Article

Epstein–Barr virus in autoimmune disease

and EA 3186 Agents Pathogènes et Inflammation, University of Franche Comté, Besançon, France.
Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology (Impact Factor: 2.6). 11/2008; 22(5):883-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.09.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are complex disorders with a genetic background and the involvement of environmental factors, including viruses. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a plausible candidate for playing a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Both SLE and RA are characterized by high titers of anti-EBV antibodies and impaired T-cell responses to EBV antigens. Compared with normal subjects, elevated EBV load in peripheral blood has been observed in SLE and RA. EBV DNA or RNA has been evidenced in target organs of RA (synovium) or pSS (salivary glands). Finally, molecular mimicry has been demonstrated between EBV proteins and self antigens in these three conditions. In addition, SLE, RA, and pSS are associated with an increased risk of lymphoma with a potential role for EBV. The influence of new and emergent treatments of these autoimmune diseases (biological therapies) on EBV load and the course of latent EBV infection requires further studies.

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    • "Although the safety of TCZ is reassuring [7], it is plausible that IL-6 receptor blockade through interaction with TCZ could alter immunosurveillance for viruses or cancer. It is already known that RA patients have an impaired immune response to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) [8] [9]. EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis and a number of malignancies in immunocompromised individuals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: IL-6 is involved in viral immunosurveillance. We studied the effect of tocilizumab (TCZ) on the evolution in viral load (VL) for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: EBV, CMV and VZV loads were prospectively determined in whole blood of 22 RA patients at TCZ initiation and during treatment follow-up. A difference of 0.5 log10 or of threefold copies/mL between two VL was considered significant. Results: There were 20 (91%) women, (mean age of 57.8±11.2 years, mean disease duration 11.3±9.7 years) with 16 (73%) seropositive and 16 (73%) erosive patients. TCZ was administered alone for 8 patients (36.7%) or in combination with methotrexate for 11 patients (50%). At baseline, the EBV VL was positive in 8 patients with a mean VL value of 1777.2±3518.3 (3.5±0.4 log10) copies/mL. Only one patient had a positive CMV VL with 2337 copies/mL (3.4 log10). The VZV VL was negative in all patients. After 9.2±4.8 months, EBV VL became negative in 6 of 8 patients (P=0.01) and did not significantly vary in the remaining 2 patients. CMV VL became also negative. No VL (EBV, CMV, VZV) became positive. A positive EBV VL did not correlate with disease activity or with inflammatory biomarkers (ESR and CRP). Conclusion: TCZ does not seem to increase the VL of EBV, CMV or VZV. Studies involving larger patient populations are necessary.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Joint, bone, spine: revue du rhumatisme
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    • "The primary EBV infection occurs asymptomatically in childhood and typically persists throughout the life of the host. EBV is the cause of infectious mononucleosis [7] and is associated with specific forms of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma [8], Burkitt's lymphoma [9], and nasopharyngeal carcinoma [10], and with autoimmune diseases [11]. In most asymptomatic carriers, the virus is periodically replicated, and the infectious virus is known as the EBV lytic cycle, which has been found to be associated with an increasing number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis [12] [13] and infectious mononucleosis [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals for the control of a wide variety of pests, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by OPs may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Previous studies have demonstrated that a reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) could be induced by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether OPs could reactivate EBV through ROS accumulation. The Raji cells were treated with chlorpyrifos (CPF), one of the most commonly used OPs. Oxidative stress indicators and the expression of the EBV immediate-early gene BZLF-1 were determined after CPF treatment. Our results show that CPF induces oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, accompanied by an increase in ROS production, DNA damage, glutathione (GSH) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Moreover, CPF treatment significantly enhances the expression of BZLF-1, and the increased BZLF-1 expression was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) incubation. These results suggest that OPs could contribute to the reactivation of the EBV lytic cycle through ROS induction, a process that may play an important role in the development of EBV-associated diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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    • "[3] "

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