Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men

Psychoneuroendocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.94). 01/2013;


Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 y, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (p<0.01). Following breakfast, sleep-deprived subjects chose larger portions of snacks (16%, p=0.02), whereas the selection of meal items did not differ between the sleep interventions (6%, p=0.13). Our results suggest that overeating in the morning after sleep loss is driven by both homeostatic and hedonic factors. Further, they show that portion size choice after sleep loss depend on both an individual’s hunger status, and the type of food offered.

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    • "Obesity rates have more than doubled since 1980, and in 2008 more than 1.4 billion adults were categorically overweight or obese [1]. There are a variety of lifestyle factors that have been proposed to contribute to this obesity pandemic [2]–[4]. For example, several epidemiological and laboratory studies have linked television (TV) watching to both increases in acute food intake, and subsequent weight gain and adiposity [2], [5]–[7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a serious and growing health concern worldwide. Watching television (TV) represents a condition during which many habitually eat, irrespective of hunger level. However, as of yet, little is known about how the content of television programs being watched differentially impacts concurrent eating behavior. In this study, eighteen normal-weight female students participated in three counter-balanced experimental conditions, including a ‘Boring’ TV condition (art lecture), an ‘Engaging’ TV condition (Swedish TV comedy series), and a no TV control condition during which participants read (a text on insects living in Sweden). Throughout each condition participants had access to both high-calorie (M&Ms) and low-calorie (grapes) snacks. We found that, relative to the Engaging TV condition, Boring TV encouraged excessive eating (+ 52 % g, P=0.009). Additionally, the Engaging TV condition actually resulted in significantly less concurrent intake relative to the control ‘Text’ condition (- 35 % g, P=0.05). This intake was driven almost entirely by the healthy snack, grapes; however, this interaction did not reach significance (P=0.07). Finally, there was a significant correlation between how bored participants were across all conditions, and their concurrent food intake (beta= 0.317, P=0.02). Intake as measured by kcals was similarly patterned but did not reach significance. These results suggest that, for women, different TV programs elicit different levels of concurrent food intake, and that the degree to which a program is engaging (or alternately, boring) is related to that intake. Additionally, they suggest that emotional content (e.g. boring vs. engaging) may be more associated than modality (e.g. TV vs. text) with concurrent intake.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Considering that GLP-1 infusion increases postprandial satiety in normal weight7 as well as obese humans,14 a delay in the postprandial GLP-1 response might affect food intake regulation and in particular impact inter-meal snacking that has been shown to be augmented after sleep loss.4, 15 Accordingly, our group has demonstrated that TSD enhances the brain's response to high-calorie food stimuli presented after a caloric preload.16 "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Previous experiments have demonstrated that acute sleep loss impairs glucose homeostasis and increases food intake in humans. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) enhances postprandial insulin secretion and promotes satiety. Hypothesizing that the detrimental metabolic effects of sleep curtailment imply alterations in GLP-1 signaling, we investigated 24-h serum total GLP-1 concentrations during total sleep deprivation and a normal sleep/wake cycle (comprising ~8 hours of sleep) in 12 healthy young men. Methods: Sessions started at 1800 h, and subjects were provided with standardized meals. Assessments of serum GLP-1 took place in 1.5- to 3-h intervals, focusing on the response to breakfast intake (3.8 MJ). Results: Across conditions, 24-h concentration profiles of GLP-1 were characterized by the expected postprandial increases (P<0.001). While there were no differences in magnitude between conditions (P>0.11), the postprandial GLP-1 peak response to breakfast intake was delayed by approximately 90 min following sleep loss in comparison to regular sleep (P<0.02). Conclusions: Results indicate that acute total sleep deprivation exerts a mild, but discernible effect on the postprandial dynamics of circulating GLP-1 concentrations in healthy men.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Nutrition & Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Lack of sleep and increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) have all been suggested as factors contributing to the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity.Objective:To evaluate whether objectively measured sleep duration (average and day-to-day variability) as well as parent-reported sleep problems are independently associated with proposed dietary risk factors for overweight and obesity in 8-11 year old children.Design:In this cross-sectional study data on sleep duration and day-to-day variability in sleep duration were measured in 676 Danish, apparently healthy children by an objective measure (actigraphy) for 8 nights, and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) was filled out by the parents. Diet was recorded using a web-based food record for 7 consecutive days. Fasting blood samples were obtained for measurements of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels.Results:Sleep duration (hours/night) was negatively and significantly (P0.003) associated with energy density (ED) of the diet (β=-0.32 kJ/g), added sugar (β=-1.50 E%) and SSB (β=-1.07 E%). Furthermore, variability in sleep duration (min/night) was positively associated with SSB (β=0.20 E%, P=0.03), independent of sleep duration, and CSHQ-score was positively associated with ED (β=0.16 kJ/g, P=0.04). All of these associations were independent of potential confounders (age, sex, pubertal status, height, weight, screen time, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and parental education and ethnicity).Conclusion:Our study suggests that short sleep duration, high sleep duration variability, and experiencing sleep problems are all associated with a poor, obesity-promoting diet in children.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 8 August 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.147.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · International journal of obesity (2005)
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