulation aspects of temperament, was investigated in children with ADHD (n = 10) and typically developing controls (n = 16) using a combination of psychosocial (the Effortful Control Scale and the Attentional Control Scale) and physiological [electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs)] measures during the administration of the Go/No-Go task (Wiersema and Roeyers 2009). ADHD symptoms were associated with low scores on the rating scales, errors of commission in the Go/No-Go task, and small No-Go P3 amplitudes, suggesting that effortful control is implicated in ADHD. ...
Article
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Emotional dysregulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present systematic literature review was to identify published data related to the neuropsychology of emotional dysregulation in children with ADHD. The literature obtained is discussed in the contexts of deficits in emotional control, impairments in executive function, the emotional components of comorbidities, neurophysiological and autonomic correlates of emotional dysregulation, and the significance of multiple neuropsychological pathways of ADHD on emotional dysregulation. These various lines of evidence are used to create a patient-oriented conceptual model framework of the pathway from stimulus to inappropriate internalized (sadness, moodiness) or externalized (anger, aggressiveness) emotional responses. The article concludes by calling for continued research into the development of reliable and universally accepted measures of emotional dysregulation in order to provide children affected with ADHD, and their caregivers, some explanation for their emotional lability and, ultimately, to be used as tools to evaluate potential treatments.
... Such a task targets crucial mechanisms in the affected population, such as sustained attention and inhibition. Regarding the specific components used to validate the reliability, all the above-mentioned components commonly used in ADHD research [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19], are tested at a representative electrode with high activation of the component. More specifically, a number of earlier components are examined at the occipital electrode P1, N1 after the first stimulus of target relevant conditions (Go & NoGo conditions) and P2 at temporal electrode after second stimulus of NoGo condition. ...
Article
Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been widely used to investigate brain functioning in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in both research and diagnostic settings. To ensure the efficiency of ERP techniques in ADHD diagnosis and in longitudinal observational studies, the test-retest reliability of the affected population must be validated. Thus, the present article assesses the short-term test-retest reliability of certain early and late ERPs (i.e. P1, N1, N2, P2, P3), as well as independent components (ICs) decomposed from the above mentioned ERPs (IC P3 Go, IC P3 NoGo early, IC P3 NoGo late) relevant to ADHD, through the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). More specifically, we employ a cued visual Go/NoGo paradigm for recording ERPs from 22 children with ADHD (mean age 12.2), twice within 30 minutes. Amplitudes and latencies are calculated by the ‘peak amplitude' method and by a variation of the fractional area. Results for amplitudes lie mostly within the ‘good' and ‘excellent' range for both measurement methods, while ICC for latencies is more variable ranging from ‘poor' to ‘excellent’ results. Crucially, the ICs, which are associated with distinct functionally independent processes of the executive attentional system have shown a comparable test-retest reliability with the raw ERPs. Our results are consistent with other reliability studies of neurotypical population in the literature, and as such, consist initial evidence that ERPs could be reliable neurophysiological markers for the ADHD population.
... In 4-to 8-year-old children, increased N2 amplitude of the evoked potential in response to incongruent flankers relative to congruent flankers during a cued flanker task is associated with less efficient executive attention (Buss et al., 2011). In 8-to 13year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), lower EC is associated with reduced NoGo P3 amplitudes (Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009). Surprisingly, the ability to resolve conflict in the flanker task remains approximately the same from age seven to adulthood . ...
... If we solely focus on the questionnaire data, we would have to conclude that children with ADHD and children with ASD showed significantly more difficulties in regulating their own behaviour (parentreports and persistence subscale of the ECS) and attention (parent-reports and the ACS) in comparison with TD peers and that the problems in terms of attentional control (parent-and self-reports) and behavioural regulation (i.e., persistence, impulsivity, and activation control) were more pronounced in children with ADHD than in children with ASD. These findings are in large part consistent with previous research using questionnaires to investigate EC in children with ADHD or ASD (e.g.,Konstantareas and Stewart 2006;Martel and Nigg 2006;Samyn et al. 2011;Wiersema and Roeyers 2009). However, if we were to take into consideration only the performance-based measures, we would conclude that children with ADHD and children with ASD perform at an equal level as TD children in terms of attentional and behavioural regulation. ...
Article
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Effortful control (EC), the self-regulation component of temperament, is traditionally measured using questionnaires. Through the years, several neuropsychological measures originating from the cognitive psychology and the executive function (EF) literature have been introduced in the domain of temperament research to tap EC. Although this is not particularly surprising, given the conceptual overlap between EC and EF, it remains unclear whether EC questionnaires and neuropsychological EF tasks can really be used interchangeably when measuring EC. The current study addressed two important aspects in evaluating the interchangeability of both types of measures, that is: (a) do they measure the same construct? and (b) do they give the same results when comparing clinical populations? Three EC questionnaires, two inhibitory control tasks, and two attentional control tasks were administered in 148 typically developing children, 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 31 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children were between 10 and 15 years of age and had a full scale IQ of 80 or higher. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the questionnaires and EF tasks do not capture the same underlying latent variable(s). Groups could not be differentiated from each other based on their performance on EF tasks, whereas significant group differences were found for all EC-reports. Overall, our findings show more differences than commonalities between the EC questionnaires and EF tasks and, consequently, suggest that both types of measures should not be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Relatively few published studies have examined AC in the context of PTS symptomatology; however, a number of studies have shown that relatively lower levels of AC are associated with higher levels of a host of maladaptive outcomes, including PTS symptoms , poor social adaptation and externalizing behaviors (Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie, & Reiser, 2000), worry and rumination (Armstrong, Zald, & Olatunji, 2011), and symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention in children (Wiersema & Roeyers, 2009). ...
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Attentional control may be used by trauma survivors to temporarily disengage and shift attention from threat salient information, allowing individuals to remain in, and habituate to, trauma-relevant contexts rather than using less adaptive regulatory strategies. Thus, greater attentional control abilities may be one factor that differentiates those who recover from trauma exposure from those who do not. In the present study, we examined attentional control as a prospective predictor of posttraumatic (PTS) symptoms over the course of two assessment sessions (T1 and T2). Consistent with the hypothesis that attentional control can be used to alleviate trauma-related distress, we predicted that an inverse relation between T1 attentional control and T2 PTS symptoms would be significantly stronger among participants who had experienced a traumatic event between time points (24% of the total sample: N = 85). Pre-T1 trauma history and T1 PTS symptoms served as covariates in regression analysis. Results revealed that T1 attentional control only predicted T2 PTS symptoms for participants who had experienced a traumatic event between time points. Thus, attentional control may be a protective factor against the development of PTS symptomatology in the aftermath of a traumatic event.
... Il serait fort intéressant de vérifier la valeur de la NGA, comme marqueur biologique de l'impulsivité (présence, amplitude et localisation). Peu d'études ont été effectuées en ce sens, mais il semble que la NGA soit effectivement altérée chez les enfants (Wiersema et Roeyers, 2009) et les délinquants (Meier, Perrig et Koenig, 2012) ayant un TDAH. Certains de nos collègues du centre recherche de l'Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal ont récemment développé une tâche permettant de mesurer à la fois la P300, la NGA et le LRP (Lateralized Readiness Potential), trois marqueurs potentiels de l'impulsivité (Thibault, O'Connor, Stip et Lavoie, 2009). ...
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Bien que l’impulsivité soit l’une des manifestations les plus couramment rencontrées en psychiatrie et en psychologie clinique, elle demeure difficile à prévoir, à mesurer, à traiter, voire même à définir. Le principal objectif de cette conférence était de proposer une définition claire et opérationnelle du construit multidimensionnel de l’impulsivité, pour ensuite résumer les troubles mentaux qu’elle affecte et présenter des instruments de mesure plus sensibles susceptibles de faciliter l’évaluation psychiatrique au quotidien. Il s’agissait également de proposer l’utilisation en psychiatrie de techniques neurologiques peu coûteuses et faciles d’accès pour non seulement évaluer les risques d’impulsivité individuels, mais aussi pour les diminuer. Ces outils pourraient s’implanter dans tout milieu clinique et s’avérer complémentaires aux approches conventionnelles.
... Consistent with the recent call from the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) to decrease the emphasis on discrete, symptom-based diagnostic groups and increase focus on transdiagnostic biological and cognitive processes that underlie psychopathology (Sanislow et al., 2010), the examination of underlying personality dimensions that can classify distinct patient groups can pave the way for new nosologies, which in turn could improve treatment matching and illuminate new avenues for intervention. In this regard, temperament is a promising neurobiological, transdiagnostic process (Muris and Ollendick, 2005;Nigg, 2006;Amodio et al., 2008;Wiersema and Roeyers, 2009) that can be used to understand underlying mechanisms that may drive distinct clinical presentations in ED patients. ...
... 55,56 Many studies have reported P3 waves (go and no-go) to be deviant in ADHD. 49,50,[57][58][59][60] In a recent longitudinal study, 61 CNV was found to be the only ERP component with significantly smaller amplitude in ADHD patients of all ages, compared with controls. There was no evidence of normalization with increasing age. ...
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We searched for predictors of the clinical outcome of stimulant medication in pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials (ERPs), and behavioral data from a visual go/no-go test. Nineteen-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during the resting state in eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions and during performance of the cued go/no-go task in 98 medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7-17 years and in 90 controls with the same age and sex distribution as the patients. For patients, the recording was followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the electrophysiological results independently rated the patients as responders (REs) (N=74) or non-responders (non-REs) (N=24). Using a logistic regression model, comparisons were made between REs and non-REs on the EEG spectra, ERPs (cue P3, contingent negative variation, and P3 no-go of the ERP waves and independent components [ICs] extracted from these waves), reaction time, reaction time variability, number of commission and omission errors, intelligence quotient, age, sex, ADHD subtype, and comorbidities. The two groups differed significantly on eight of the variables, with effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranging from 0.49 to 0.76. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, only three of these variables were significantly associated with clinical outcome. The amplitude of the IC cue P3, which has a parietal-occipital distribution, was normal in REs but significantly smaller in non-REs, whereas the centrally distributed IC P3 no-go early was smaller in REs than in non-REs and controls. In addition, the REs had more power in the EEG theta band. A quartile-based index was calculated using these three variables. The group with the lowest scores comprised only 36% REs; response rates in the three other groups were 83%, 86%, and 89%. The clinical outcome of stimulant medication was best predicted by electrophysiological parameters. The brain dysfunctions of the REs appear to be primarily associated with prefrontal lobe hypoactivation. The non-REs were deviant from the controls in parietal-occipital functions.
... 31 Many studies have found the P3 waves (peaking 300-500 ms after stimulus presentation) to be deviant in ADHD. [32][33][34] In addition, deviations are found for the contingent negative variation (CNV), a low potential evoked in cued paradigms (go/no-go, signal stop) when an individual prepares for action. [35][36][37] In a recent longitudinal study, 38 the main finding was that CNV was the only ERP component that had significantly smaller amplitudes in ADHD at all ages compared with healthy controls. ...
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The aim of this study was to search for predictors of acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), event-related potentials (ERPs), and behavior data from a visual continuous-performance test (VCPT). Seventy medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7-16 years were tested with QEEG, including a go/no-go task condition (VCPT) from which behavior data and ERPs were extracted, followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the QEEG/ERP test results independently rated the patients as having no or small side effects (n = 37) or troublesome side effects (n = 33). We determined if the side effects were related to sex, age, IQ, ADHD subtype, comorbidities, clinical outcome, and variables in QEEG, ERPs, and VCPT. There was a moderate negative correlation between clinical outcome and side effects. Three variables were significantly associated with side effects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the ERP independent component - contingent negative variation - which reflected action preparation and time evaluation, patients with high amplitudes (close to normal values) experienced more side effects than patients with lower amplitudes. A faster-than-normal reaction time in VCPT was associated with side effects, as was a high amplitude in an early ERP component (early visual independent component), reported to be influenced by attention, perceptual sensitivity, and anxiety. The group with troublesome side effects had normal action-preparation electrical brain activity, a faster-than-normal reaction time, and an increased level of anxiety (measured by ERP) compared with the no side-effects group.
Article
Background: Aperiodic spectral slope is a measure of spontaneous neural oscillatory activity that is believed to support regulation of brain responses to environmental stimuli. When compared to typically-developing (TD) controls, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been shown to have flatter aperiodic spectral slope at rest as well as attenuated event related potential (ERP) amplitudes in response to environmental stimuli. A small body of research suggests that aperiodic slope may also explain differences in behavioral responses. In this study, we examine associations between pre-stimulus aperiodic slope, stimulus characteristics, environmental demands, and neural as well as behavioral responses to these stimuli. Further, we evaluate whether ADHD diagnostic status moderates these associations. Methods: Seventy-nine children with ADHD and 27 TD school-age children completed two visual ERP experiments with predictable alternating presentations of task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli. Aperiodic slope was extracted from pre-stimulus time windows. Results: Pre-stimulus aperiodic slope was steeper for the TD relative to ADHD group, driven by task-relevant rather than task-irrelevant stimuli. For both groups, the aperiodic slope was steeper during a task with lower cognitive demand and prior to trials in which they responded correctly. Aperiodic slope did not mediate the association between ADHD diagnosis and attenuated P300 amplitude. Conclusions: The aperiodic spectral slope is dynamic and changes in anticipation of varying stimulus categories to support performance. The aperiodic slope and P300 amplitude reflect distinct cognitive processes. Background neural oscillations, captured via aperiodic slope, support cognitive behavioral control and should be included in etiological models of ADHD.
Article
Objective: Among children with ADHD, coexisting psychiatric disorders are common and associated with greater impairment and symptom persistence. Given that temperament traits are easily measured, developmentally stable, and variable among youth with ADHD, temperament profiles may be clinically useful for predicting liability for coexisting psychiatric symptoms in this population. Methods: Eighty-three children with ADHD symptoms participated. Caregivers rated their child’s surgency, negative emotionality, and effortful control, as well as severity of internalizing and externalizing psychiatric symptoms. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to estimate associations between temperament traits and psychiatric symptoms, controlling for severity of ADHD. Results: Temperament ratings explained significant variance in psychiatric symptoms above and beyond ADHD symptoms alone. Symptoms of each coexisting psychiatric disorder was associated with a distinct temperament and ADHD symptom profile. Conclusion: Temperament ratings appear to have clinical utility for predicting coexisting psychiatric symptoms in children with elevated ADHD symptoms.
Article
The N2 event-related potential component is a well-studied neurophysiological index of response inhibition that is considered to be a biomarker of externalizing psychopathology. The literature on the N2 elicited in childhood has been inconsistent, though, with different studies yielding different findings regarding the association between the N2 and the constructs it is thought to index. The current meta-analysis sought to clarify the functional meaning of the N2 component elicited in childhood across three widely used response inhibition tasks. The current study meta-analyzed the findings of 54 studies examining the association of the N2 component and three phenotypes of interest: (1) behavioral response inhibition (as indexed by performance on the inhibition trials of the task used to elicit the N2 component), (2) performance on behavioral measures of self-regulation, and (3) psychopathology (both externalizing and internalizing) in samples of children, to clarify the meaning of the N2 component and evaluate its utility as a potential endophenotype. Results suggest that the N2 component is associated with response inhibition and externalizing psychopathology.
Article
Introduction: Temperament dimensions may be related to executive functions (EF) and may be involved in the expression and maintenance of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to assess whether effortful control (EC) mediates the relationship between EF and inattentive symptoms, and whether surgency (S) and negative affectivity (NA) mediate the relationships between EF and hyperactive–impulsive ADHD symptoms in adolescents. Method: Working individually, participants aged between 12 and 16 years (N = 118; 75 with ADHD) performed tests of cognitive EF (working memory, planning, flexibility, and inhibition), and parents and teachers completed a multi-informant assessment focusing on measures of ADHD symptoms and temperament dimensions (EC, S, and NA). Results: There were significant differences between ADHD and control participants in EF and temperament dimensions. ADHD participants had lower scores than controls in working memory, planning, and inhibition EF; they also had lower scores in EC and higher scores in S and NA. Structural equation modeling indicated differential associations between EC, S, and NA temperament dimensions, and working memory, planning and inhibition EF, and ADHD symptoms. Mediation analysis suggested that EF exerted indirect effects on the inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms , via EC; higher EF abilities were related to higher levels of EC, which in turn were related to lower scores of inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive ADHD symptoms. S and NA did not mediate relations among EF and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms. Conclusion: The findings expand on those of previous studies of the complex relationship between temperament dimensions and EF and confirm the differential association between impairments in some EF, low EC, and the expression of inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms in adolescents, which may account for the ADHD–control group differences.
Article
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Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and tends to persist into adulthood. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies indicates that alterations of error processing are core symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD. To test whether adults with ADHD show persisting deficits and compensatory processes, we investigated performance monitoring during stimulus-evaluation and response-selection, with a focus on errors, as well as within-group correlations with symptom scores. Methods: Fifty-five participants (27 ADHD and 28 controls) aged 19–55 years performed a modified flanker task during EEG recording with 64 electrodes, and the ADHD and control groups were compared on measures of behavioral task performance, event-related potentials of performance monitoring (N2, P3), and error processing (ERN, Pe). Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to assess ADHD symptom load. Results: Adults with ADHD showed higher error rates in incompatible trials, and these error rates correlated positively with the ASRS scores. Also, we observed lower P3 amplitudes in incompatible trials, which were inversely correlated with symptom load in the ADHD group. Adults with ADHD also displayed reduced error-related ERN and Pe amplitudes. There were no significant differences in reaction time (RT) and RT variability between the two groups. Conclusion: Our findings show deviations of electrophysiological measures, suggesting reduced effortful engagement of attentional and error-monitoring processes in adults with ADHD. Associations between ADHD symptom scores, event-related potential amplitudes, and poorer task performance in the ADHD group further support this notion.
Chapter
Most of the disturbances of attention discussed earlier in the book occur primarily among adults secondary to neurological or medical diseases or injury that affect the brain. Major psychiatric disturbances, such as major depression and schizophrenia, likely reflect phenotypic variations in brain development and development but also typically occur as full-blown disorders when people reach adulthood. There are actually many cases of acquired attention disturbance among children suffering from congenital or chronic medical disease. For example, children with heart defects often experience attention disturbances for many of the same reasons that adults do [1–6]. Attention disturbances also occur in children as the result of certain cancers and their treatment with radiation and chemotherapy [7–17]. The functional impact of these childhood conditions is often substantial since they occur against the backdrop of the developing brain. While devastating for the children who experience these illnesses, they are relatively uncommon, as only a small percentage of children in the population experience these conditions, compared to the relatively high relevance of brain disturbances arising from stroke, cardiovascular disease, and other medical conditions in older adults. Yet, attention deficit disorder (ADD) is among the most commonly diagnosed childhood disorder, occurring in approximately 10 % of school-age children in this country [18]. The assessment and treatment of ADD has become a major focus of child psychiatry. There are now thousands of published studies on ADD and a number of excellent texts on the subject, including Russell Barkley’s “Attention Deficit Disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment” [19] and the NICE guidelines [20], as well as several books that address the clinical neuroscience of ADD [21] and cognitive development [22]. In this chapter section, an overview of the normal development of attention and neuropsychological considerations regarding ADD will be provided.
Article
Research suggests that the NoGo N2 event-related potential component elicited in children during Go/NoGo and Continuous Performance tasks indexes response inhibition capacities. This meta-analysis examined what is known about the N2 component's amplitude/latency values, developmental trajectory, and the differences between amplitudes in Go and NoGo trials. Sixty-five studies measuring the N2 in children ages 2-12 were meta-analyzed to estimate the N2's average amplitude/latency at each age. Findings suggest that N2 amplitude/latency values decrease in magnitude across childhood, and NoGo N2 amplitudes were more negative than Go N2 amplitudes, supporting interpretations of this component as indexing response inhibition. Implications are discussed.
Article
The amplitudes of the N2 and P3 components of event-related potentials (ERPs) may be influenced by personality traits such as impulsivity, and male/female differences may also have an effect. However, few studies have assessed the interaction between personality traits and the sex of the subject in these components. Therefore, in this study we evaluated sex differences in the amplitudes of the N2 and P3 ERP components during a continuous performance task, and their relation to impulse control. Twenty-seven healthy participants were asked to perform an AX-type continuous performance task, also known as a Go/Nogo task, during electroencephalographic recording. Participants then completed the Barratt impulsiveness scale (version 11; BIS-11), and the effortful control (EC) scale to self-report personality measures related to impulse control. We found that in the Nogo condition, males showed significantly larger N2 amplitudes than females in the frontal area. Interestingly, Nogo-N2 amplitudes were positively correlated with BIS-attentional subscale scores, but were negatively correlated with EC-attentional subscale scores, and both correlations were observed only in males. These results suggest that attentional aspects of impulse control modulate Nogo-N2 amplitude only in males. This modulatory effect may be related to a sex-specific inhibitory control mechanism acting during early stimulus evaluation.
Book
It has been 15 years since the original publication of Neuropsychology of Attention. At the time of its publication, attention was a construct that had long been of theoretical interest in the field of psychology and was receiving increased research by cognitive scientists. Yet, attention was typically viewed as a nuisance variable; a factor that needed to be accounted for when assessing brain function, but of limited importance in its own right. There is a need for a new edition of this book within Neuropsychology to present an updated and integrated review of what is know about attention, the disorders that affect it, and approaches to its clinical assessment and treatment. Such a book will provide perspectives for experimental neuropsychological study of attention and also provide clinicians with insights on how to approach this neuropsychological domain. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Article
The purpose of this study was to analyze the research trends on effortful control with a focus on those found in academic journals. This was done in an attempt to understand the conception of effortful control clearly and lay the foundations for future studies. An analysis was performed on frequencies by years, methodology, and content. Results showed that (1) 95 research articles on effortful control were published between January of 1999 and June of 2010. (2) Most research participants were school-aged children. (3) There were a number of ways that researchers have assessed the concept of effortful control, and the most frequently used measurement scale was the Rothbart's questionnaire for temperament. (4) The main content of the research was the relationships between effortful control and developmental domains (particularly, emotional and social development). More recently, researches examining environmental factors including family and peer environment have increased.
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Executive attention and its relationship with effortful control (EC) were investigated in children with ADHD (n = 24), autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 20), and controls (n = 21). Executive attention measures included flanker-performance and event-related potentials (N2, P3, and ERN). EC was assessed using questionnaires. Only the ERN was found to be robustly related to EC across groups. N2 did not differ between groups and only children with ADHD + ODD showed diminished executive attention as expressed in RT and P3. In ADHD, monitoring of incorrect (ERN) and correct (CRN) responses was diminished. Overall, the link between EC and executive attention was less strong as expected and varied depending on group and measure considered. All groups were able to detect conflict (N2) and all but ADHD + ODD were able to allocate extra attention in order to respond correctly (P3). Findings indicate a general reduced response monitoring in ADHD.
Chapter
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Temperament refers to early-appearing dispositions upon which personality is based, and research on temperament offers an important place to begin in the study of human development. Rather than seeing individual differences solely as the result of socialization, temperament research identifies basic dispositions toward affect, arousal, and attention that will be further shaped by experience in development. In this article, temperament is defined, a brief history is presented, current research is reviewed, and directions for the future are outlined.
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In human electrophysiology, a considerable corpus of studies using event-related potentials have investigated inhibitory processes by employing the 'go-nogo' paradigm, which requires responding to one type of event while withholding the response to another type of event. Two event-related potential waveform features (N2 and P3) have been associated with larger amplitude in nogo trials than in go trials. Traditionally, these differences were thought to reflect response inhibition. Recently, the source localization of N2 to the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the colocalization of N2 with error-related negativity, has been interpreted in terms of conflict monitoring. In order to isolate the contribution of inhibitory processes, we matched the frequency of the go and nogo events, thus minimizing differences in response conflict between event types. A data-driven analytical procedure contrasted go with nogo events across the entire event-related potential segment and found that N2 reliably differentiated between the two conditions while P3 did not. Tomographical analyses of the N2 difference observed in conditions of equal go and nogo trial frequency localized N2 to the right ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Because a growing body of evidence implicates these brain regions in inhibitory processes, we conclude that N2 does, at least in part, reflect inhibition.
Article
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Understanding temperament is central to our understanding of development, and temperament constructs are linked to individual differences in both personality and underlying neural function. In this article, I review findings on the structure of temperament, its relation to the Big Five traits of personality, and its links to development and psychopathology. In addition, I discuss the relation of temperament to conscience, empathy, aggression, and the development of behavior problems, and describe the relation between effortful control and neural networks of executive attention. Finally, I present research on training executive attention.
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In this chapter, we discuss the construct of effortful control and review literature relevant to its development and significance for optimal development in childhood. After considering its definition and links of the construct to that of emotion-related regulation, we review literature on the emergence of effortful control in childhood and its relations to constructs such as emotionality, compliance, delay of gratification, moral development, empathy, adjustment, social competence, and cognitive and academic performance. Finally, we review literature on the socialization of effortful control, especially in the family. The literature reviewed is consistent with the perspective that effortful control is linked to children's emerging social competence, adjustment, and morality. In addition, although effortful control is based in temperament and has a hereditary basis, environmental influences likely contribute to its development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Parents, teachers, and clinicians continue saying that the behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be extremely variable. For activities that are of interest (i.e., watching television), the children can sit still and maintain attention for hours. Their performance accuracy declines rapidly, however, if the task at hand is not appealing, which may happen during (neuro) psychological testing. Here, the clinician needs all his or her experience to keep the child on track in order to estimate the child’s true potential. Once the requirements for testing are finally met (i.e., the child sits still, listens carefully, and is motivated), the clinician is exhausted, and the child shows “no deficits.” This huge variability of behavior may lead to confusing interpretations in our research field. For instance, on the one hand, many researchers consider the classroom to be an optimal condition to study the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on impulsive and overactive behavior, whereas on the other hand, children with ADHD have more daytime sleep episodes than the norm (1). The role of behavioral variability in ADHD is also emphasized by genetic studies, showing that variable responding during reaction-time (RT) tests mediates the genetic effects, not ability factors per se, including delay aversion (2) or stopping an intended response (3).
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(from the chapter) Michael Posner is one of the most creative and influential psychologists of the past century. He has been a pioneer in cognitive science and is one of the founders of the field of cognitive neuroscience. The experimental paradigms he has developed have provided a major foundation for the imaging of the human brain. It is our great honor and pleasure to work with him as he continues his pioneering efforts, now focusing on attentional development and its relation to education. Our development of marker tasks based on patterns of adult brain activation has allowed us to study infant and child development in neuroscientifically informed, yet nonintrusive ways. Together with Posner, we have been studying temperament in infants and young children in relation to underlying neural networks for self-control. Our effort began with the study of temperament and proceeded to making links between temperamental dimensions and neural circuitry using marker tasks derived from adult imaging studies. The levels of analysis available for this exploration now range from molecular genetics to the socialization of behavior. We hope that by furthering methodological links between different levels of analysis, a basis will be provided for examining the many exciting questions at their interface. This chapter examines parallel developments of executive attention and self-regulation, as well as the genetic and experience-related factors that influence the functioning of this system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widely theorized to stem from dysfunctional inhibitory processes. However, the definition of inhibition is imprecisely distinguished across theories. To clarify the evidence for this conception, the author relies on a heuristic distinction between inhibition that is under executive control and inhibition that is under motivational control (anxiety or fear). It is argued that ADHD is unlikely to be due to a motivational inhibitory control deficit, although suggestions are made for additional studies that could overturn that conclusion. Evidence for a deficit in an executive motor inhibition process for the ADHD combined type is more compelling but is not equally strong for all forms of executive inhibitory control. Remaining issues include specificity to ADHD, whether inhibitory problems are primary or secondary in causing ADHD, role of comorbid anxiety and conduct disorder, and functional deficits in the inattentive ADHD subtype.
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is conceptualized as originating in childhood. Despite considerable theoretical interest, little is known about how ADHD symptoms relate to normal personality traits in adults. In 6 studies, the Big Five personality dimensions were related to ADHD symptoms that adults both recalled from childhood and reported concurrently (total N = 1,620). Substantial effects emerged that were replicated across samples. First, the ADHD symptom cluster of inattention-disorganization was substantially related to low Conscientiousness and, to a lesser extent, Neuroticism. Second, ADHD symptom clusters of hyperactivity-impulsivity and oppositional childhood and adult behaviors were associated with low Agreeableness. Results were replicated with self-reports and observer reports of personality in community and clinical samples. Findings support theoretical connections between personality traits and ADHD symptoms.
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Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine developmental differences between adults and 6-year-old children in the neural processes involved in an inhibitory control task. Twenty adults and 21 children completed a task that required them to selectively respond to target stimuli while inhibiting responses to equally salient non-target stimuli. Because this task had been previously studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the relation between the fMRI and ERP findings was informally examined. The results indicate that latency and amplitude of the P3 differentiated the different types of trials. However, the pattern of event-related neural activity differed for adults and children. These results, which suggest that adults and children may be using different processes to perform this task, have implications for the interpretation of the previous fMRI findings.
Article
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Neuroimaging and computational modeling studies have led to the suggestion that response conflict monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex plays a key role in cognitive control. For example, response conflict is high when a response must be withheld (no-go) in contexts in which there is a prepotent tendency to make an overt (go) response. An event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the N2, is more pronounced on no-go than on go trials and was previously thought to reflect the need to inhibit the go response. However, the N2 may instead reflect the high degree of response conflict on no-go trials. If so, an N2 should also be apparent when subjects make a go response in conditions in which no-go events are more common. To test this hypothesis, we collected high-density ERP data from subjects performing a go/no-go task, in which the relative frequency of go versus no-go stimuli was varied. Consistent with our hypothesis, an N2 was apparent on both go and no-go trials and showed the properties expected of an ERP measure of conflict detection on correct trials: (1) It was enhanced for low-frequency stimuli, irrespective of whether these stimuli were associated with generating or suppressing a response, and (2) it was localized to the anterior cingulate cortex. This suggests that previous conceptions of the no-go N2 as indexing response inhibition may be in need of revision. Instead, the results are consistent with the view that the N2 in go/no-go tasks reflects conflict arising from competition between the execution and the inhibition of a single response.
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This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and regulation in the core symptoms of ADHD. Negative approach and anger is also associated with ADHD, but this may be due to the overlap of ADHD and antisocial behavior. Positive approach may be involved in an alternate pathway to ADHD. The involvement of effortful control is congruent with experimental findings of executive functioning deficits in children with ADHD. We hypothesize that, whereas regulation problems may occur in most children with ADHD, a subgroup also may be characterized by positive approach problems and another subgroup by negative approach problems. We conclude with a theorized multiple process developmental model outlining alternate pathways to ADHD that warrant empirical investigation to better resolve etiological heterogeneity in ADHD.
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In our event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, participants learned to select between two response options by trial-and-error, using feedback stimuli that indicated monetary gains and losses. The results of the experiment indicate that error responses and error feedback activate the same region of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that this region is sensitive to both internal and external sources of error information.
Article
Full-text available
In human electrophysiology, a considerable corpus of studies using event-related potentials have investigated inhibitory processes by employing the 'go-nogo' paradigm, which requires responding to one type of event while withholding the response to another type of event. Two event-related potential waveform features (N2 and P3) have been associated with larger amplitude in nogo trials than in go trials. Traditionally, these differences were thought to reflect response inhibition. Recently, the source localization of N2 to the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the colocalization of N2 with error-related negativity, has been interpreted in terms of conflict monitoring. In order to isolate the contribution of inhibitory processes, we matched the frequency of the go and nogo events, thus minimizing differences in response conflict between event types. A data-driven analytical procedure contrasted go with nogo events across the entire event-related potential segment and found that N2 reliably differentiated between the two conditions while P3 did not. Tomographical analyses of the N2 difference observed in conditions of equal go and nogo trial frequency localized N2 to the right ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Because a growing body of evidence implicates these brain regions in inhibitory processes, we conclude that N2 does, at least in part, reflect inhibition.
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