Bénichou, B, Goyal, S, Sung, C, Norfleet, AM and O'Brien, F. A retrospective analysis of the potential impact of IgG antibodies to agalsidase beta on efficacy during enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease. Mol Genet Metab 96: 4-12

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Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.63). 12/2008; 96(1):4-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2008.10.004
Source: PubMed


Fabry disease results from a genetic deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (alpha GAL) and the impaired catabolism of globotriasoylceramide (GL-3) and other glycosphingolipid substrates, which then accumulate pathogenically within most cells. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme), one of two available forms of recombinant human alpha GAL, involves regular intravenous infusions of the therapeutic protein. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to recombinant alpha GAL develop in the majority of patients upon repeated infusion. To explore whether anti-alpha GAL IgG interferes with therapeutic efficacy, retrospective analyses were conducted using data obtained from a total of 134 adult male and female patients with Fabry disease who were treated with agalsidase beta at 1mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 5 years during placebo-controlled trials and the corresponding open-label extension studies. The analyses did not reveal a correlation between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and the onset of clinical events or the rate of change in estimated GFR during treatment, and no statistically significant association was found between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and abnormal elevations in plasma GL-3 during treatment. However, a statistically significant association was found between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and observation of some GL-3 deposition in the dermal capillary endothelial cells of skin during treatment, suggesting that GL-3 clearance may be partially impaired in some patients with high antibody titers. Determination of the long-term impact of circulating anti-alpha GAL IgG antibodies on clinical outcomes will require continued monitoring, and serology testing is recommended as part of the routine care of Fabry disease patients during ERT.

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    • "The differences between the decreases of Gb3 and lyso(Gb3) depending on the presence of antibodies lead to believe that antibodies have a negative impact on clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, anti-agalsidase antibodies (alfa and beta) seem to have no influence on GFR slopes, cardiac mass nor the apparition of new white-matter lesions on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (Schiffmann et al. 2006; Bénichou et al. 2009; Rombach et al. 2012). Some IARs were associated with high titre of antibodies, required hospitalization and caused significant disabilities or death (Smid et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease in which mutations of the gene (GLA) cause a deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-Gal). This defect results in an accumulation of glycosphingolipids, primarily globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) which causes a multisystemic vasculopathy. Available since 2001 in Europe, enzyme replacement therapy consists in the administration of agalsidase, a recombinant form of α-galactosidase A. Enzyme replacement therapy was shown to improve the global prognosis but allowed partial success in preventing critical events such as strokes and cardiac arrests. As in most lysosomal storage diseases, frequent immune reactions have been described in naive Fabry disease patients. Humoral immune responses following enzyme replacement therapy have also been described, with unclear consequences on the progression of the disease. While cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease begins to be questioned and new therapeutic strategies arise such as chaperone or gene therapy, it appears necessary to better understand the immune responses observed in the treatment of naive patients and during enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase. We propose a comprehensive review of the available literature concerning both innate and adaptive responses observed in Fabry disease. We particularly highlight the probable role of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD1d pathways triggered by Gb3 accumulation in the development of local and systemic inflammation that could lead to irreversible organ damages. We propose an immunological point of view of Fabry disease pathogenesis involving immune cells notably the invariant natural killer T cells. We finally review anti-agalsidase antibodies, their development and impact on outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    • "This affects predominantly male patients without any alpha-Gal A-activity . Nevertheless, female patients may also develop antibodies despite substantial levels of residual enzyme activity [53]. However, the impact of these antibodies on the effectiveness of treatment is still unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is induced by a mutation in the alpha-galactosidase A gene, causing a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. (1) The enzyme defect leads to progressive intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in lysosomes of various tissues and organs, including heart, kidney and nerve system. Cardiac involvement is common and is presenting as concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial replacement fibrosis is a typical feature of more advanced stages of Fabry cardiomyopathy, first limited to the mid-myocardial layers of the basal postero-lateral wall, then spreading to transmural fibrosis. Since 2001, enzyme replacement therapy is available. If therapy is started early, before myocardial fibrosis has developed, a long-term improvement of myocardial morphology, function and exercise capacity can be achieved. In end-stage cardiomyopathy enzyme replacement therapy might prevent further progression of the disease. This review provides an overview of Fabry disease, with a focus on cardiac involvement with its characteristic features, clinical presentation and possible treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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    • "Furthermore, delivery and uptake of ERT to some cells, tissues, and organs is insufficient in certain cases, as suggested by the inability of infused rhα-Gal A to significantly reduce GL-3 in cardiomyocytes, distal convoluted tubules, and glomerular podocytes, as well as the central nervous system.5,10 In addition, the infused enzymes can be immunogenic, which may limit efficacy11 and sometimes adversely affect tolerability.12,13 "
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by mutations in the gene (GLA) that encodes the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), and is characterized by pathological accumulation of the substrate, globotriaosylceramide (GL-3). Regular infusion of recombinant human α-Gal A (rhα-Gal A), termed enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), is the primary treatment for Fabry disease. However, rhα-Gal A has low physical stability, a short circulating half-life, and variable uptake into different disease-relevant tissues. We hypothesized that coadministration of the orally available, small molecule pharmacological chaperone AT1001 (GR181413A, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, migalastat hydrochloride) may improve the pharmacological properties of rhα-Gal A via binding and stabilization. AT1001 prevented rhα-Gal A denaturation and activity loss in vitro at neutral pH and 37 °C. Coincubation of Fabry fibroblasts with rhα-Gal A and AT1001 resulted in up to fourfold higher cellular α-Gal A and ~30% greater GL-3 reduction compared to rhα-Gal A alone. Furthermore, coadministration of AT1001 to rats increased the circulating half-life of rhα-Gal A by >2.5-fold, and in GLA knockout mice resulted in up to fivefold higher α-Gal A levels and fourfold greater GL-3 reduction than rhα-Gal A alone. Collectively, these data highlight the potentially beneficial effects of AT1001 on rhα-Gal A, thus warranting clinical investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Molecular Therapy
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