Macroporous scaffolds associated with cells to construct a hybrid biomaterial for bone tissue engineering
Bone tissue has the ability to heal without a scar and to remodel, which promotes three basic functions: locomotion, protection of internal organs and mineral homeostasis. Although bone regeneration is highly efficient, some clinical situations - such as large bone defects - require specific treatments in order to promote bone healing. Allogenic or autologous bone grafts have been used in these procedures with limited success and, based on this, bone tissue-engineering approaches have been investigated extensively. Tissue engineering has been defined as the application of principles and techniques of the life sciences and engineering to the design, modification and growth of living tissues using biomaterials, cells and growth factors, alone or in combination. The association of cells with porous scaffolds to produce 3D hybrid osteogenic constructs is a common subject in bone tissue-engineering research and will be the focus of this review. We will present some aspects of bone biology, the cells and scaffolds used to engineer bone, and techniques to fabricate the hybrid biomaterial.
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