The impact of antibiotic treatment in patients with influenza-like illness
To study the etiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Beijing, and to investigate the impact of antibiotic treatment on outcomes.
This was a prospective cohort study. Patients with diagnosis of influenza-like illness were prospectively enrolled for study of bacterial and viral pathogens. Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, respiratory and extrapulmonary symptoms, laboratory tests were also collected for analysis of relationship between drug therapy and outcomes.
A total of 476 cases were enrolled between Dec. 2006 and Apr. 2007, of whom 454 cases were used for analysis. Influenza virus was the most common pathogen( n = 197, 43.4%), with other pathogens rarely seen. The mean age of the patients was (33 +/- 13) years, and the ratio of male to female was 1.1:1. Twenty four patients (5.3% ) received influenza vaccine. The rate of antibiotic prescription after onset of illness was 63.4%, but none received antiviral drugs such as Oseltamivir and amantadine. Compared with influenza-negative patients, patients with influenza were older, had more underlying diseases and had greater severity of symptoms such as cough, sore throat, headache and myalgia (but with no statistical differences). The influenza syndrome (T > or = 39 degrees C plus cough, sore throat and headache or myalgia) was more common in the influenza group compared to the influenza-negative patients (P < 0.05). The ratio of antibiotic prescription was 67% in the influenza group, and the total white blood cell and platelet count, percentage of neutrophils were higher in antibiotic treatment patients compared with non-antibiotic treatment patients (P < 0.01). The cost in patients who received antibiotics was twice as much as non-antibiotic treatment patients (P < 0.05), but the defervescence time and respiratory symptom alleviation time did not differ. Cox regression analysis showed that the total white blood count and the differentials (OR value 1.049 and 1.014, respectively), but not antibiotic use were the independent risk factors for longer defervescence time.
Influenza virus was the most common pathogen for adult patients with ILI in Beijing city during the winter and the spring seasons. Antibiotic treatment of adult patients with ILI did not improve illness resolution, while the cost was increased significantly.
Available from: Paul E Kilgore
- "This is explained by the fact that ROK has universal population coverage by the National Health Insurance that subsidizes physician fees, hospital and prescription drugs charges via a compulsory healthcare plan (26). Despite the number of studies that have previously reported an indiscriminant and inappropriate use of antibiotics (16, 27, 28), antibiotics were demonstrated to still be a primary treatment option for children hospitalized with influenza in ROK. Observed treatment patterns may be explained, in part, by the absence of standardized treatment guidelines for seasonal influenza in ROK. "
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ABSTRACT: There are limited data evaluating the relationship between influenza treatment and hospitalization duration. Our purpose assessed the association between different treatments and hospital stay among Korean pediatric influenza patients. Total 770 children ≤ 15 yr-of-age hospitalized with community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza at three large urban tertiary care hospitals were identified through a retrospective medical chart review. Demographic, clinical, and cost data were extracted and a multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the associations between influenza treatment types and hospital stay. Overall, there were 81% of the patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza who received antibiotic monotherapy whereas only 4% of the patients received oseltamivir monotherapy. The mean treatment-related charges for hospitalizations treated with antibiotics, alone or with oseltamivir, were significantly higher than those treated with oseltamivir-only (P < 0.001). Influenza patients treated with antibiotics-only and antibiotics/oseltamivir combination therapy showed 44.9% and 28.2%, respectively, longer duration of hospitalization compared to those treated with oseltamivir-only. Patients treated with antibiotics, alone or combined with oseltamivir, were associated with longer hospitalization and significantly higher medical charges, compared to patients treated with oseltamivir alone. In Korea, there is a need for more judicious use of antibiotics, appropriate use of influenza rapid testing.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the trends of out-of-pocket expenditure for influenza during 1989-2006 in China.
Data were extracted from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) during 1989-2006 (in seven waves). A fixed effect model with robust standard errors was employed to examine trends of out-of-pocket expenditure (adjusted to 2006 Chinese RMB).
The out-of-pocket expenditure increased from 11.92 RMB in 1989 to 50.75 RMB in 2006. The final sample for fixed effect model was 23,050 households. Income elasticity of out-of-pocket expenditure was 1.6%. Using 1989 as reference, the predicted increase was 242.23% [95% confidence interval (CI): 225.79-259.50%] in 2006; it was 143.54% in city hospitals [95% CI: 130.43-157.40%] compared to village clinics.
Adjusted for inflation and income elasticity, Chinese households experienced an increase of more than double the out-of-pocket expenditure during 1989-2006. The expenditure was higher in higher-level facilities. Policy implications include the government fixed-budget financing to health providers could contribute to the rapidly increased financial burden; a referral system should be rebuilt; private health providers may play an important role in containing healthcare price in China.
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