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This paper appraises design studies as part of teacher education and they are seen here as both a product and a process. Concept design has been applied when teaching the process of designing a product and paying attention to the viewpoint of the customer. However, I argue for the use of the intertextual art method because it offers an intercultural viewpoint for design education and promotes the understanding of plural meanings between cultures. The article presents a case study taken from a teacher student's open-ended intercultural design learning process and a prognosis is made for the future based on this study.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 ( 2012 ) 84 – 94
1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Professor Heikki Ruismaki and Adjunct Professor
Inkeri Ruokonen
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.545
The 5th Intercultural Arts Education Conference: Design Learning
Intercultural Design Education
Martina Paatela-Nieminena,
*
aUniversity of Helsinki, Siltavuorenpenger 10, 00014, Finland
Abstract
This paper appraises design studies as part of teacher education and they are seen here as both a product and a
process. Concept design has been applied when teaching the process of desi gning a product and paying attention to
the viewpoint of the customer. However, I argue for the use of the intertextual art metho d because it offers an
intercultural vi ewpoint for design education and promotes the understanding of plural meanings between cultures.
-ended intercultural design learning process and
a prognosis is made for the future based on this study.
© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Prof. Heikki
Ruismäki and Adj.prof. Inkeri Ruokonen
Keywords: Intertextual art method; plurality; design educa tion; art education; intercultural, intermedial
1. Introduction
The background of this paper is the development of a design method for teacher education where one
can produce new meanings interculturally. I also ask what design studies are in the teacher education
context.
In the teacher education context it is important to learn to understand the cultures around us and to
create new interpretations. Design is obviously part of culture. However, culture is difficult to explain
because it is an ambiguous concept and it is changing and transforming constantly. Global culture is
expressed mostly in the popular and digital culture, television and magazines that mould the surface of the
culture to be the same around the world (Miller, 1992; Kristeva, 2000, 13). There is a universal culture of
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +358 40 5122650.
E-mail address: martina.paatela-nieminen@helsinki.fi.
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Professor Heikki Ruismaki
and Adjunct Professor Inkeri Ruokonen
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Martina Paatela-Nieminen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 ( 2012 ) 84 – 94
technological civilization and ubiquitous blue jeans and tee-shirts (Miller, 1992). In order to design a
global product one needs to standardize it so that it can be understood in different cultures despite local
differences. Yet at the same time in art education there is a need to understand where one comes from and
heritage and local culture. Linguistic, ethnic and regional societies exist and these should be seen as
enriching cultural diversity. Yuri Lotman (1990) has defined a cultural semiosphere where we learn our
cultural codes and signs. When these signs are transposed into another cultural context they are
understood differently, they lose the original meaning or they just do not communicate at all. When
designing cultural products or communicating with others there is a need for a balance between local and
global. For a certain audience there can be highly specific signs but when being global there is a need to
include more neutral signs. However, the semiosphere is profound because it has a system, that of the
cultural memory. This is expanding globally. The semiosphere is the basis of all communication, and
diversity is increased in the substructures of the semiosphere (ibid.).
Culture can also be defined as a way of thinking and learning. Today we live in different cultures
partly at the same time. Intercultural transformations are constant and several plural meanings overlap
each other and remix times, places, identities and cultures. It is my view that art teachers should be able to
promote students intercultural competences. The European Union Commission presented a
recommendation of key competences for lifelong learning in 2005. It includes intercultural competences
such as knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context . Action is also an added intercultural
dimension (Jokikokko, 2005, 93). It is my view that we need methods, tools that take into consideration
these multiple layers of interpretations. I therefore developed an intertextual art method for intercultural,
intermedial and intersubjective art education (Paatela-Nieminen, 2000) which would promote the
understanding of plural meanings in different cultures and create new transformations that are in the focus
of intercultural teacher training. This way of learning about of design is transcendental because one
breaks down an existing scheme and transforms it so that a new situation can be linked in (Illeris, 2009,
13). Inter
are also considered important. It is also based on intersubjective dialogue.
2. Concept design education in practice
I taught a design course for art and craft student teachers (craft science and textiles teacher training) at
the University of Eastern Finland in 2009-2010. The students had their own projects. The first group of
students designed a piece of furniture or an object such as a counter for a kitchen table, a lamp or a
hunting knife. Another group planned a staging for a specific theatre play for children. The last group
planned cushions for mothers and babies to sit on while listening to stories at a library. All students had a
concrete task with specific instructions regarding the materials and stages of work. Some students
designed an object for their own use while others had an actual commission from a client. In this course
students studied the design process according to a theory of concept design and practise. They afterwards
proceeded to construct a concrete piece of product design in the craft and textiles courses.
The theory of concept design according to Kettunen (2001) was applied. All students wrote a brief
with the necessary information about the design itself and their own objectives. Hyysalo (2009) has
gn process that he considers to be of utmost importance. For
example, those students who designed cushions had to interview a lib
specific viewpoint and needs. After writing their brief, all the students created several concepts, discussed
Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/2010/doc/keyrec_en.pdf
86 Martina Paatela-Nieminen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 ( 2012 ) 84 – 94
them in a group, ch ose th e best one to make a prototype and tested it later in oth er courses befor e making
the actual design product (see Kettunen, 2001).
However, the students were not familiar with the history of design because the concept design process
does not include it. Design history was therefore included in the course and studied through the examples
of furniture, objects and architecture, based on the works of Vihma (2002), Korvenmaa (2009) and
Raizman (2003). After each lecture, students had to create ideas based on the viewpoint of their task. In
this way, students applied the history and came up with several concepts. After the course students
proceeded with their prototype to the concrete design.
3. Intercultural design education in practice and the open-ended intertextual art method as a tool
for producing interculturalities
This section considers how an understanding of intercultural design education can be implemented in
teacher education practice. Intertextuality was applied as an art method in the design studying process. I
will now present a case study from the field of design education. It comes from an environmental course
that took place in the autumn of 2011, in which textiles, home economics, class and kindergarten teacher
students from the University of Helsinki studied environmental art, design and architecture. However, the
main idea here was not to make a design product per se but to study art, design and architecture
interculturally to create understanding of plural meanings and develop new ideas. The objective of the
Intertextuality can be approached from different angles and perspectives (see Allen, 2000; Orr, 2003;
Worton & Still, 1990). The term text in intertexuality refers to visual, verbal and auditory documents
studied in relation to each other. In intertextuality a text transforms other texts and connects people, times
many
components of intercultural design education.
I designed an intertextual art method for an open-ended construction of intercultural and intermedial
meanings for art education and the arts (Paatela-Nieminen, 2000). It is a tool or a theoretical construction
that serves the process of interpretation and signification. The intertextual method is applied open-
endedly as a way of intentionally producing understanding between relations of different kinds of texts in
a profound way and to understand intertextual relations as a space for plural meanings. This method
offers tools for studying the relations and differences in contexts. It also works in practise when one
wants to study existing designs and produce differences between them and create new ideas (see Paatela-
Nieminen, 2008).
The model has been adapted from linguistics and French theorists, in particular the ideas about
intertextuality of Gérard Genette (1997a, 1997b) and Julia Kristeva (1984). These two different views
systematic way of constructing meanings. The text is always seen in its context, as a part of a cultural
In this paper, I use specific words to provide an understanding of the theor etical background of the
intertextual art method of the teaching practice. The method has four parts: 1) paratexts; 2) hypertexts; 3)
pheno- ion of understanding in the form of a written analysis of
the process and a work of art.
First, a student subjectively chooses a text that interests her/him. In intertextual reading, the text itself
is always the starting point, not the source material. Then one studies the text to find out a starting point
that is called a paratext (threshold). It is actually a subjective point of interest or a question that arises
process starts,
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Martina Paatela-Nieminen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 ( 2012 ) 84 – 94
it is important that the starting point is interesting for the subject. For example, the paratext for Iina, a
textile teacher student, were the cones that she found in the woods.
By paratextuality, Gérard Genette (1997b) means devices, conventions and facts that are both within
and outside a text under study. These conventions are traditional source materials that would explain the
ly.
provides a means of studying history and culture from the chosen text by relating historical and cultural
contextual facts about time and place to a subjective and open-ended intertextual reading. One can study
texts by defining questions about the text: where, when, how, from whom, to whom and to do what. The
substance of a paratext is textual and it is dedicated to serving the text. The text itself is always the
starting point, not the source material. Therefore, the focus is on texts that have open-endedly many
different textual possibilities for the researcher to interpret (Genette, 1997b).
that of an artist or a scientist. She drew sketches of several cones in a different manner. She studied their
form and surface. Iina also studied the context of the cones by drawing (see fig.1), feeling and listening to
the atmosphere in the woods. While walking there she felt herself gaining strength. She started to
remember her childhood experiences, Finnish poems, scents, music, voices and plays that came into her
mind from the timeless woods. She even recorded the sounds there. For her, the cones are also an
essential part of her memories. When she was a child she used to make animals from cones and play with
them in the woods (see fig. 2). The context was in this case the Finnish forest and her memories from the
woods.
of cones.
Fig. 2 of a cone cow, done during the course of Art & culture.
Secondly, one continues to study the same text and connect it open-endedly to other texts. A
continuum of texts is created palimpsestically, which means that the textual continuum proceeds from the
newe
88 Martina Paatela-Nieminen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 ( 2012 ) 84 – 94
idea is to actively produce differences in the continuum between the texts. This continuum offers
understanding of the differences that are contextual, due to different times, places and cultures.
During the course, there were several visits to museums and Finnish cultural heritage sites. Also,
several tasks were connected with these visits. Iina started to connect the cones she had collected with all
her experiences in the course. In practice, she started to see the form of a cone in these places and tasks.
of the National Romantic Hvitträsk Museum in Kirkkonummi near Helsinki (see fig. 3). She saw a cone
likeness in the form of the lamps in the Social Insurance Institution of Finland in Helsinki, which had
been designed by the architect Alvar Aalto (see fig. 4). She remembered seeing cones in an environmental
work of art designed by the artist Anu Tuominen. While visiting the Design Museum Iina drew a sketch
(see fig. 5). She also connected
several Cubist paintings by George Braque with her image continuum because they reminded her of a
close-up of a cone with insects in it. She also produced several illustrations of cones and arranged them
palimpsestically.
Genette has developed a linguistic system which defines the subtle differences and relations between
texts. Genette calls the textual continuum hypertextual. 1997a) hypertextuality is a
transformation category. A hypertext is a transformation of an earlier text, a hypotext, which it imitates or
transforms. According to Genette (1997a), there are formal differences which can be quantitative
(extending or reducing the text), an amplification (extending the theme and the artist´s style) and a
transmodalisation (changing the point of view, or dramatizing). The transformation may also include
thematic changes in a work of art: diegetic transposition, when the milieu or culture are different; and
pragmatic, when the action and narration are changed. There are also changes in tones/modes of a work of
art: serious, polemic, satirical, ironic, playful and humorous. The texts are studied in the continuum which
is their genre or context of another kind. For example, rhizomes establish connections between
organizations of power, semiotic chains (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987) and other kinds of open-ended fields
of knowledge. Iina found differences between the cones and cone-like representations (see figures 3, 4
and 5) in her continuum. Her process included the study of the form of a cone from different designs. The
similarity in her image continuum was the form of the cone that she was interested in. She studied the
differences between the form of her images in the visual continuum. The greatest difference that she
discovered was in the surface of cones. All of them were made of a different material and texture.
roof shingles of the National Romantic Hvitträsk Museum. The shingles remind her of the
surface of a cone.
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Fig.
Thirdly, one chooses to study the most distinguishing detail or difference in the texts. This is studied to
discover the cultural and poetic meanings of texts for the researcher-
and as an interpreter becomes stronger. This leads one away from the genre of texts to the idea of cultural
memory, as described by Kristeva (1984). Texts relate to other texts in the intertextual space within which
they intersect. Texts have a number of different meanings in this textual space, depending on what the
subject wants to interpret in the signification process. Any point of a rhizome can be connected to another
non-linear rhizome. Kristeva (1984) is concerned with the subject who interprets and gives meanings to
texts in her/his signifying process.
The signifying process includes pheno- and genotexts (Kristeva 1984). Phenotext denotes language
that serves to communicate. It describes communication in terms of competence and performance. It is a
90 Martina Paatela-Nieminen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 ( 2012 ) 84 – 94
structure that can be generated by grammar. It has a connection to the symbolic. I use phenotext to mean
the performance and form of text. The genotext, in contrast, can be seen as the underlying foundation of a
language. It is the foundation that gives the text its shape and it is the process that gives birth to the
structure of the text. I use the word genotext to represent the process that moves text through different
zones, plateaus and relations. Genotext has a close relation to the semiotic system. Poetic language that is
spun by, and woven within, the semiotic disposition makes up the genotext. Individual and collective
memories are seen there. Chora
produced the different meanings of the surfaces.
The greatest difference that Iina discovered was in the surface of cones. She studied the different
meanings of cones. In her own work of art she produced an ambiguous surface that has several meanings
and that can be seen as a part of a cone or a cone turned inside out. The work of art shows traces of her
design education process. The material and her way of creating her work of art were interesting. One
could see how she created a glocal work of art by combining a real and a local cone from the woods of
Hvitträsk to her image continuum with other cone-like designs and then remixed them in her intertextual
study process. There were global issues such as the shingle roof of a museum or the internationally-
known lamps designed by Alvar Aalto. The difference that she produced in the process was the form. In
her own work of art she developed a three-dimensional cone on a large scale and made with cardboard
with insects made of paper in it (see fig. 7). The form of that cone was ambiguous and captivating. In her
work of art, one could see an interesting cone-form that shows traces of her study process and image
continuum where she has studied the material intertextually.
The cultural and poetic meanings of texts for the researcher-subject may be found by the traces left
behind in the text. These may be discovered when texts are read palimpsestically. One becomes conscious
,
1984). Starting from its textual presence, the text leads us into various areas within the total context of
unconscious, linguistic, cultural and political factors.
Fourthly, the students created their own production of understanding in the form of a written analysis
of the process and a work of art. The work of art shows traces of the design education process. Iina´s
process was presented both in a linear form through photos in a PowerPoint presentation and also through
associative paths and links in the form of a Prezi presentation. I find it interesting how well Prezi
are rhizome-like associative structures. She has studied environmental art theory and combined her own
work of art with that context. She has also connected her photos of her experiences into her virtual paths
in Prezi. There is also a rhizome of her visual continuum that ends up in her own work of art depicting a
bowl. She has also combined Finnish poems and pieces of music about forests and linked these YouTube
videos into her Prezi. These connect the cone to different cultures. The bowl (see fig. 7) is made of
cardboard, which itself resembles the texture of a cone. Its surface is ambigiously interesting. She has also
included three small spiders in it. They remind her of her process that started from the woods of her
childhood and the woods at Hvitträsk. When she put some cones from these woods in her pocket she
discovered later that a small spider had come out of one cone that had opened up in the warmth of her
culture such as music, videos, architecture, art history and theory and works of art. She has also remixed
local Finnish culture and global European culture, such as famous Cubist paintings by European artists
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Fig. 6. A Prezi presentation -ended intertextual and intercultural process that resembles rhizomes.
4. Conclusion
The learning processes between the two courses described above were different. Concept design seems
to be a good method for a designer and for a craft and textiles student teacher, especially when there is a
client or a commission for a design product. The designer needs to take the client into account. However,
the history of design or culture is not included in the method and these need then to be studied separately.
The intertextual art method offers several advantages for teacher students when both studying and
creating a design or a visual object or image of any kind. A design (a text) is studied open -endedly in its
own context, in relation to the context of other designs in a design continuum, and in relation to a
cultural/intercultural continuum. Instead of studying one design per se, a design is studied intertextually
through other designs and cultural imagery. The product is understood through its plural meanings. In this
92 Martina Paatela-Nieminen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 45 ( 2012 ) 84 – 94
way, a student can understand and hopefully appreciate the different cultures, approaches and values
behind the design s and processes.
In design education, intertextual reading is also a way to create new ideas. While producing the
imagery continuum one can create new ideas. This can be done by remixing the local and global in order
to produce glocal interpretations. Iina applied the intertextual art method in design studies and art
education when studying her art and design processes and local Finnish culture. She thereby created
glocal art. Of course, this course could also have been linked with students from different cultures. Then
intercultural learning would also be intersubjective and social. This kind of teaching has been done earlier
in other courses (see Paatela-Nieminen, 2009; Keifer-Boyd & Paatela-Nieminen, 2008) that offer
intercultural dialogue between different cultures.
unique process. They manage to find a starting point that genuinely interests them and proceed with
questions that motivate them to study the subject area. They are also able to combine their experiences,
feelings and emotions with their starting point. They have a curious mind and the mental energy to
proceed. They study the image continuum and create differences and meanings. At the end of the process
process was meaningful to her. She was able to connect her unconscious, her childhood memories and her
feelings to the process. The method worked for her as a tool for producing new glocal ideas. She has also
studied the continuum between a visual, symbolic, metaphoric, or thematic reading of a Finnish artefact
which was the researched content for her artwork.
However, the intertextual learning process is challenging. Learning can be assimilative when a new
element is linked in as an addition. However, at best, the learning is transcendental when students break
down an existing scheme and transform it into a new way. But this can be very demanding and even
painful. I have noticed that there are always some students who are afraid to start their process when the
starting point is open-ended. In these cases a teacher could show several concrete examples of different
processes or provide ideas and material to initiate a process. I have also noticed that although some
students have difficulties starting they come to enjoy the process when they have discovered a text that
they want to study. On the other hand, some students might even experience transformative learning when
their personality also changes in some way (see Illeris, 2009, 7-19). I have seen students who have been
so motivated that they remain involved in their own intertextual learning process even after the task or
course is complete.
The intertextual method for producing intercultural differences, plural meanings and new solutions
offers an open-ended method for constructing knowledge so that discipline boundaries are crossed. The
method offers a way to develop creative thinking and problem solving. Also, this kind of learning fosters
questioning, patience and openness to new ideas, which are all seen as important skills to practice in
schools in the future (Trilling & Fadel, 2009).
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... It is applicable in the text of Shenoy, but she has not used the types of outside communication as language. She has utilized new words, and those words are not in practice (Paatela-Nieminen, 2012;Rubenstein, 1998). The intertextuality theorist Barthes affirms that if the language criticize or mime by the writer and it is not considered as a language, but Shenoy has only eulogized and mentions new words in her works through writing. ...
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Onnistunut tuotekehitys vaatii syvällistä ymmärtämystä käyttä jien toimista, tyyleistä ja haluista. Käyttäjätiedon puute on puolestaan yleisin syy tuotekehityksen epä onnis­ tu miselle. Käyttäjä tuotekehityksessä on monipuolinen pe­ rus teos siitä, miten tuotekehittäjät voivat hankkia tarvitse­ maansa tietämystä käyttäjistä ja käyttöympäristöistä. Teos on suunnattu käsikirjaksi tuotekehityksen ammat ti­ laisille ja oppikirjaksi insinööri­, kauppa­, muotoilu­ ja ihmistieteissä. Teos tarjoaa: • käsityksen siitä, mistä käyttäjätieto koostuu • tietoa siitä, mitä menetelmiä käyttäjien ja käytön selvittämiseen on olemassa ja perusteet niiden toteuttamisesta • ymmärrystä eri menetelmien vahvuuksista, heik­ kouksista ja niissä tarvittavista panostuksista • ongelmalähtöisiä case­esimerkkejä, jotka auttavat omaan projektiin sopivan työtavan löytämisessä • opastusta siihen, miten edetä perusteista eteenpäin. Kirjan kirjoittaja Dosentti, FT Sampsa Hyysalo on tutkinut käyttäjiä ja tuoteke­ hitystä yli vuosikymmenen ja kirjoitta­ nut aiheesta yli 30 tieteellistä julkaisua.
Article
Universe of the Mind:. Semiotic Theory of Culture. Yuri M. Lotman. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.288 pp. $45.00 (cloth)
Article
In art education we need methods for studying works of art and visual culture interculturally because there are many multicultural art classes and little consensus as to how to interpret art in different cultures. In this article my central aim was to apply the intertextual method that I developed in my doctoral thesis for Western art education to explore whether the method would also work from a non-Western point of view. My hypothesis was that it is possible to find local and global differences that arise from selected texts and study them interculturally. As postmodernism calls attention to marginal areas, I applied my method to a form of visual culture that is not well known in the European art education context, the Japanese kamishibai which can be translated as Japanese paper theatre.Based on the results, my study will propose a method for understanding visual culture and the multiple relations - local and global - between different cultures. Japanese paper theatre also offers an interesting potential for using visual and verbal stories in the theory and practice of art education.