Article

Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers

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  • University of Bordeaux - Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin
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Abstract

Studies reported the effects of polyphenols but not for grape polyphenols towards obesity. We analysed the effects of a polyphenolic grape seed extract (GSE) on obesity and oxidative stress in hamsters receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters received a standard diet (STD), or a HFD plus a daily gavage with water (Control, HFD) or a solution of GSE (HFD + GSE) for 12 wk. Plasma glucose, triglycerides (TG), insulin, leptin and adiponectin were measured. Oxidative stress was assessed by cardiac production of superoxide anion and NAD(P)H oxidase expression. After 12 wk, HFD increased abdominal fat as compared with standards. GSE avoided this feature. HFD led to higher plasma glucose, TG, insulin and greater insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress.

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... Moreover, IUGR negatively affects whole-body composition and meat quality and impairs long term health [2]. In addition, IUGR has been found to be associated with immunodeficiency and increased vulnerability to infectious diseases in later life [4][5][6]. ...
... Expression of BDNF genes and proteins is higher with both concentrations, while genes regulating BDNF signalling responds more to the lower dose. (4) Lower dose modulates genes in the five highest networks associated with cellularity and neuro-cognition, while the prevention of neurodevelopmental and neurological pathologies is associated with the higher dose. ...
... Increases the length of jejunal crypts. (4) Decreases colon microbiota of E. coli. ...
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Swine are one of the most important agricultural species for human food production. Given the significant disease challenges confronting commercial pig farming systems, introduction of a new feed additive that can enhance animal performance by improving growth and immune status represents a major opportunity. One such candidate is sialic acid (Sia), a diverse family of nine-carbon acidic sugar, present in various organs and body fluid, as well as an essential structural and functional constituent of brain ganglioside of humans and animals. Sias are key monosaccharide and biomarker of sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS’s), sialylated glycoproteins and glycolipids in milk and all vertebrate cells. Sias accomplish many critical endogenous functions by virtue of their physiochemical properties and via recognition by intrinsic receptors. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC’s) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics that promote gut microbiota development, gut maturation, pathogen resistance, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation and neurodevelopment. However, the importance of Sia in pig health, especially in the growth, development, immunity of developing piglet and in pig production remains unknown. This review aims to critically discuss the current status of knowledge of the biology and nutritional role of Sia and Sia-GC’s on health of both female sow and newborn piglets.
... Researchers have also investigated the effectiveness of procyanidins in preventing oxidative stress and preserving liver integrity. In a study by Decorde et al., the researchers examined the effectiveness of polyphenolic grape seed extract (GSE) in overcoming obesity by reducing oxidative stress and addressing adipokine imbalance [56]. The study showed that procyanidins in the GSE reduced abdominal fat, insulinemia, higher plasma glucose, and leptinemia by more than 16.5% and increased the levels of adiponectin by 61% [56]. ...
... In a study by Decorde et al., the researchers examined the effectiveness of polyphenolic grape seed extract (GSE) in overcoming obesity by reducing oxidative stress and addressing adipokine imbalance [56]. The study showed that procyanidins in the GSE reduced abdominal fat, insulinemia, higher plasma glucose, and leptinemia by more than 16.5% and increased the levels of adiponectin by 61% [56]. Rodríguez-Ramiro et al. determined that cocoa polyphenolic extract together with procyanidin, are effective in preventing oxidative stress caused by dietary acrylamide, by enhancing the redox status of cells and by obstructing the apoptotic pathways created by acrylamide [57]. ...
... The effectiveness of polyphenols such as procyanidins, epicatechin, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and flavonoids in preventing a myriad of illnesses such as cancers, tumors, diabetes, heart problems, liver issues, and neurogenerative disorders is due to their activities as antioxidants [56]. Antioxidants are free radical scavengers, helping to control the production of these reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are responsible for damaging small blood vessels and releasing inflammatory cytokines that result in organ damages [58]. ...
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... The health benefits associated with these compounds have led to position them as possible anti-obesity metabolites due to their anti-obesogenic and pro-thermogenic characteristics [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]. A strawberry extract rich in flavonoids (1.02 ± 0.87 mg catechin equivalent/g FW) treatment decreased intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and resulted in higher expression of the LDL-receptor, SIRT1, PGC-1α, and p-AMPK/AMPK. ...
... The treated group presented a higher mitochondrial activity and oxygen consumption rate with an increment in SIRT1, PGC-1α, and p-AMPK expression in isolated liver mitochondria, which was reversed in the presence of compound C [47]. Moreover, grape procyanidins (flavonoids) have been involved in preventing obesity in HFD-fed hamsters, improving their adipokine secretory profile and attenuating oxidative stress [38]. Polyphenol-rich extracts from apple and cinnamon also prevented obesity in rats [40]. ...
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... GSPE has a wide range of pharmacological and therapeutic effects. Hamsters fed with GSPE, have reduced levels of oxidative stress [15]. Furthermore, GSPE prevents ethanolinduced DNA damage in mouse brain cells through its antioxidation activity [16], and protects against H2O2-induced DNA damage in Fao cells [13]. ...
... Previous studies have shown that the addition of antioxidants can significantly improve sperm quality in the rat [22], bull [11], dog [12], boar [8], and ram [5] by reducing ROS accumulation during the preservation process. GSPE has been reported to have a strong antioxidant capacity [13,15,16,23]. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of GSPE to the extender enhanced goat sperm quality and antioxidant capacity during liquid preservation at 4 °C. ...
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... Moreover, they may improve glucose metabolism by reducing plasma glucose, and ameliorate hyperlipidaemia, being able to reduce levels of TG, TC and LDL-cholesterol in plasma. Plant extracts can act enhancing NO bioavailability as a result of an increase of NO, eNOS activity, and/or reduction of superoxide anion production (Lin et al. 2007, Uchiyama et al. 2011, Min et al. 2013, Herranz-L opez et al. 2015, D ecord e et al. 2009, Agouni et al. 2009, Bargall o et al. 2006, Gourineni et al. 2012, Villalpando-Arteaga et al. 2013 (Table 2). Another studies also suggests other mechanisms; as an example, an olive leaves extract was able to regulate the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and thermogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue , while olive oil could enhance fat oxidation and regulate myocardial metabolic enzymes, that lead to optimize cardiac energy metabolism (Ebaid et al. 2010). ...
... Several clinical trials carried out using grape extracts have suggested their cardioprotective effect reducing the atherogenic markers or improving the lipidic profile (Kar et al. 2009, Tom e-Carneiro et al. 2012. However, despite, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the potential of grape and grape-seed extracts on obesity management (D ecord e et al. 2009(D ecord e et al. , Zhang et al. 2012, little is known about its effect in clinical practices. Han et al. (2016) examined the efficacy of grape pomace and omija fruit ethanol extract on metabolic disorders in 76 in overweight or obese subjects with promising results lowering TC, LDL-C and improving HDL-C plasma concentrations. ...
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Prevalence of obesity worldwide has reached pandemic proportions. Despite the increasing evidence in the implication of phenolic compounds in obesity management, the real effect is not completely understood. The available in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the implication of phenolic compounds in: lowering food intake, decreasing lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis, stimulating fatty acids β-oxidation, inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and growth, attenuating inflammatory responses and suppress oxidative stress. This review encompasses the most recent evidence in the anti-obesity effect of phenolic compounds from plants to different nutraceuticals and functional foods based on the in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. For that, this review has been focused on popular plant-based products highly consumed today such as cocoa, cinnamon, and olive oil, beverages such as red wine, tea (green, white and black tea) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea, among others.
... An extract from the pomace of the red American grape Norton induced anti-inflammatory effects in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet and exhibited in vitro antioxidant activity [10]. An extract containing mainly procyanidin from Chardonnay grape seeds reduced oxidative stress markers and obesity in HF diet-induced obese (DIO) hamsters [11]. An extract from a pomace from five red and three wine grapes reduced obesity and insulin resistance and inhibited hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation in rats on a HF diet [12]. ...
... The in vivo biological significance of in vitro activity is not clear because oligomers and larger flavonoids are poorly absorbed, while monomers are rapidly metabolized and cleared from the body. Nonetheless, previous studies reported that flavonoid-rich grape seed extract reduced oxidative stress markers in obese hamsters and human subjects [11,37,38]. In the present study, ChrSd supplementation down-regulated expression of stress responsive genes, Gdf15 and ChREBP. ...
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To identify differentially expressed hepatic genes contributing to the improvement of high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance following supplementation of partially defatted flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour (ChrSd), diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were fed HF diets containing either ChrSd or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control) for 5 weeks. The 2-h insulin area under the curve was significantly lowered by ChrSd, indicating that ChrSd improved insulin sensitivity. ChrSd intake also significantly reduced body weight gain, liver and adipose tissue weight, hepatic lipid content, and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, despite a significant increase in food intake. Exon microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression revealed down-regulation of genes related to triglyceride and ceramide synthesis, immune response, oxidative stress, and inflammation and upregulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation, cholesterol, and bile acid synthesis. In conclusion, the effects of ChrSd supplementation in a HF diet on weight gain, insulin resistance, and progression of hepatic steatosis in DIO mice were associated with modulation of hepatic genes related to oxidative stress, inflammation, ceramide synthesis, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism.
... To determine whether peripheral signals that indicate the status of the body's energy storage have a role in food intake control, we analyzed leptinemia and found no changes due to GSPE treatments. Chronic long-term treatment with doses without properties on food intake have proven effective in limiting the increase in leptinemia related to a high-fat diet in hamsters [51,52], but corrective GSPE doses for shorter periods (30 days) did not revert the higher leptinemia [51]. Thus, the different studies, working with different doses, show inconsistent results that prevent clear conclusions from being drawn regarding the effect of GSPE on leptin production. ...
... To determine whether peripheral signals that indicate the status of the body's energy storage have a role in food intake control, we analyzed leptinemia and found no changes due to GSPE treatments. Chronic long-term treatment with doses without properties on food intake have proven effective in limiting the increase in leptinemia related to a high-fat diet in hamsters [51,52], but corrective GSPE doses for shorter periods (30 days) did not revert the higher leptinemia [51]. Thus, the different studies, working with different doses, show inconsistent results that prevent clear conclusions from being drawn regarding the effect of GSPE on leptin production. ...
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Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect.
... ese results can be attributed to the duration of the experimental period since the total time of the hyperlipidemic diet was only 7 weeks and other studies used protocols of longer duration to induce obesity in hamsters, with 12 to 16 weeks, and despite this, there were no differences in relation to weight gain among groups, probably due to the higher amount of kcal/g in hyperlipidemic diet [42][43][44]. ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the treatment with bacuri seed butter (BB) on body weight, growth, body mass index, lipid profile, atherosclerotic indices, and liver function in dyslipidemic hamsters. Freshly weaned, male hamsters were divided into four groups: (1) normal group (NG)—maintained with standard chow (AIN-93G); (2) dyslipidemia group (DG)—maintained with hyperlipidemic chow (AIN-93G modified) throughout the follow-up period; (3) bacuri seed butter 25 mg/kg/day (BB-25); and (4) bacuri seed butter 50 mg/kg/day (BB-50). BB groups (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) were also maintained with hyperlipidemic chow throughout the follow-up period, and the treatment started after 21 days receiving a hyperlipidemic diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and maintained for 28 days. No significant differences in triglycerides and total cholesterol were observed for BB-25 and BB-50 groups when compared with NG and DG groups. On the contrary, BB-25 and BB-50 induced both increase of HDL-c (51.40 ± 1.69 and 51.00 ± 2.34, respectively) and decrease of LDL-c (103.80 ± 6.87 and 100.50 ± 3.95, respectively) when compared with DG (41.00 ± 2.94 and 132.70 ± 9.41, respectively). In addition, BB promoted a reduction in the risk of atherosclerotic disease by decreasing p<0.05 the atherogenic index, coronary artery risk index, and LDL/CT ratio p<0.05 and increasing HDL/CT ratio. On the contrary, no changes were observed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels or in body weight, growth, body mass index, or liver function parameters. Thus, bacuri seed butter at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day has positive repercussions on the lipid profile, more precisely on plasma HDL-c and LDL-c, and additionally promotes reduction in the risk of atherosclerosis in hamsters.
... Procyanidins have outstanding biological activities, such as lowering plasma lipids, scavenging free radicals, and resisting inflammation. 27,28 Bioactive procyanidins with considerable health-promoting effects are the most abundant polyphenols in human diets. In the present study, we focused on the effect of PCA2, an A-type procyanidin, on HFD-induced AS mice with intact and antibiotic-depleted gut microbiota. ...
... GSE is known to have many beneficial health properties, including protection against hypertension [23], the prevention and treatment of diabetes [24], and the prevention of obesity [25]. In addition, the incidence and growth of UVB radiation-induced photocarcinogenesis of skin cancer was effectively prevented by the dietary feeding of GSE [26]. ...
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Interleukin-1 (IL1) is a proinflammatory cytokine and promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in a diversity of cancers, such as breast and colon cancer. Here, we focused on the pharmacological effect of Entelon® (ETL) on the tumorigenesis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells by IL1-alpha (IL1A). IL1A enhanced the cell growth and invasiveness of TNBC cells. We observed that abnormal IL1A induction is related with the poor prognosis of TNBC patients. IL1A also increased a variety of chemokines such as CCL2 and IL8. Interestingly, IL1A expression was reduced by the ETL treatment. Here, we found that ETL significantly decreased the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in TNBC cells. IL1A expression was reduced by UO126. Lastly, we studied the effect of ETL on the metastatic potential of TNBC cells. Our results showed that ETL significantly reduced the lung metastasis of TNBC cells. Our results showed that IL1A expression was regulated by the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway. Taken together, ETL inhibited the MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and suppressing the lung metastasis of TNBC cells through downregulation of IL1A. Therefore, we propose the possibility of ETL as an effective adjuvant for treating TNBC.
... Procyanidins have outstanding biological activities, such as lowering plasma lipids, scavenging free radicals, and resisting inflammation. 27,28 Bioactive procyanidins with considerable health-promoting effects are the most abundant polyphenols in human diets. In the present study, we focused on the effect of PCA2, an A-type procyanidin, on HFD-induced AS mice with intact and antibiotic-depleted gut microbiota. ...
Article
Plum (Prunus Salicina Lindl) is a rich source of phenolic compounds. However, the bound phenolics and its bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity remain unclear. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine: 1) phenolic profiles of plum, including both free and bound phenolic fractions, 2) bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds in plum during simulated gastrointestinal digestions, 3) their antioxidant properties. A total of 17 phenolic compounds were identified by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS with most epicatechin, neochlorogenic acid and procyanidin B2 in the free phenolics fraction, while catechin and epicatechin was the main compounds in the bound phenolics fraction. After the gastrointestinal digestion phase, the most bioaccessible phenolics were quercetin-pentoside (61.64%), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (43.26%), and naringenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (42.04%). The antioxidant capacity of both undigested plum and its digested fractions showed a positive correlation with the total phenolics, and with specific individual phenolic compounds such as neochlorogenic acid, epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in undigested plum whereas catechin, neochlorogenic acid, and epicatechin in digested one. The results confirm that bound fraction of plum contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the improving human health effects of plum.
... Il a également été étudié les propriétés organoleptiques des polyphénols sur l'amertume et l'astringence. En effet, l'amertume des flavan-3-ols et des tanins a été depuis longtemps observée [14] ainsi que leur astringence [15][16][17][18][19]. La conformation stéréochimique des groupements hydroxyles sur les hétérocycles [17,20] Les polyphénols ont aussi été largement étudiés pour leurs effets sur la santé, « french paradox » [29,30], et leur implication dans la prévention des cancers [31], maladies cardiovasculaires [32][33][34][35][36][37], neurodégénérescence [38] et autres pathologies [39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]. Ces implications peuvent être expliquées par leurs propriétés antioxydantes [44,[48][49][50][51][52][53] et leurs interactions avec des protéines (kinases, facteur de transcription…) qui permettent une inhibition des enzymes productrices d'espèces réactives de l'oxygène (ERO) ou une stimulation de la synthèse d'enzymes antioxydantes [54,55]. ...
Thesis
Lors de l’élevage des vins avec le bois de chêne, plusieurs molécules d’intérêts organoleptiques comme les ellagitanins (vescalagine, castalagine, roburines A, B, C, D, E et grandinine), sont extraites. Leurs concentrations dans le bois et le vin sont très variables et leurs cinétiques d’extraction au cours de l’élevage ainsi que leurs propriétés organoleptiques dans les vins sont mal connues. Dans le but de classifier chaque douelle pour fabriquer des barriques avec des indices en polyphénols (IP) totaux significativement différents, un système proche infrarouge (NIRS), Oakscan®, a été mis en place par la tonnellerie Radoux. Notre objectif était d’étudier l’influence de ce mode de classifications des bois au niveau de la composition moléculaire et organoleptique des vins. Dans un premier temps, la classification NIRS des bois de chêne a été confirmée par quantification des concentrations en ellagitanins totaux et moléculaire par HPLC-UV-MS. Une forte variabilité des concentrations en ellagitanins des bois est observée entre 5,95 et 32,91 mg d’équivalent acide ellagique/g de bois. De plus, la classification NIRS des bois se corrèle avec les analyses chimiques (p < 0,02%). Cette nouvelle méthode permet donc de fabriquer des barriques avec un IP moyen différent (IP : 11 à 70). Dans un second temps, des vins de différentes origines et cépages sont élevés dans les barriques classifiées. La cinétique des teneurs en ellagitanins montre l’influence de la classification des bois de chêne (p < 5%). En effet, dès les premiers mois d’élevage, une augmentation en ellagitanins jusqu’à un maximum est obtenue. Plus les bois sont riches, plus le maximum de concentration en ellagitanins des vins est élevé et décalé dans le temps. Puis, une lente diminution des concentrations en ellagitanins est observée. Les influences du grain et de la chauffe des bois ont également été analysées. La solubilisation dans les vins des composés aromatiques des bois de chêne classifiés par Oakscan® montre dans plusieurs cas que les teneurs en aldéhydes furaniques et en syringol impliqués dans les perceptions du fumé/grillé sont corrélées avec la classification NIRS et également avec l’IP des bois. Ainsi, un vin élevé au contact de bois riches en polyphénols possède des concentrations en arômes fumé/grillé plus importantes. Néanmoins, l’intensité de la chauffe a un rôle prépondérant sur les concentrations de ces arômes boisés. Parallèlement, les propriétés organoleptiques des vins élevés avec du bois de chêne à 6, 12, 18 ou 24 mois et testées par un jury entrainé, montrent des différences significatives corrélées à l’IP des barriques. Les vins élevés au contact des IP les plus importants sont significativement décrits comme plus boisés, fumés/grillés et épicé au nez. En bouche, l’amertume et l’astringence sont significativement plus importantes pour les vins élevés dans les barriques possédant les plus fortes concentrations en ellagitanins. A contrario, le fruité des vins, au nez et en bouche, est généralement noté comme moins important pour les vins élevés avec des barriques à IP le plus haut.L’influence de la classification des bois, en fonction de leurs grains et de leurs IP, sur la consommation en oxygène des vins rouges a été suivie grâce à une méthode innovante et non invasive. Les résultats montrent que 96% de l’oxygène dans le vin à T0 est consommé huit jours après entonnage. Des différences significatives (p < 0,01%), entre les vitesses de consommation de l’oxygène et l’IP ou le grain des barriques, sont observées. La vitesse de consommation d’oxygène augmente en corrélation de l’IP des barriques ou de la taille du grain. Ces résultats permettent d’envisager l’utilisation de méthodes de sélection non empiriques et fiables des bois de chêne en fonction de leurs grains ou de leurs concentrations en ellagitanins ce qui permet de fabriquer des barriques classifiées à l’aide de nos résultats conférant, au vin, des propriétés organoleptiques maîtrisées.
... Among healthy males, the effects of alcohol consumption on sex hormones has been shown to vary by drinking pattern and between beer and wine consumption (Couwenbergs, 1988;Nishizawa et al., 2002;Rinaldi et al., 2006), such that the type of alcoholic beverage consumed and specifically its polyphenol content may differentially affect adiponectin concentrations. Moreover, in an animal model, the chronic consumption of grape-derived polyphenols was found to prevent diet-induced obesity by improving oxidative stress markers such as adipokine secretion (Décordé et al., 2009). ...
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Accumulating evidence suggests that regular moderate consumption of wine can positively influence risk factors associated with cardiovascular health. These effects are often attributed to grape and wine-derived phenolic compounds and their effects on risk factors such as atherosclerosis, for which mechanisms have been clearly identified, such as a decrease in the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol and reduction of oxidative stress, and an increase in nitric oxide and related restoration of endothelial function. In addition, the ethanol component of wine increases HDL-cholesterol, inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes fibrinolysis and reduces systemic inflammation. Scientific research needs to be conducted, however, before we can begin to provide science-based dietary recommendations, although there is sufficient evidence to generally recommend consuming food sources rich in bioactive compounds such as wine in moderation. This narrative review examines published evidence on the cardioprotective effects associated with wine-derived compounds, with a primary focus on the development and progression of atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
... More specifically, grape seed extracts (GSE) from the seeds of Vitis vinifera, are sources of flavonoids, particularly proanthocyanidins (POC) that are known to have beneficial effects on oxidative stress and on many metabolic disorders including insulin resistance [16], increased adiposity [17], and inflammation [18] in mammals. Moreover, it has been reported that some of these GSE effects could be associated to modulations of plasma adipokines such as adiponectin [19]. In mammals, different studies have demonstrated that maternal consumption of polyphenols including GSE during prenatal periods can positively affect the health of the offspring [20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. ...
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In reproductive hens, a feed restriction is an usual practice to improve metabolic and reproductive disorders. However, it acts a stressor on the animal. In mammals, grape seed extracts (GSE) reduces oxidative stress. However, their effect on endocrine and tissue response need to be deepened in reproductive hens. Here, we evaluated the effects of time and level of GSE dietary supplementation on growth performance, viability, oxidative stress and metabolic parameters in plasma and metabolic tissues in reproductive hens and their offsprings. We designed an in vivo trial using 4 groups of feed restricted hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition in GSE since week 4, respectively) and D (supplemented with 1% of GSE since the hatch). In hens from hatch to week 40, GSE supplementation did not affect food intake and fattening whatever the time and dose of supplementation. Body weight was significantly reduced in D group as compared to control. In all hen groups, GSE supplementation decreased plasma oxidative stress index associated to a decrease in the mRNA expression of the NOX4 and 5 oxidant genes in liver and muscle and an increase in SOD mRNA expression. This was also associated to decreased plasma chemerin and increased plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels. Interestingly, maternal GSE supplementation increased the live body weight and viability of chicks at hatching and 10 days of age. This was associated to a decrease in plasma and liver oxidative stress parameters. Taken together, GSE maternal dietary supplementation reduces plasma and tissue oxidative stress associated to modulation of adipokines without affecting fattening in reproductive hens. A 1% GSE maternal dietary supplementation increased offspring viability and reduced oxidative stress suggesting a beneficial transgenerational effect and a potential use to improve the quality of the progeny in reproductive hens.
... It exists in the form of monomer and polymer (Fig. 1) [24,25]. Compared with other plant-derived polyphenols; GSPE has more beneficial health properties, including the ability to modify early cerebrovascular injury caused by hypertension [26], protection of the myocardium from injury [27,28], prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications [29], alleviation of exercise fatigue [30] and prevention of obesity and inflammatory reaction [31,32]; it is considered as one of the most effective plant antioxidants, and one of the most effective free radical scavengers [33,34]. By studying the relationship between GSPE and obesity, we found that GSPE has many activities, such as lowering blood lipid, improving the intestinal flora, regulating the metabolism and so on [35,36]. ...
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Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease resulting from excessive fat accumulation and/or abnormal distribution caused by multiple factors. As a major component of metabolic syndrome, obesity is closely related to many diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer. Hence, the problem of obesity cannot be ignored, and recent studies have shown that grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has an antiobesity effect. This paper systematically reviews the research progress and potential mechanism of GSPE emphasizing on obesity prevention and treatment.
... Grape seed extract (GSE) is a nutritional supplement with important health benefits 9, Because it is a complex mixture of polyphenols consist of flavonoids and nonflavonoids compounds 10 . This plant extract has many benefits include cardioprotective benefits 11 , Renoprotective 12 as well as neuroprotective 13 . The grape seed extract GSE known for its ability to treat anemia and has various biological functions due to it rich polyphenol ingredients 14 , Therefore, it was used in this study to verify its role in reducing the effects of thyroid disorders on some blood parameters. ...
Research
To evaluate the role of grape seed extract in mitigation the effects of thyroid disorders on some blood parameters, Sixty healthy male white rats were used in the current study, divided in six groups (n=10) each group treated as flow: control group (C) given distil water for 45 days. First treatment (T1) given oral dose of 30 mg/kg carbimazole for 45 days as control positive, Second treatment (T2) given oral dose of 20mg/kg L-thyroxin for 45 days as control positive, Third treatment (T3) given oral dose of 150mg/kg GSE for 45 days as control negative, Fourth treatment (T4) given oral dose of 30mg/kg carbimazole for 15 days to induced hypothyroidism then given 30mg/kg carbimazole synchronously with 150mg/kg GSE for 30 days. Fifth treatment (T5) given oral dose of 20mg/kg L-thyroxin for 15 days to induced hyperthyroidism then given 20mg/kg L-thyroxin synchronously with 150mg/kg GSE for 30 days. The results (table1) showed that there was no significant decrease (P>0.05) in RBC result in T1 but was there significant increase (P<0.05) in T2 treatment compared with control, while results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in each of PCV, Hb and ESR in booth T1 and T2 treatments compared with control, Total count of WBC results (table 2) showed significant increase (P<0.05) in T1 and significant decrease (P<0.05) in T2 compared with control, This was accompanied by significant differences in MO, ECIDO, LY and NE when comparing the results of these parameters in T1 and T2 treatments with control. As for T3 treatment which in turn were closely related without no significant difference with control group. Fourth group results experienced improvement in RBCs and Hb closely to control whereas PCV parameter was relative to control and also not significantly different from its rate in the first group, ESR results in this group did not differ significantly compared with control group while WBC results decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with control and T1. The fifth group result they were close to normal range of all parameters in control group as well as compared with third treatment, in contrast results of this fifth treatment were differ significantly towards improvement in these parameters compared with second group which treated with L-thyroxin alone. According to these results we can conclude that grape seeds extract have important role in mitigation thyroid disorders on blood parameters.
... Phytochemicals such as polyphenols are compounds that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity and anti-aging properties (Joseph, Edirisinghe, & Burton-Freeman, 2016;Niedzwiecki, Roomi, Kalinovsky, & Rath, 2016;Papaevgeniou & Chondrogianni, 2018;Wang et al., 2014). Catechins, anthocyanins (ACN), resveratrol and curcumins are a few examples of polyphenols that have demonstrated the ability to modulate physiological and molecular pathways involved in energy metabolism, adiposity and obesity (Decorde et al., 2009;Jin, Song, Weng, & Fantus, 2018;Panickar, 2013;Puglisi & Fernandez, 2008;Wang et al., 2014;Wu et al., 2013). Currently up to six hundred different, naturally occurring ACN have been discovered (Liu et al., 2018). ...
Article
Chronic low-grade inflammation in obese and overweight individuals is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The current trial investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of anthocyanin (ACN) supplementation in lean, overweight and obese individuals. Fifteen lean, ten overweight and ten obese participants consumed ACN (320 mg/day) for 28 days along with their usual diet. ACN supplementation significantly decreased blood plasma levels of CCL2 in the lean, overweight and obese groups (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01 respectively). Additionally, significantly decreased levels of IL-6 in the obese group (p < 0.05) were also observed post-ACN supplementation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory potential of ACN and suggest the supplementation of ACN as a complementary therapeutic agent for reducing chronic inflammation in obese and overweight individuals.
... Since then, interest and research regarding these compounds have increased significantly. For example, it has been described that grape procyanidins have a preventive effect for obesity in hamsters fed with a high-fat diet, improving the adipokine secretory profile of adipose tissue and attenuating oxidative stress [55]. Additionally, isolated effects of polyphenols have been observed, such as resveratrol and quercetin, which synergize reducing fatty deposits in rats [56]. ...
Article
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Obesity is a public health problem present in both developed and developing countries. The white adipose tissue (WAT) is the main deposit of lipids when there is an excess of energy. Its pathological growth is directly linked to the development of obesity and to a wide number of comorbidities, such as insulin-resistance, cardiovascular disease, among others. In this scenario, it becomes imperative to develop new approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. It has been documented that the browning of WAT could be a suitable strategy to tackle the obesity epidemic that is developing worldwide. Currently there is an intense search for bioactive compounds with anti-obesity properties, which present the particular ability to generate thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) or beige. The present study provide recent information of the bioactive nutritional compounds capable of inducing thermogenesis and therefore capable of generate positive effects on health.
... The energy content of the grape seed could have been reduced compared to that of control, which could lead to a lower milk production and thus to a lower energy deposition of fat. By the other hand, phenolic compounds maybe transferred to milk could have also reduced obesity in lambs, as it was observed in hamsters supplemented with grape seed procyanidin extract 35 . ...
Article
Introduction - Winery by-products, which may constitute undesirable waste, can be used as feeding supplements in ruminants, but they could modify product quality. Aim - To investigate the effect of wine by-products added to lactating ewes feeding on the ewe’s welfare, milk quality and their suckling lamb performance, carcass and meat quality. Material and methods - A total of 42 Chamarita breed ewes were allocated in one of three experimental diets: a control, based in concentrates without added by-product, and diets supplemented with either 10% grape pomace or 5% grape seed on a dry matter basis, during middle gestation and lactation. Ewe’s physiological welfare indicators and milk quality were assessed, and daily gain, carcass and meat quality (pH, cooking and thawing losses, texture and colour) in their suckling lambs were analysed. Results and discussion - Compared to the control group, cortisol levels was higher in the ewes fed pomace; whereas creatine kinase and non-esterified fatty acids were superior in the ewes fed seed. However, milk composition was minimally affected, showing less lactose concentration the grape pomace and control groups, but the percentage of fat and protein and somatic cell count was similar between treatments. The suckling lambs showed similar performance, but the fattening carcass score of the lambs of the grape seed group was lower than control. The meat of the three treatments reached a similar pH, cooking loss and instrumental texture and only a minor effect in thawing loss and the colour parameter lightness was observed. Conclusion - The inclusion of grape by-products may be used as a supplementation in lactating ewes without compromising lambs’ growths, carcass composition and instrumental meat quality.
... Quercetin supplementation led to an increase in mitochondrial density [44], and increased the endurance without previous training [95]. Reports about the efficacy of these polyphenols on metabolic rate, substrate oxidation and energy expenditure in humans are still scarce, but it is a promising field of investigation, considering the beneficial effects of grape extracts (rich in resveratrol and quercetin) in preventing obesity [96], and in reducing weight gain [97]. Studies with oleuropein, a phenolic compound found in extra virgin olive oil, have been shown to increase catecholamine secretion and increase UCP1 expression [98]. ...
Article
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Obesity is a health problem worldwide, and energy imbalance has been pointed out as one of the main factors responsible for its development. As mitochondria are a key element in energy homeostasis, the development of obesity has been strongly associated with mitochondrial imbalance. Polyphenols are the largest group of phytochemicals, widely distributed in the plant kingdom, abundant in fruits and vegetables, and have been classically described as antioxidants owing to their well-established ability to eliminate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). During the last decade, however, growing evidence reports the ability of polyphenols to perform several important biological activities in addition to their antioxidant activity. Special attention has been given to the ability of polyphenols to modulate mitochondrial processes. Thus, some polyphenols are now recognized as molecules capable of modulating pathways that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, ATP synthesis, and thermogenesis, among others. The present review reports the main benefits of polyphenols in modulating mitochondrial processes that favor the regulation of energy expenditure and offer benefits in the management of obesity, especially thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis.
... would have the same effect, long term, for people. Although the rinds of fruits like oranges do contain PMFs, they may not contain them in such a quantity as to make a difference in cholesterol levels [6][7][8][9][10][11][12] . A compound found in the peels of citrus fruit has the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs, and without side effects [13][14][15][16][17] . ...
Article
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ESTIMATION OF CHOLESTEROL, EGG CHOLESTEROL AND THE EFFECT OF ORANGE PEEL, GRAPE SEEDS AND GOOSEBERRY ON THEM USING HPTLC
... More recently, the attenuation of obesity induced inflammation by grape seed PAs were demonstrated by molecular methods. Décordé et al. [55] determined the expression of adipocytokines in hamsters on high fat diets supplemented with Chardonnay grape seed extracts for 12 weeks. The extract was reported to contain 448 mg$g -1 polymeric tannins as leucocyanidin equivalents. ...
Article
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Obesity is increasing in developing countries. Population studies show a relationship between affluence and obesity. Changing food intake patterns with affluence such as preference for foods with less astringent polyphenolic compounds and dietary fibers may increase risk of metabolic dysfunctions due to caloric imbalance. Animal models of obesity consistently show that grape seed procyanidins prevent increases in body and abdominal adipose weight gain, plasma cholesterol, liver weight gain and inflammation in animals on high fat diets. The mechanisms are not clear because the oral intake of procyanidins results in pleiotropic interactions with proteins in the mouth, stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon that affect the rate of digestion of bioavailability of macronutrients, sterols, and dietary fiber. Procyanidins also bind bile acids and reduce intestinal permeability to inflammatory bacterial cell wall fragment. Procyanidins are not degraded or metabolized until reaching the lower gut where they can be metabolized into phenolic acids by gut bacteria. While they are metabolized by gut bacteria, they also alter total numbers and distribution of phyla and species of gut bacteria. Gut bacteria are recognized as significant contributors to obesity and obesity related metabolic diseases. The review examines the different pleiotropic effects of grape seed procyanidins that have a significant effect on metabolic disease in animal models of obesity.
... The phenolic compounds have various biologically important functions such as radical scavenging, antioxidants and other health promoting properties [17,18]. Prolonged consumption of phenolic compounds is associated with prevention and reduction of obesity and effects on metabolic pathways such as secretion of adipokine and oxidative stress [19]. They can also be recommended as natural food additives and preferred over synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT [17]. ...
Article
Aims and background: Aseptic processing is focused only fruit juices, but the processing of strengthful fruit, like fruit juice fortified with other beneficial herbs by tetrapack processing has not been attempted. The aim of the study to introduce a new form of orange juice with a good nutritional value. Materials and methods: Orange-Mint leaves juice was formulated using different addition percentages of mint leaves extract. The juice was aseptically processed, packed in glass bottles under sterilized environment and sterilized at 70°C for 15min then storage at 5°C for 3 months. All of the properties of juice "physicochemical, nutritional values, microbiological and sensory" was determined. Results: The results showed that there was no difference in pH, total soluble solids, ash, and total acidity in all samples moreover, the orange juice with 15% of mint leaves extract recorded the best values of sensory evaluation, on the other hand, it was recorded lower values of vitamin C and total phenolic compound than fresh or pasteurized orange juice because of increasing in addition % of mint leaves extract to orange juice. The sensory properties of juice samples were not remarkable any changes during storage. The results indicated that the juice had a good acceptability up to 3 months of storage at 5°C. Conclusion: Now, the consumer is interested with nutritional and healthy foods, because functional foods reduce the health problems, as described in various patents. So, the Orange-Mint leaves blended juice will be a good option for the consumer.
... Studies have suggested that extreme nutritional factors usually induce insulin resistance (IR) [22,23]. Alloxan, a classical diabetogen, can be selectively toxic to the pancreatic beta cells through oxidative stress-related DNA damage in the sensitive cells. ...
Article
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To determine whether treatment with ginseng oligopeptides (GOPs) could modulate hyperglycemia related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats induced by high-fat diet and low doses of alloxan, type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by injecting them once with 105 mg/kg alloxan and feeding them high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet with or without GOP administration (0.125, 0.5, and 2.0 g/kg Body Weight) for 7, 24, and 52 weeks. Oral glucose test tolerance (OGTT), plasma glucose, serum insulin, level of antioxidant, and beta cell function were measured. Morphological observation and immunohistochemistry study of insulin of islets was performed by light microscopy. The insulin level and the expression of NF-κB and Bcl-2 family in pancreatic islets were also detected by Western blot analysis. In addition, survival time and survival rate were observed. After the treatment, the abnormal OGTT were partially reversed by GOPs treatment in diabetic rats. The efficacy of GOPs was manifested in the amelioration of pancreatic damage, as determined by microscopy analysis. Moreover, GOPs treatment increased the normal insulin content and decreased the expression of the NF-κB-signaling pathway. Compared with those in the control model, the survival time and rate were significantly longer. It is suggested that GOPs exhibit auxiliary therapeutic potential for diabetes.
... Accordingly, dealcoholized red wine as well as an important flavanol found in GP, (-)-epicatechin was able to ameliorate fructose induced biochemical modifications in the heart through modulating the expression and/or activity of Nox and eNOS and thus favoring NO bioavailability 28,40 . Chronic consumption of grape phenolics improved oxidative stress markers by preventing in part NAD(P)H oxidase expression in left cardiac ventricle on high-fat diet-induced obesity hamsters 41 . ...
Article
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor of sudden cardiac death in humans but, animal models for the study of this association are needed. Grape pomace (GP), obtained from winemaking process, contains phenolic compounds with potential cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a high-fat-fructose (HFF) diet facilitates the occurrence of arrhythmias during the reperfusion, and if a GP supplementation could counteracts this effects. Wistar rats were fed with control (Ctrl), HFF diet and HFF plus GP (1g/Kg/day) during six weeks. HFF diet induces characteristic features of MetS (higher systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) which was attenuated by GP supplementation. In addition, HFF induced increased reperfusion arrhythmias that were reduced upon GP supplementation. GP also reduced the non-phosphorylated form of connexin-43 (Cx43) while enhances heart p-AKT and p-eNOS protein levels and reduces Nox4 levels enhanced by a HFF diet, indicating that GP may increase NO bioavailability in heart. We found a murine model of MetS with increased arrhythmogenesis and translational value. Furthermore, GP prevents diet-induced heart dysfunction and metabolic alterations. These results highlight the potential utilization of winemaking by-products containing important amount of bioactive compounds to prevent/attenuate MetS-associated cardiovascular pathologies.
... Low dose (25mg per kg body weight per day) GSPE treatment of high-fat-diet (HFD) fed rats significantly reduced the adiposity index and the weight of all the white adipose tissue depots and reversed the increase in plasma phospholipids induced by the HFD feeding (Caimari et al., 2012). Chronic consumption of grape phenolics has been shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress in a rat model (Décordé et al., 2009). Cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grapebased products were summarized by Kaur et al., (2009). ...
Chapter
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Grape pomace (GP) is a by-product of wine industry, in which remains significant amount of polyphenols. The freshly pressed pomace is perishable and has to be dried for use at later time. Depending on the drying methods, significant loss in polyphenols may occur during drying. This chapter describes the impacts of dehydration methods such as room temperature drying and vacuum drying on the retention of polyphenols in the pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon and Muscadine Nobel grapes using freeze dried sample as control. Seeds, skins and stems were separated manually after drying and the effects of drying methods on the stability of GP polyphenols were evaluated by the retentions of total polyphenol (TP), total anthocyanins (TA) and total flavonoids (TF). Results show that seeds and stems from both grape varieties were rich in TP and TF but low in TA, while skins were rich in anthocynin. Compared to freeze drying, both room temperature and vacuum oven drying methods resulted in significant loss of TP, TA and TF in different parts of Muscadine pomace. Among different groups of polyphenols, anthocyanin was affected the most by drying methods. Flavonoids in Cabernet pomace exhibited higher heat stability than that in Muscadine pomace indicating the differences in flavonoid composition between the two grape varieties. Therefore, the polyphenol composition and stability of GP are variety dependent. The selection of drying method needs to consider what type of polyphenol to be preserved, variety of GP and the cost of drying method.
... Grape seed extract prevented in part the increase on plasma glucose, triglycerides, insulin and insulin resistance, lowering insulinemia and leptinemia. Oxidative stress, assessed by cardiac production of superoxide anion and NAD(P)H oxidase expression, was reduced [42]. Grape seed proanthocyanidin rich extracts dose and time dependently prevented tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in two intestinal cell types: the absorptive cell line Caco-2 and the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. ...
Chapter
Grapes, grape products and by-products represent a widely distributed and studied source of natural antioxidants, which also show health benefits in relation to cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Grape seeds are part of the wine industry byproducts and the valorization of their constituents has interest. The present chapter reviews the composition of grape seeds, particularly the phenolic profile, the different extraction methodologies reported for the extraction of phenolic compounds for production of antioxidant extracts and the antioxidant capacities evaluated by different protocols.
... High nutrient intake in IUGR piglets led to abnormal immune function during the suckling period by lowering serum concentrations of cytokines such as TNF and IL-1β. Moreover, intense nutrient intake induces excessive oxidative stress (87)(88)(89) , which can impose a further burden on the immature antioxidant system in LBW offspring (90)(91)(92) . ...
Article
Infants born with low birth weights (<2500 g, LBW), accounting for about 15 % of newborns, have a high risk for postnatal growth failure and developing the metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and obesity later in life. Improper nutrition provision during critical stages, such as undernutrition during the fetal period or overnutrition during the neonatal period, has been an important mediator of these metabolic diseases. Considering the specific physiological status of LBW infants, nutritional intervention and optimisation during early life merit further attention. In this review, the physiological and metabolic defects of LBW infants were summarised from a nutritional perspective. Available strategies for nutritional interventions and optimisation of LBW infants, including patterns of nutrition supply, macronutrient proportion, supplementation of amino acids and their derivatives, fatty acids, nucleotides, vitamins, minerals as well as hormone and microbiota manipulators, were reviewed with an aim to provide new insights into the advancements of formulas and human-milk fortifiers.
... Obesity and diabetes are other underlying factors linked to metabolic and cardiovascular risk [39,40], as well as abnormal cortisol levels and metabolism [41][42][43]. ...
Article
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Abstract: Oxidative stress is exacerbated in overweight and obese individuals after acute exercise compared with their non-obese counterparts. Antioxidant supplementation of the diet may be one intervention to reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress in this vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice attenuates post-exercise oxidative stress and contributors to oxidative stress (glucocorticoids) and blood pressure in healthy overweight subjects. Methods: Males and females participated in a randomized placebo controlled parallel pilot-study (mean BMI: 26.7 ± 6.6 kg/m2). Two groups of (n = 12) participants received either pomegranate pure juice (500 mL/day containing 1685 mg GAE/L) total phenolics) or placebo (matched for total energy and volume) and all participants completed two standardized 30 min treadmill tests (50% Wmax) at baseline and after one week of treatment. Results: Exercise induced lipid peroxidation (MDA) was decreased following pomegranate juice consumption compared with placebo (31.2 ± 10.6 to 26.5 ± 9.8 MDA μmole/day) after 1 week (P = 0.035). Urinary free cortisol was reduced from 179.4 ± 53.2 to 125.6 ± 43.5 nmole/24h (p = 0.042). In addition, there was an increase in urinary free cortisone: 112.2 ± 40.4 to 187.6 ± 90.2 nmole/24 h (p = 0.045), and a decrease in the urinary free cortisol/cortisone ratio (p=0.009) from 1.6 ± 1.1 to 0.67 ± 0.55 following one week of pomegranate juice intake. Pomegranate juice consumption was also found to lower systolic blood pressure pre-exercise (136.7 ± 11.7 to 131.8 ± 8.8 mmHg (p=0.007), and post-exercise from 158.8 ± 15.8 to 148.1 ± 12.3 mmHg (p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (86.3 ± 10.6 to 82.5 ± 6.8 mmHg (p = 0.04) and 103.1 ± 12.5 to 93.9 ± 11.5 mmHg (p = 0.001), pre and post exercise, respectively. Correlation results between the change in Cortisol/cortisone ratio with the effect on blood pressure showed a negative significant association post pomegranate juice intake (p = 0.028 for systolic and p = 0,008 for diastolic BP). There were no changes in lipid peroxidation or blood pressure following placebo treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that pomegranate juice consumption prior to an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise reduces blood pressure and exercise-induced oxidative stress in the overweight and obese population. Keywords: Pomegranate juice; Blood Pressure; Glucocorticoids; Exercise; Oxidative Stress
... Obesity and diabetes are other underlying factors linked to metabolic and cardiovascular risk [39,40], as well as abnormal cortisol levels and metabolism [41][42][43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Oxidative stress is exacerbated in overweight and obese individuals after acute exercise compared with their non-obese counterparts. Antioxidant supplementation of the diet may be one intervention to reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress in this vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice attenuates post-exercise oxidative stress and contributors to oxidative stress (glucocorticoids) and blood pressure in healthy overweight subjects. Method: Males and females participated in a randomized placebo controlled parallel pilot-study (mean BMI: 26.7 ± 6.6 kg/m2). Two groups of (n = 12) participants received either pomegranate pure juice (500 mL/day containing total polyphenols of 1685 mg GAE/L) or placebo (water matched for total energy) and all participants completed two standardized 30 min treadmill tests (50% Wmax) at baseline and after one week of the intervention. Results: Exercise induced lipid peroxidation (MDA) was lower following pomegranate juice consumption compared with placebo (31.2 ± 10.6 to 26.5 ± 9.8 MDA μmole/day) after 1 week (P = 0.035). Urinary free cortisol was reduced from 179.4 ± 53.2 to 125.6 ± 43.5 nmole/24h which was significant (p = 0.042). In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in urinary free cortisone: from 112.2 ± 40.4 to 187.6 ± 90.2 nmole/24 h (p = 0.045), and a significant decrease in the urinary free cortisol/cortisone ratio (p=0.009) from 1.6 ± 1.1 to 0.67 ± 0.55 following one week of pomegranate juice intake. Pomegranate juice consumption was also found to decrease systolic blood pressure pre-exercise (136.7 ± 11.7 to 131.8 ± 8.8 mmHg (p=0.007), and post-exercise from 158.8 ± 15.8 to 148.1 ± 12.3 mmHg (p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (86.3 ± 10.6 to 82.5 ± 6.8 mmHg (p = 0.04) and 103.1 ± 12.5 to 93.9 ± 11.5 mmHg (p = 0.001), pre and post exercise, respectively. Correlation results between the change in Cortisol/cortisone ratio with the effect on blood pressure showed a negative significant association post pomegranate juice intake (p = 0.028 for systolic and p = 0,008 for diastolic BP). There were no changes in lipid peroxidation or blood pressure following placebo treatment. Conclusions: These findings suggest that pomegranate juice consumption prior to an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise may alleviate blood pressure and exercise-induced oxidative stress in the overweight and obese population. Keywords: Pomegranate juice; Blood Pressure; Glucocorticoids; Exercise; Oxidative Stress
... Rutin also inhibited the expression of leptin and then up-regulated the expression of adiponectin at the protein level in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Hsu et al., 2009). Moreover, oxidative stress could be also related to adipokine imbalance (Décordé et al., 2009). Therefore, the inhibition of TNF-α secretion and the increase of adiponectin secretion and leptin sensitivity related to antioxidant effects may improve obesity through inhibition of inflammation, improvement of insulin resistance (Kadowaki et al., 2006;Ye, 2013), or correctness for imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure (Jung & Choi, 2014) . ...
Article
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Rutin, a phenolic compound, has antioxidant, anti-dyslipidaemic, and body weight-reducing effects. We evaluated the anti-arteriosclerotic, antioxidant, and body weight-reducing effects of rutin-rich Tartary buckwheat. We randomly divided 144 adult subjects into an active test food group consuming products containing rutin-rich Tartary buckwheat and a placebo food group. Body composition measurements and haematological and urine tests were performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12, and at 3 weeks after termination. Atherosclerosis index and ox-LDL did not significantly differ between the groups. However, TBARS levels, BW and BMI in the active test food group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group at week 8 (p = 0.027, p = 0.030, respectively). BFP in the active test food group at week 4 (p = 0.038) was lower than that in the placebo group. Thus, rutin-rich Tartary buckwheat intake may be effective for body weight due to its antioxidant properties.
... Green tea extract (GTE), GSE and peanut skin extract (PE) have been recognized to have diverse health benefits including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties (Saito et al., 1998;Yu et al., 2005;Perumalla and Hettiarachchy, 2011). In terrestrial animal models, GTE has been tested in rat, mice and rabbits (Inagake et al., 1995;Löest et al., 2002;Yokozawa et al., 2002;Bursill et al., 2007;Bose et al., 2008;Bruno et al., 2008), while GSE has been examined in mice, rat, rabbit, horse and hamsters (Bagchi et al., 1998;Koga et al., 1999;Yamakoshi et al., 1999;Davies et al., 2009;Décordé et al., 2009;Yousef et al., 2009). In aquaculture, GTE has been evaluated in fish. ...
Article
A major problem confronting the abalone farming industry in Australia is elevated mortality during summer months. Recent research suggests that temperature-induced tissue breakdown allows bacteria entry to the host, and nutritional supplementation can alleviate this breakdown. The aim of this study was to alleviate mortality of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, cultured at high summer water temperatures (25 °C) by dietary intervention using graded levels of peanut skin extract (PE; 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5%), green tea extract (GTE; 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5%) and vitamin C (1.0% vitamin C; 1.0% vitamin C + 1.0% GTE; and 1.0% vitamin C + 1.0% PE) in a commercial diet; these supplements contain antioxidant and bioactive compounds. The commercial diet containing 5.0% Australian grapeseed extract (GSE) fed at 25 °C was also included as a negative temperature/positive diet control due to improved survival and health of abalone at high temperatures in our previous study. Three-year-old abalone (49.21 g; 70.26 mm) were fed the commercial diet at 22 °C (positive temperature control), and the commercial diet (negative temperature control) and test diets at 25 °C for 38 days. Abalone survival was 85% for the commercial diet at 22 °C, whereas survival of abalone was significantly reduced to 40% when fed the commercial diet at 25 °C. There were no significant differences in survival of abalone fed the commercial diet at 22 °C and those fed 5.0% GSE, 0.5% GTE and 2.5% GTE diets at 25 °C. Supplements did not significantly affect oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion rates and total hemocyte count. Abalone fed 5.0% GTE had significantly lower phagocytic activity than those fed the commercial control diet at 22 °C. Supplementation with PE and vitamin C had no beneficial effects on survival, while GTE holds promise as a potential dietary additive to enhance the survival of abalone at higher water temperature. This study confirms that supplementation of 5.0% GSE in the commercial diet also improves the survival of greenlip abalone cultured at high summer water temperature in the laboratory setting.
... These organs are often studied in order to access the degree of oxidative stress/damage in animals. [8,9,11,12,13,14] A number of drugs are available than can lower the serum lipid. their use can be limited by adverse effects like hepatitis etc. at present ,herbal anti hyperlipidemic drugs have gained importance to compensate the setbacks of modern allopathic drugs in this category. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Present study planned on anti-obesity in response to an atherogenic diet and to estimate the effect of Cyperus Rotundus Linn, Terminalia Arjuna & Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Nees, on serum lipid profiles, renal, hepatic function analysis in wistar rats. Obesity associated with Cardio vascular abnormalities is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Atherogenic or high fat diets were known to induce cardiovascular diseases, and several active compounds were tested to protect/prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Obesity was induced by feeding rats with an atherogenic diet over a period of 60 days. Animals were divided into 6 groups, control, atherogenic diet, and 3 dose levels of hot infusion extract of herbal formulations of the hydro-alcoholic extract of herbal formulation containing Cyperous rotundus, Terminalia arjuna and Cinnamomum zeylanicum was administered orally in dose of 480mg/kg, p.o (high dose), 360mg/kg p.o (mid dose), 120mg/kg p.o (low dose) was administered daily for a treated group over a period of 60 days. Body weight, locomotor activity, organ and fat pad weights, lipid profile and renal function (Urea, Uric acid, Creatinine) ALT, AST activities were analyzed. Since the treatment with Cyperus rotundus poly herbal formulation significantly normalized the lipid profile. Plasma Adiponectin, Serum ALT, AST, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Atherogenic diet induced obesity associated with a disturbed lipid profile, renal and liver implications for the progress of obesity related problems were examined, followed by the treatment with Cyperus rotundus poly herbal formulation improved obesity and its associated metabolic problems in different levels.
... The antioxidant effect of grape seed extract has even been confirmed in clinical trials (Rodr´ýguez et al., 2010). GSE has wide-ranging benefits including cardio-protective (Decordé et al., 2009), renoprotective (Safa et al., 2010) and hepato-protective (Sehirli et al., 2008) properties. Grape seed extract also protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat (Gao et al., 2014), and azathioprine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats (El-Ashmawy et al., 2010). ...
Article
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The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H2O2 and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.
... Administration of adiponectin has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in an insulin-resistant mouse model [25]. Grape seed extract increased plasma adiponectin level and lowered HOMA-IR in HFD hamsters, which resulted in lowered glycemia and inhibited obesity development [26]. Our study also showed increased adiponectin levels in mice treated with each fruit extracts ( Figure 5D), which might contribute to the decreased HOMA-IR. ...
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The present study investigated the possible anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects of Poncirus trifoliata L. extracts. Mature fruit were divided into flavedo (PF) and juice sacs (PJ), and extracts from them were tested on C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for thirteen weeks. Both fruit extracts (40 mg/kg body weight, respectively) showed anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. Consumption of PF and PJ extracts reduced body weight by 9.21% and 20.27%, respectively. Liver and adipose weights, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreased significantly, while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and oral glucose tolerance levels increased significantly in response to two fruit extracts. These effects were due in part to the modulation of serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin. Furthermore, transcript levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) were reduced while those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α) and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) were increased in the liver of C57BL/6 mice, which might be an important mechanism affecting lipid and glucose metabolism. Taken together, P. trifoliata fruit can be potentially used to prevent or treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
... The in vitro and in vivo inhibition of lipid accumulation by plant polyphenolics has been reported in the literature. 34,[45][46][47] Min et al. demonstrated that preadipocyte cocoa polyphenolic treatments of 100 and 200 lg/mL decreased cellular lipids by 30% and 72%, respectively, and decreased fatty acid synthase levels. 20 Epigallocatechin gallate and grape skin extract treatment have shown similar effects. ...
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Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.
... Low dose (25mg per kg body weight per day) GSPE treatment of high-fat-diet (HFD) fed rats significantly reduced the adiposity index and the weight of all the white adipose tissue depots and reversed the increase in plasma phospholipids induced by the HFD feeding (Caimari et al., 2012). Chronic consumption of grape phenolics has been shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress in a rat model (Décordé et al., 2009). Cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grapebased products were summarized by Kaur et al., (2009). ...
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Grape pomace (GP) is a by-product of wine industry, in which remains significant amount of polyphenols. The freshly pressed pomace is perishable and has to be dried for use at later time. Depending on the drying methods, significant loss in polyphenols may occur during drying. This chapter describes the impacts of dehydration methods such as room temperature drying and vacuum drying on the retention of polyphenols in the pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon and Muscadine Nobel grapes using freeze dried sample as control. Seeds, skins and stems were separated manually after drying and the effects of drying methods on the stability of GP polyphenols were evaluated by the retentions of total polyphenol (TP), total anthocyanins (TA) and total flavonoids (TF). Results show that seeds and stems from both grape varieties were rich in TP and TF but low in TA, while skins were rich in anthocynin. Compared to freeze drying, both room temperature and vacuum oven drying methods resulted in significant loss of TP, TA and TF in different parts of Muscadine pomace. Among different groups of polyphenols, anthocyanin was affected the most by drying methods. Flavonoids in Cabernet pomace exhibited higher heat stability than that in Muscadine pomace indicating the differences in flavonoid composition between the two grape varieties. Therefore, the polyphenol composition and stability of GP are variety dependent. The selection of drying method needs to consider what type of polyphenol to be preserved, variety of GP and the cost of drying method.
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Procyanidin (PC) is a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of PC on canine sperm quality after 72 h of storage at 4 °C. The collected ejaculates were separated into four equal aliquots and treated with various concentrations of PC (0, 10, 30, and 50 μg/mL) in Tris-citric-fructose-egg yolk (TCFE) extender and stored at 4 °C for 72 h. The findings revealed that 30 μg/mL PC was the optimum concentration for significantly improving sperm motility (p < 0.05). Sperm samples treated with 30 μg/mL PC had substantially greater plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential than the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, T-AOC and the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) genes were significantly higher in sperm treated with 30 μg/mL PC than those in control (p < 0.05). In summary, this study discovered that adding PC to the TCFE extender enhanced sperm quality and that 30 μg/mL PC was the optimal concentration for canine sperm when stored at 4 °C.
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Increased oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenic process of obesity and can trigger inflammation, which is often linked with the risk factors that make up metabolic syndrome (MetS), including obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. TetraSOD®, a natural marine vegan ingredient derived from the microalgae Tetraselmis chuii that is high in the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) has recently demonstrated in vitro increased activity of these key antioxidant enzymes. In the present study, the potential bioactive effects of three dietary dosages of TetraSOD® in enhancing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms to combat the metabolic disturbances that compose MetS were assessed in rats given a cafeteria (CAF) diet. Chronic supplementation with 0.17, 1.7, and 17 mg kg−1 day−1 of TetraSOD® for 8 weeks ameliorated the abnormalities associated with MetS, including oxidative stress and inflammation, promoting endogenous antioxidant defence mechanisms in the liver (GPx and GSH), modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in plasma (NOx, oxLDL and IL-10), and regulating genes involved in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory pathways in the liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), thymus, and spleen. Overall, TetraSOD® appears to be a potential therapeutic option for the management of MetS.
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While the underlying mechanism remains unknown, Rubus chingii var. suavissimus (S. K. Lee) L. T. Lu or Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (RS), a sweet plant distributed in southwest of China, has been used as beverage and folk medicine. Pharmacological studies indicated the potential of RS improving the obesity phenotype and hyperlipidemia. The mechanism is still not yet to be put forward. To verify the substantial effects of RS on lipid metabolism, a Syrian golden hamster model was adopted. The physiological and pathological evaluation of experimental animals demonstrated that RS can relieve the lipid metabolism disorder induced by high-fat diet and alleviated liver injury. RS upregulation the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), as well as adipocyte-specific genes, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2). On the other side, RS suppressed the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and downstream acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). In conclusion, RS alleviated lipid metabolism disorder symptoms caused by high-fat diet accompanied with 8 weeks of treatment, involving enhanced β-oxidation, increased adipogenesis and decreased the metabolism of fatty acids, via modulation of the PPARs/SREBP pathway in Syrian golden hamsters.
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Black soybean (Glycine max L), a cultivar containing abundant polyphenols in its seed coat such as anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, has been reported to possess various health benefits toward lifestyle diseases. In this review article, the safety evaluation of polyphenol-rich black soybean seed coat extract (BE), and absorption of BE polyphenols are summarized. Additionally, we describe the antioxidant activity of BE polyphenols and their ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. The health benefits of BE and its polyphenols, such as its anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic activities through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and translocation of glucose transporter 4, respectively, are also discussed. Furthermore, we identified the improvement of vascular function by BE. These emerging data require further investigation in scientific studies and human trials to evaluate the prevention of lifestyle diseases using black soybean polyphenols.
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Juicing of grapes includes contact with phenolic rich seeds and skins that otherwise rely on mastication for phenolic release. To understand if 100% grape juice can provide a matrix with highly bioaccessible phenolics relative to whole fruit, differences in phenolic content and bioaccessibility from commonly consumed table, Concord (CG) and Niagara (NG) grapes and their 100% juices were compared. Phenolic content in whole grapes and 100% juices were assayed by LC-MS prior to in vitro digestion to determine phenolic bioaccessibility. Phenolic compounds were concentrated in CG and NG seeds as flavan-3-ols (222.2 – 285.5 mg/100g fw). CG skins were rich in anthocyanins (201.4 mg/100g fw) and flavonols (15.5 mg/100g fw). Product form had a significant impact on content (p < 0.01), relative bioaccessibility, and absolute bioaccessibility (p < 0.01). CG had a higher total phenolic content (21.9 - 50.7 mg/100g fw) compared to CGJ (5.8 mg/100g fw), though NG (4.9 - 10.8 mg/100g fw) was similar in phenolic content to NGJ (9.4 - 10.8 mg/100g fw). Absolute bioaccessibility of total phenolics from CGJ (5.2 mg/100g fw) was similar to CG (2.6 - 9.6 mg/100g fw), while NGJ (5.1 - 5.7 mg/100g fw) had higher bioaccessible phenolic content than NG (0.8 – 1.1 mg/100g fw). Differences in bioaccessible content were driven by high relative bioaccessibility of anthocyanins in CGJ (86-135%) compared to CG (14-39%) as well as for flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids from CGJ/NGJ (48-101; 39-85%) compared to CG/NG (0-3; 9-67%). Comparisons between juices and table grapes followed similar trends. A greater fraction of skin and seed phenolics were extracted through juicing and made bioaccessible making 100% grape juice and whole fruit similar in phenolic delivery to consumers.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Alibertia edulis (L.C. Rich.) A.C. Rich is a vegetable species used in Brazilian folk medicine due to it is putative hypoglycemiant effect but has never been pharmacologically investigated. It is popularly used for the control of diabetes, especially in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Following confirmation of the antioxidant activity of A. edulis by Aquino et al. (2017), the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of leaves of A. edulis aqueous extract (AEAE) on some biochemical parameters in mice fed a high-fat fed. Material and methods: Leaves of A. edulis were air-dried in an oven at 40 °C for 10 days and ground into a fine powder by mechanical milling. The AEAE was prepared by decoction (1:10 w/v) at 97 °C for 15 min, and later filtered and lyophilized. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the AEAE has been already indetified the presence of caffeic acid, quercetin 3-rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)-galactoside and iridois ioxide, ferulic acid and rutin in decocted leaves (Aquino et al., 2017). In one experiment, the acute oral toxicity AEAE was evaluated at 2,000 mg/kg of body weight. The animals were observed periodically for 14 days. In second experiment, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 5): Control, AEAE 200, AEAE 400 mg/kg and positive control (Metformin 100 mg/kg). In a third experiment, animals were divided into: Control RC (standard diet) (n = 24) and Control HFF (high-fat fed) (n = 24) groups for induction of glucose intolerance. After eight weeks, they were further subdivided into six groups (n = 8 each) RC or HFF with or without AEAE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (2-wk) treatments to assess glucose tolerance. Plasma indicators of glucose tolerance and liver damage, skeletal muscle expression of antioxidant enzymes, and expression of the antioxidant proteins of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and phosphorylated IKK were determined. Results: The HF-fed animals developed glucose intolerance which the AEAE failed to revert. Meanwhile, the AEAE treatment did lower the glucose levels in the normolipidic cohorts by virtue of its antioxidant property. It was also observed that the treatment with the AEAE reduced food intake negatively interfering weight accretion. Beyond that, the treatment with AEAE interfered in the SOD and catalase expression and inhibited phosphorylation of IKK thus suggesting that the observed hypoglycemiant power may be related to its known antioxidant potential. No sings of toxicity or hemolysis were detectaed at indicating that, at the concentrations evaluated, the extract was not toxic to normal cells. Conclusion: The AEAE showed a hypoglycemiant effect in the normolipidic mice that received the control diet, but not in those that were made glucose-intolerant by consuming a high-fat fed. The extract also exhibited substantial protection against hemolysis and oxidative stress. Moreover, no signs of toxicity were evident at 2000 mg/kg of body weight.
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Lotus seed epicarp (LSE) and lotus seed pot (LSP) were characterized and a total of 5 and 7 proanthocyanidins (PAs) were identified in purified LSE and LSP extract, respectively. Purified LSE and LSP PAs significantly suppressed the body weight and weight gain of white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased the WAT cell size in high-fat diet induced obese mice regardless of the daily food intake. LSE or LSP administration significantly lowered the serum leptin level and improved the serum and liver lipid profiles (including TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C levels), increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST) and GSH concentration, and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue. LSP PAs was generally more effective than LSE PAs. Both extracts ameliorated obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative damage in obese mice, suggesting they are good candidates for value-added functional food and nutraceutical ingredients.
Thesis
Les effets du GSSE (Grape seed and skin extract), extrait de raisin particulièrement riche en antioxydants, ont été étudiés pour prévenir les troubles métaboliques et cardiovasculaires liés à l’obésité. L’obésité est caractérisée par une accumulation ectopique de graisse dans les tissus non adipeux tels que le cerveau. Cette lipotoxicité cérébrale induit une inflammation chronique au niveau du cerveau. Dans ce présent travail, nous avons décrit l’effet anti-obésité du GSSE dans un modèle expérimental d’obésité induite par un régime alimentaire à haute teneur en graisses (HFD) tout en mettant l’accent sur le stress oxydant ainsi que le dysfonctionnement métabolique du cerveau qui n’est pas organe cible de l’obésité. Grâce à ce travail, nous avons développé une approche protéomique quantitative Nano LCMS/MS Label free afin d’identifier les biomarqueurs liés au traitement riche en lipides (HFD) et à la protection apportée au cerveau par le GSSE. Pour ce faire, on a eu recours à un modèle animal afin de mieux comprendre les voies métaboliques potentielles altérées par l’obésité et la protection apportée par le GSSE. Plusieurs protéines ont été identifiées et quantifiées en comparant le protéome cérébral total chez les rats dans les différentes conditions de traitements. On a eu recours à des outils de bioinformatique qui nous ont permis de conclure que ces protéines significativement différenciées sont principalement liées à la voie de la phosphorylation oxydative, de la glycolyse / néoglucogenèse et celle de la signalisation du calcium. Ces résultats ont été confirmés par la mesure de quelques activités enzymatiques métaboliques. Fait intéressant, qu’elles soient sous ou surexprimées par le traitement du HFD, le GSSE corrige l’effet délétère apporté aux différentes protéines et enzymes suite au traitement du HFD. D’autres voies métaboliques cérébrales ont été induites par le GSSE telle que le « HIF signaling pathway ». Ces résultats nous permettent de fournir un élan pour l’investigation thérapeutique du GSSE contre différents désordres métaboliques.
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Scope: Consumption of products rich in flavan-3-ols, such as tea and cocoa, has been associated with decreased obesity, partially dependent on their capacity to enhance energy expenditure. Despite these phenolics having been reported to increase the thermogenic program in brown and white adipose tissue, flavan-3-ols are vastly metabolised in vivo to phenyl-γ-valerolactones. Therefore, we hypothesize that phenyl-γ-valerolactones may directly stimulate the differentiation and the activation of brown adipocytes. Methods and results: Immortalized brown pre-adipocytes were differentiated in presence of (R)-5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (VL1), (R)-5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-4'-O-sulphate (VL2), (R)-5-phenyl-γ-valerolactone-3',4'-di-O-sulphate (VL3), at concentrations of 2 or 10μM, whereas fully differentiated brown adipocyte were treated acutely (6-24h). None of the treatments regulated the expression levels of the uncouple protein 1, nor of the main transcription factors involved in brown adipogenesis. Similarly, mitochondrial content was unchanged after treatments. Moreover these compounds did not display peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-agonist activity, as evaluated by luciferase assay, and did not enhance norepinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in mature adipocytes. However, both VL1 and VL2 prevented oxidative stress caused by H2 O2 . Conclusion: Phenyl-γ-valerolactones and their sulphated forms do not influence brown adipocyte development or function at physiological or supraphysiological doses in vitro, but they are active protecting brown adipocytes from increased reactive oxygen species production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play important roles in the pathological process of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) possesses antioxidant properties and has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of GSPE on HPH remains unclear. In this study, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent chronic hypoxia for 4 weeks to mimic a severe HPH condition. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that chronic hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV+S) ratio and median width of pulmonary arteries. GSPE attenuated the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV+S, and reduced the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling. GSPE also increased the levels of SOD and reduced the levels of MDA in hypoxia-induced HPH model. In addition, GSPE suppressed Nox4 mRNA levels, ROS production and PASMCs proliferation. Meanwhile, increased expression of phospho-STAT3, cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and Ki67 in PASMCs caused by hypoxia was down-regulated by GSPE. These results suggested that GSPE might potentially prevent HPH via antioxidant and antiproliferative mechanisms.
Chapter
Proanthocyanidins have been defined as hypoglycemic agents, and in this chapter we analyze this effect by reviewing the various animal models used for these studies and the molecular interactions described, and focusing on their modulation of pancreatic β cell. Proanthocyanidin treatments in fructose and high-fat diet-induced insulin resistant models improve glycemia and insulin sensitivity. More controversial results were found in genetically obese or cafeteria diet–induced insulin-resistant models. Human studies, although limited, further support the hypoglycemic effect of proanthocyanidins. These effects could be explained by a peripheral action on insulin-sensitive tissues, stimulating glucose uptake, limiting lipogenesis, and improving their oxidative/inflammatory state. At the insulin-producing tissue, the pancreas, proanthocyanidins modulate insulin secretion and production and β-cell mass, although the available results are divergent. The proanthocyanidins' impact on β cells could be also due to their interaction with the incretin system, which has been shown to be a target for proanthocyanidins.
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The incidence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide. Identification of compounds that may decrease fat cell burden will be beneficial in the control of obesity. In the present study we investigated the effect of a combination of grape seed extarct, caffeine, genistein, and capsaicin (GCGC) in reducing body weight in obese male zucker rats. Rats were pair-fed on a high fat diet or high fat diet + GCGC for 5-weeks. GCGC caused a significant weight loss due to the depletion of fat depots. GCGC also improved insulin response, reduced plasma glucose and free fatty acids, and increased plasma adiponectin. Adipocytes from rats fed GCGC were more responsive to the various stimulators of lipolysis than the control adipocytes. These results show that a combination of plant-derived products is very effective in reducing body weight and improving insulin sensitivity and glucose response in obese zucker rats. This may have implications in the treatment of overweight and obesity in humans.
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A large national cohort of children studied from birth to 36 years was used to test the predictive value of childhood obesity for obesity in adult life. Only 21% (39) of obese 36 year olds had been obese at age 11 years, and even when associated social factors were taken into account the correctly predicted percentage was much lower than the prediction rate achieved using body mass data from age 26 years. The comparatively poor predictive value of childhood obesity and the association of adult obesity with educational achievements and socioeconomic circumstances of family of origin emphasise the need for encouraging good nutritional and exercise habits rather than placing undue emphasis on the control of childhood obesity.
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Associations between intra-abdominal visceral fat accumulations and coronary risk factors were studied in a sample of 29 non-obese men aged 57 +/- 10 years with coronary artery disease (CAD). Their body mass indexes (BMI) were 23.8 +/- 1.5 (range 18.7-26.3). The visceral fat area (VFA) and the subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were measured at the level of the umbilicus by computed tomography. In patients with CAD, the average VFA was significantly increased compared with that in 54 control subjects without CAD, matched for sex, age, and BMI (117.2 +/- 53.1 vs. 93.8 +/- 38.6 cm2, P < 0.05). However, their average SFA was not statistically different (111.2 +/- 33.3 vs. 106.3 +/- 35.7 cm2, N.S.). Eleven CAD patients (38%) and nine control subjects (17%) had greater than 2 S.D. higher than the mean VFA obtained from 22 healthy subjects extracted from the control subjects. Accordingly, the proportion of the subjects with high VFA was significantly higher in the CAD group. This group also had significantly higher levels of plasma glucose and insulin areas than controls determined by oral glucose tolerance tests. This may be due to insulin resistance. The proportion of the subjects with multiple risk factors including hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension was significantly higher in the CAD patients with high VFA compared with the control subjects with normal VFA (CAD with high VFA 82% and control with normal VFA 33%). These findings suggest that visceral fat accumulations may play an important role in the occurrence of CAD regardless of obesity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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To evaluate whether the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) is a reliable surrogate measure of in vivo insulin sensitivity in humans. In the present study, we compared insulin sensitivity as assessed by a 4-h euglycemic (approximately 5 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 300 pmol/l) clamp with HOMA in 115 subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We found a strong correlation between clamp-measured total glucose disposal and HOMA-estimated insulin sensitivity (r = -0.820, P<0.0001), with no substantial differences between men (r = -0.800) and women (r = -0.796), younger (aged <50 years, r = -0.832) and older (r = -0.800) subjects, nonobese (BMI <27 kg/m2, r = -0.800) and obese (r = -0.765) subjects, nondiabetic (r = -0.754) and diabetic (r = -0.695) subjects, and normotensive ( r = -0.786) and hypertensive (r = -0.762) subjects. Also, we found good agreement between the two methods in the categorization of subjects according to insulin sensitivity (weighted k = 0.63). We conclude that the HOMA can be reliably used in large-scale or epidemiological studies in which only a fasting blood sample is available to assess insulin sensitivity
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Recent studies have revealed that vascular cells can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NAD(P)H oxidase, which may be involved in vascular injury. However, the pathological role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in diabetes or in the insulin-resistant state remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of high glucose level and free fatty acid (FFA) (palmitate) on ROS production in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Exposure of cultured SMCs or ECs to a high glucose level (400 mg/dl) for 72 h significantly increased the free radical production compared with low glucose level exposure (100 mg/dl). Treatment of the cells for 3 h with phorbol myristic acid (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, also increased free radical production. This increase was restored to the control value by diphenylene iodonium, a NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, suggesting ROS production through PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase. The increase in free radical production by high glucose level exposure was completely restored by both diphenylene iodonium and GF109203X, a PKC-specific inhibitor. Exposure to palmitate (200 micromol/l) also increased free radical production, which was concomitant with increases in diacylglycerol level and PKC activity. Again, this increase was restored to the control value by both diphenylene iodonium and GF109203X. The present results suggest that both high glucose level and palmitate may stimulate ROS production through PKC-dependent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in both vascular SMCs and ECs. This finding may be involved in the excessive acceleration of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance syndrome.
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Leptin, a protein encoded by the obese gene, is produced by adipocytes and released into the bloodstream. In obese humans, serum leptin levels are increased and correlate with the individual's body mass index and blood pressure. Elevated serum concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogen, were also observed in obese subjects. The pathomechanisms underlying this ET-1 increase in obesity are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the ob gene product leptin on the expression of ET-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Binding studies using (125)I-radiolabeled leptin revealed high- and low-affinity leptin binding sites on HUVECs (Kd1=13.1+/-3.1 nmol/L and Kd2=1390+/-198 nmol/L, respectively), mediating a time- and dose-dependent increase of ET-1 mRNA expression and protein secretion after incubation of HUVECs with leptin. This leptin-induced ET-1 expression was inhibited by preincubation of HUVECs with 0.75 micromol/L antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides directed against the leptin receptor Ob-Rb. Furthermore, after incubation with leptin, increased nuclear staining of c-fos and c-jun, the major components of the transcription factor AP-1, and increased AP-1 DNA binding were observed. Transient transfection studies with ET-1 promoter constructs showed that leptin-induced promoter activity was abolished in the absence of AP-1 binding sites or by cotransfection with a plasmid overexpressing a mutated jun, which is able to bind c-fos but not DNA. Thus, leptin upregulates ET-1 production in HUVECs via a mechanism potentially involving jun binding members of the bZIP family.
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Visceral obesity is frequently associated with muscle insulin resistance. Rats fed a high-fat diet rapidly develop obesity and insulin resistance. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to protect against the development of obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that DHEA protects against the increase in visceral fat and the development of muscle insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet in rats. Feeding rats a diet providing 50% of the energy as fat for 4 wk resulted in a twofold greater visceral fat mass and a 50% lower rate of maximally insulin-stimulated muscle 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake compared with controls. Rats fed the high-fat diet plus 0.3% DHEA were largely protected against the increase in visceral fat (+ 11.3 g in high fat vs. + 2.9 g in high fat plus DHEA, compared with controls) and against the decrease in insulin-stimulated muscle 2-DG uptake (0.94 +/- 0.15 mumol.ml-1.20 min-1, controls; 0.46 +/- 0.06 mumol.ml-1.20 min-1, high-fat diet; 0.78 +/- 0.07 mumol.ml-1.20 min-1, high fat + DHEA). DHEA did not affect food intake. These results show that DHEA has a protective effect against accumulation of visceral fat and development of muscle insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet.
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French wines are abundant sources of phenolic compounds. The content of several catechins, i.e., (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4, trimers C1, and trimer 2 (T2), of 160 French wines was determined by HPLC with UV detection. Red wines (n = 95) were found to have high levels of catechins, ranging from 32.8 to 209.8 mg/L (mean concentration 114.5 mg/L) for (+)-catechin, from 22.1 to 130.7 mg/L (mean concentration 75.7 mg/L) for (-)-epicatechin, from 7.8 to 39.1 mg/L (mean concentration 25.4 mg/L) for B1, from 18.3 to 93 mg/L (mean concentration 47.4 mg/L) for B2, from 21.4 to 215.6 mg/L (mean concentration 119.6 mg/L) for B3, from 20.2 to 107.2 mg/L (mean concentration 81.9 mg/l) for B4, from 8.6 to 36.9 mg/L (mean concentration 26.3 mg/L) for C1, and from 26.7 to 79.3 mg/L (mean concentration 67.1 mg/L) for T2. White and rosé wines (n = 57 and n = 8) were found to have low levels of (+)-catechin (mean concentrations 9.8 and 10.6 mg/L, respectively) and (-)-epicatechin (mean concentrations 5.3 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively). These data provide a basis for the epidemiological evaluation of catechin intake by the consumption of French wine.