Beyond polemics: Science and ethics of ADHD

London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, UK.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.43). 01/2009; 9(12):957-64. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2514
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Why are so many children being diagnosed with ADHD and prescribed medication? Are stimulant drugs an effective and safe treatment strategy? This article explores the current state of scientific research into ADHD and the key social and ethical concerns that are emerging from the sharp rise in the number of diagnoses and the use of stimulant drug treatments in children. Collaborations among scientists, social scientists and ethicists are likely to be the most promising route to understanding what ADHD is and what stimulant drugs do.

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Available from: Ilina Singh, Oct 27, 2015
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    • "Disorders are identified by school behaviour and achievements rather than by clearly defined clinical criteria (Bailey, 2013). Therefore, claims that the syndrome is biologically determined are regularly contested by the priming of social causes (Rafalovich, 2005; Singh, 2008). Accordingly, the media shift between representing ADHD as a medical issue or mainly as the behaviour of mischievous children (Clarke, 2011; Horton-Salway, 2011; Bourdaa et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: The news media form major sources of information to the general public in matters of science and health. And yet journalists and experts differ in what they consider as newsworthy and relevant. This article analyses in detail a current affair interview with a health expert reporting on a new research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Applying Bamberg's three-level model for positioning analysis, the interview is searched for the stories that speakers introduce, attend to their embedding in the design of questions and answers and examine how their tellers are positioned therein as knowledgeable regarding ADHD. The narratives identified are shown to enable the adopting and shifting between various expert positions including that of the scientific researcher, the advice-giving expert and the more specific identity of the public health clinician. Shifts between these positions are shown to reflect the claims and counter-claims that the interviewee and interviewers are making and backing. These findings are discussed for their implications regarding the use of narratives in presenting science to media audiences.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Discourse & Communication
    • "We used a multiple baseline design across students (Barlow et al. 2009), with three phases: baseline, Samatha meditation training, and meditation practice. Although the intervention could be considered a cognitive behavioral strategy (Singh et al. 2008), the outcomes lend themselves to quantitative measurement. Thus, a multiple baseline design was chosen for demonstrating experimental control by assessing if the students' active engagement in math instruction and percentage of math problems solved would covary with the introduction and practice of Samatha meditation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often do not actively engage in academic instruction because they have difficulty in attending to task demands in the classroom. Without adequate intervention, this may result in poor academic outcomes for these students. In a multiple baseline design study, we taught four 5th-grade students Samatha meditation and assessed active engagement in math instruction and the percentage of math problems correctly solved during baseline, meditation training, and meditation practice phases. Results showed the students had varying but low percentages of intervals of active engagement in math instruction during baseline, but evidenced statistically significant increases from baseline to the meditation practice phase. Similarly, their low but varying percentages of math problems solved correctly during baseline showed statistically significant increases from baseline to the meditation practice phase. These results suggest that Samatha meditation may enhance cognitive processes in students with ADHD at a level to benefit them academically.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Mindfulness
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    • "Etiska frågeställningar inkluderar frågor om individens autonomi och identitet vid behandling med centralstimulerande medel, eventuell stigmatisering och i mer grundläggande mening säkerhet vid medicinsk behandling. Till de etiska frågorna hör naturligtvis att analysera huruvida medicinering används för att lösa andra problem än barnens eller kanske snarare om det finns andra systemrelaterade problem som hanteras genom medicinering, som de amerikanska data antyder (se Singh 2008) Rimligen borde det från ett etiskt perspektiv vara alarmerande att man som i de amerikanska sydstaterna medicinerar upp till 15 procent av tonåringarna (för pojkar är andelen betydligt högre, uppemot en av fyra medicinerar). Och hur ser vi på Gotland som å ena sidan uppnått " bara " ungefär en tredjedel av andelen medicinerade i vissa delar av USA, men som å andra sidan ligger betydligt högre än det svenska genomsnittet? "

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
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