Article

Effect of Natural Fermentation on the Lectin of Lentils Measured by Immunological Methods

Authors:
  • Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA-CSIC)
  • Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria-CSIC
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Abstract

The effects of natural fermentation upon the lectin in the seeds of Lens culinaris cultivar Magda 20 were investigated. Suspensions of lentil flour were allowed to ferment naturally at different lentil flour concentrations (79, 150 and 221 g l -1 ) and temperatures (28, 35 and 42°C). During fermentation, samples were taken at daily intervals (0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h) and lentil lectin activity was measured by haemagglutination test. With the progress of fermentation there was a rapid decline in haemagglutination activity in all the batches. The largest decrease occurred between 0 h and 24 h of fermentation in all the conditions. The lectin concentration showed the maximum reduction at 72 and 96 h, under the fermentation conditions of 79 g l- 1 and 42°C, when the initial lectin content measured by ELISA was reduced by 98 and 97.8%, respectively. The changes in lentil lectin were also followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The results confirmed those obtained by ELISA and indicated that the lectin almost disappeared after 72 h of natural fermentation under the optimum conditions of flour concentration and temperature.

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... Pulses are the main sources of lectins in everyday human diet, although fermentation is reported to reduce the lectin content of pulses [7,82]. Lectins are glycoproteins, which have the ability to agglutinate red blood cell in vitro and are thus referred to as phytohaemagglutinins [83]. ...
... Such reduction of phytate and phytic acid has been ascribed to the endogenous phytase seeds and that of other microorganisms, which causes hydrolysis of the phytic acid into orthophosphate and inositol and microbial degradation of the phytates [93,95,96]. Likewise, a reduction in the lectin content of lentils fermented for 72 h was reported by Cuadrado et al. [82]. This was ascribed by the authors to proteolytic degradation of lectin protein and changes in lectin-protein structure [82]. ...
... Likewise, a reduction in the lectin content of lentils fermented for 72 h was reported by Cuadrado et al. [82]. This was ascribed by the authors to proteolytic degradation of lectin protein and changes in lectin-protein structure [82]. ...
Chapter
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Pulses play a significant and diverse role in the agricultural systems and diets of underprivileged populations worldwide. They are ideal produce for reducing poverty, improving human health and nutrition, and enhancing resilience of the ecosystem. Fermentation is a processing technique that has been used for decades to transform food produce with improved health, functional, and nutraceutical benefits. In tandem with the United Nations’ (UN’s) sustainable development goal Number 3, fermented food products from pulses with health benefits align with this initiative to end hunger, achieve food security, and improve nutrition. In solidarity with the celebration of International Year of Pulses 2016 (IYP2016) and considering the relative neglect of pulses as compared with other food groups, this chapter would be vital in positioning pulses and fermented products from them as readily available functional foods. With increased interest in fermentation, fermented pulse-based foods have been identified as excellent sources of bioactive and functional foods. Thus, fermented pulse-based products present a viable alternative, relatively available, affordable, and cheap source of foods with properties beyond that of basic nutrition.
... Natural or spontaneous fermentation of lentil for 96 h at 30 • C has a significant effect on the carbohydrates, riboflavin, and trypsin inhibitor activity (Vidal-Valverde et al., 1993), and furthermore, significantly decreases inositol hexaphosphate (IP 6 ) to its IP 5 -IP 3 forms at an incubation temperature of 42 • C (Kozlowska et al., 1996). Similarly, Cuadrado et al. (2002) confirmed that natural fermentation could eliminate more than 95% of lectin activity in lentils. ...
Article
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Lentil (Lens Culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris) occupies a key position in the plant protein-based vegetarian diet. Being an excellent source of human nutrition, potential applications of lentils as a food source has not yet been explored scientifically due to their lower digestibility, presence of anti-nutritional constituents, and poor cooking characteristics. Commonly used lentil processing techniques involving thermal treatment have been extensively overworked, however, since they are associated with various undesirable changes, thus, alternative non-thermal processing techniques have been gaining increased research attention. This paper reviews the current knowledge and recent findings on the effect of treatment conditions on anti-nutrient compositions of lentils, using various non-thermal processing techniques such as milling, soaking, elicitation, germination, fermentation, high-pressure processing, radiation processing, ultrafiltration and isoelectric precipitation, and ultrasonication followed by understanding their underlying mechanisms. To exploit the potential of lentils to harness the emerging global demand of plant proteins, these non-thermal techniques are being extensively researched along with the changes associated their anti-nutritional profiles. Based on the review of present literature, it can be concluded that non-thermal processing would be an effective way to increase the digestibility of lentil nutrients with minimal change to lentil antinutrient composition, thereby enabling the consumers to even utilize the health benefits of these antinutrients.
... Megállapítottuk, hogy lencse csíráztatása során az aktiválódott endogén eredetű proteázok a szerinproteáz-gátlók lebomlását eredményezik. Lencse savas denaturálásával és részleges proteolízisével kísért természetes fermentáció során viszont mind a lektinek, mind a proteázinhibitorok elbomlanak [19,20]. Szójából származó albumin tápcsatorna eredetű enzimekkel végzett hidrolízise és aminosav-beépítésessel kísért enzimes peptidmódosítása [21] szintén kedvezően befolyásolta a hüvelyes növényi fehérjék hasznosulását. ...
... But, fermented beans of C. cathartica showed no hemagglutination activity against B+ve and O+ve blood groups, while fermented C. maritima was active against A+ve and B+ve groups, however, fermentation has drastically decreased the activity of raw beans. Fermentation of lentil seeds (up to 72 hr at 42ºC) was also eliminated the hemagglutination activity [44]. Lack of hemagglutinin activity in cooked beans of Canavalia has been attributed to the heat-labile nature of lectins [45]. ...
Article
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Cooked beans of two wild legumes (Canavalia cathartica and C. maritima) were subjected to solid-substrate fermentation by Rhizopus oligosporus and bioactive potential has been compared with raw and cooked beans. Flavonoids and canavanine in raw beans were significantly decreased on cooking, while they were significantly enhanced in fermented beans. Phytic acid content was signficantlty decreased from raw vs. cooked vs. fermented beans. Raw, cooked and fermented beans were devoid of trypsin inhibitors. Hemagglutinin activity of raw beans was completely eliminated on cooking, while SSF increased its activity about 50% of raw beans against A+ve and or B+ve blood groups. Solid-substrate fermentation of cooked beans with R. oligosporus resulted in better nutraceutical potential compared to raw and mearly cooked beans qualifying as important nutraceutical source to develop indigenous value-added products.
... These antinutritional effects are most likely caused by some lectins that can impair the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and thus alter the absorption and utilization of nutrients. Lectin can be completely removed from lentil flour after 72 h fermentation at 42˚C with a flour concentration of 79 g·L −1 [15]. High level of lectins has been reported in kidney beans (840 × 10 −5 hemagglutinating activity units (HU) kg −1 ) and very low amount in cowpea and lupin seeds (3 × 10 −5 HU kg −1 ) [13]. ...
Article
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This review describes the non-nutritive biologically active components in grain legumes and discusses about the bioac-tivity of phenols, isoflavones, phytosterols, phytic acid, saponins, tannins, protease inhibitors and bioactive complex carbohydrates in different pulse grains. These bioactive components have wide ranging biological activities and cones-quently many different targets and mechanism of action. The potential beneficial effect of these compounds especially their antioxidant properties and their role in the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes has been discussed.
... An HA is the best semiquantitative method to determine the presence of lectins in legumes. 32 As mentioned previously, the HT was defined as the reciprocal of the highest dilution that produced agglutination. The highest dilution of CBBE that produced agglutination was 1/512 for an HT of 512. ...
Article
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Although kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lectin toxicity is widely known, its effects in the gastrointestinal tract require further study. This investigation aimed to identify and characterize phytohemagglutinins (PHAs) in the small intestine and sera of rats following oral challenge with ground white beans. Twenty young, adult male rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The control group underwent gavage with a suspension of 300 mg of rodent pellet flour. The experimental group was administered a 300 mg Beldia bean flour suspension (BBFS). After 10 days of daily treatment, jejunal rinse liquid (JRL) and ileum rinse liquid and secretions, as well as sera, were collected. All biological fluids were screened for lectin reactivity using competitive inhibition ELISA, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis techniques. The results revealed the presence of immunogenic intraluminal PHAs 3-4 h after the oral intake of the BBFS in the JRLs as well as in the jejunal and ileal secretions; however, no PHA was detectable in the rat sera. Ingestion of raw Beldia beans may lead to interaction between PHAs and the mucosa of the small intestine, potentially resulting in an inflammatory response.
... In this sense, boiling processes (95 • C for 1 h) reduce the hemagglutinating activity of the pulses between 94% and 100% (Shi, Arntfield & Nickerson, 2018). In the same way, germination and fermentation have also proved capable of reducing the lectins content (Cuadrado et al., 2002). Moreover, cooked pulses have been used in human intervention studies and no harmful effects have been observed (Nciri et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The intake of foods derived from plants has been proposed as an useful strategy in the prevention of several chronic diseases. However, plants also possess a group of substances known as antinutrients, which may be responsible for deleterious effects related to the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients, or exert beneficial health effects. This review compiles scientific evidence regarding the physiological impact of some antinutrients (lectins, goitrogens, phytates and oxalates) in the human health, their negative effects and the culinary and industrial procedures to reduce their presence in foods. It can be concluded that, the effects of antinutrients on human health could change when consumed in their natural food matrix, and after processing or culinary treatment. Accordingly, some of these compounds could have beneficial effects in different pathological conditions. Future research is required to understand the therapeutic potential of these compounds in humans.
... Cooking effectively removes trypsin inhibitor and lectin from vegetable peas and significantly reduces protein and amino acid solubility (Habiba, 2002). Lectin can be completely removed from lentil flour after 72 h fermentation at 42ºC with a flour concentration of 79 g L -1 (Cuadrado, et al., 2002). Amount of lectin in pulses vary significantly (Zhang et al., 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract Food legumes, including pulses, play an important role in rainfed agriculture and also are a source of protein supplement in Bangladeshi diets. Pulses grown in Bangladesh are grass peas, lentils, mungbeans, blackgrams and chickpeas. They occupy about 93 percent of the total pulse area and contribute 97 percent to the total production. Cowpeas, though a minor crop, are predominantly grown in the southern part where they are preferred. Among pulses, lathyrus occupies the largest area (37 percent) followed by lentils (23 percent), blackgram (7 percent), mungbeans (24 percent), felon (7 percent) and chickpeas (1 percent). The area under pulses was 384,000 ha and production was 298,000 tonnes in 2004/05. In 2013/14, the area rose to 780,000 ha and production to 824,000 tonnes (AIS, DAE). To meet the chronic deficit of domestic production of pulses on average about 320,000 tonnes of pulses are imported every year during the past ten years to satisfy domestic demand. Among the imported pulses dry peas rank at the top, followed by lentils and chickpeas. A total of 56 varieties of pulses have been released and many of them are tolerant to major diseases. Cultivation packages and management options of major pests and diseases have been developed. Efforts were also made to disseminate these technologies through a pilot project which produced a remarkable impact. Some niches have been identified for increasing pulse production in Bangladesh. Major constraints to pulse cultivation in the country are botrytis gray mold (BGM) a disease of chickpeas, stemphylium blight and rust of lentils, mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in mugbeans and blackgram, and pod borer in chickpeas.
... On the other hand, cooking effectively removes trypsin inhibitor and lectins levels of vegetable peas and significantly reduces protein and amino acid solubility (Habiba, 2002). Lectin can be completely removed from lentil flour after 72 h fermentation at 42°C with a flour concentration of 79 g L À1 (Cuadrado et al., 2002). Lectin is being used for the discovery of protein markers of cancer using a natural glycoprotein microarray approach. ...
Article
Pulses contain a number of bioactive substances including enzyme inhibitors, lectins, phytates, oligosaccharides, and phenolic compounds. Enzyme inhibitors can diminish protein digestibility, and lectins can reduce nutrient absorption, but both have little effect after cooking. Phytic acid can diminish mineral bioavailability. Some phenolic compounds can reduce protein digestibility and mineral bioavailability, and galactooligosaccharides may cause flatulence. On the other hand, these same compounds may have protective effects. Phytic acid exhibits antioxidant activity and protects DNA damage, phenolic compounds have antioxidant and other important physiological and biological properties, and galactooligosaccharides may elicit prebiotic activity. These compounds can have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including modulation of detoxifying enzymes, stimulation of the immune system, regulation of lipid and hormone metabolism, antioxidant, antimutagen, and antiangiogenic effects, reduction of tumor initiation, and promotion and induction of apoptosis. Secondary metabolites are considerated antinutrients, simultaneously conferring health benefits, so these secondary metabolites are currently marketed as functional foods and nutraceuticals ingredients.
... Cooking effectively removes trypsin inhibitor and lectin of vegetable peas and significantly reduces protein and amino acid solubility [46]. Lectin can be completely removed from lentil flour after 72 h fermentation at 42 °C with a flour concentration of 79 g / L [47]. Amount of lectin in pulses vary significantly [48]. ...
Article
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Pulses are important food crops which offer significant nutritional and health advantages due to their high protein content and a unique nutritional profile, i.e., low fat source of digestible protein, dietary fibre, complex carbohydrates, resistant starch and a number of essential vitamins, especially, the B-group vitamin B9 (folate). In addition to these vitamins and minerals contributing to a healthy diet, pulses contain a number of non-nutritive bioactive substances including enzyme inhibitors, lectins, saponins, phytates, phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides. The latter contributes beyond basic nutritional value and is particularly helpful in the fight against non-communicable diseases often associated with diet transitions and rising incomes. Phytic acid exhibits antioxidant activity and protects DNA damage, phenolic compounds have antioxidant and other important physiological and biological properties, and galacto-oligosaccharides may elicit prebiotic activity. Research findings on different phytochemicals in pulse seeds and their role in preventing the lifestyle diseases has been discussed. Encouraging awareness of the nutritional value of pulses can help consumers adopt healthier diets and also could be an important dietary factor in improving longevity.
... On the other hand, cooking effectively removes trypsin inhibitor and lectins levels of vegetable peas and significantly reduces protein and amino acid solubility (Habiba, 2002). Lectin can be completely removed from lentil flour after 72 h fermentation at 42°C with a flour concentration of 79 g L À1 (Cuadrado et al., 2002). Lectin is being used for the discovery of protein markers of cancer using a natural glycoprotein microarray approach. ...
... Soaking grains, nuts, seeds and legumes will reduce the lectin content; using high pressure cooking for nightshades, grains and legumes will denature the lectin, making the foods less inflammatory but will not denature gluten and may not denature casein [136]. Fermentation is another option for reducing lectins [137]. Nightshade foods may be re-introduced to the WahlsElim diet one ingredient at a time after three months; these foods may be consumed if no increase in neurological or medical symptoms is observed in the week following reintroduction. ...
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The precise etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown but epidemiologic evidence suggests this immune-mediated, neurodegenerative condition is the result of a complex interaction between genes and lifetime environmental exposures. Diet choices are modifiable environmental factors that may influence MS disease activity. Two diets promoted for MS, low saturated fat Swank and modified Paleolithic Wahls Elimination (WahlsElim), are currently being investigated for their effect on MS-related fatigue and quality of life (NCT02914964). Dr. Swank theorized restriction of saturated fat would reduce vascular dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). Dr. Wahls initially theorized that detailed guidance to increase intake of specific foodstuffs would facilitate increased intake of nutrients key to neuronal health (Wahls™ diet). Dr. Wahls further theorized restriction of lectins would reduce intestinal permeability and CNS inflammation (WahlsElim version). The purpose of this paper is to review the published research of the low saturated fat (Swank) and the modified Paleolithic (Wahls™) diets and the rationale for the structure of the Swank diet and low lectin version of the Wahls™ diet (WahlsElim) being investigated in the clinical trial.
... These antinutritional effects are most likely caused by some lectins that can impair the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and thus alter the absorption and utilization of nutrients. Lectin can be completely removed from lentil flour after 72 h fermentation at 42°C with a flour concentration of 79 g·L−1 (Cuadrado et al., 2002). High level of lectins has been reported in kidney beans (840 × 10−5hemagglutinatin activity units (HU) kg−1) and very low amount in cowpea and lupin seeds (3 × 10−5 HU·kg−1). ...
Conference Paper
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Legumes play a vital role in Sri Lankan diet as an alternative protein source. Gradually increasing global production of pulses proves that people are getting more interested in consumption of pulses. Pulses are rich source of number of macro and micronutrients. Although pulses and well known as a rich source of protein which similar to animal based protein sources. The protein quality in pulses is quiet less than animal based proteins due to lack of some essential amino acids such as methionine and cysteine. Pulses comprise of many simple and complex carbohydrates as well as dietary fiber that capable of boost many health benefits such as lowering blood cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetics. The amount and form of carbohydrates get vary during germination. Many studies have verified that pulses contain considerable amount of minerals such as iron, potassium, magnesium, zinc, vitamins namely vitamin B, E, A and C, antioxidants including β- carotene, Ascorbic acid, phenols, flavonoids and anti-nutritive factors like enzyme inhibitors, lectins or phytohaemagglutinins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins, phytates and oxalates. Different processing methods like cooking, microwaving, soaking and fermentation can reduce the effect of antinutritives and improve the digestibility of pulses. Nevertheless, antioxidant level of legume grains can be influenced by processing methods. Pulses are good source of food that can support in eradicating hunger, malnutrition and some chronic diseases. Phytoestrogens available on pulses can prevent hormone related cancers, such as breast and prostate cancer. Further, pulses can increase the diversity of gluten-free food and also it is a perfect vegetarian diet when combined with other foods. Key words: Antinutritives, Health benefits, Nutrition, Protein, Pulses
... In order to estimate the lectin content of the analysed lentil flours, a Competitive Indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was performed (Cuadrado et al., 2002;Morales et al., 2015). The lectin content of the samples was estimated from the calibration curve (0.001-1000 µg/mL of pure LCA standard). ...
Article
The food industry is increasingly innovating and applying new processing technologies and ingredients to develop novel food products that meet the consumers' demand. In this study, the effect of extrusion (at 140 °C and 160 °C) was evaluated in different lentil flours formulations enriched with nutritional yeast, in terms of α-galactosides (raffinose, stachyose, verbascose), inositol phosphates (IPs), trypsin inhibitors and lectins content. The content of α-galactosides and IPs was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) was evaluated using a small-scale quantitative assay. The lectin content was analyzed using a haemagglutination assay and a Competitive Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Extrusion promoted a significant increase, up to 85% in total α-galactosides content. After extrusion, IPs content was significantly decreased and TIA as well as lectins content had a reduction higher than 90%. Extrusion demonstrated to have a beneficial effect by increasing desirable prebiotic compounds and decreasing non-nutritional factors.
... The Phaseolus vulgaris lectin (PHA) content was determined using a non-commercial competitive indirect ELISA assay according to Cuadrado et al. [23]. The PHA content of the samples was calculated using a calibration curve (0.001-1000 µg/mL) of pure PHA standard. ...
Article
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Pasta is considered as the ideal vehicle for fortification; thus, different formulations of gluten-free pasta have been developed (rice 0–100%, bean 0–100%, and carob fruit 0% or 10%). In this article, the content of individual inositol phosphates, soluble sugars and α-galactosides, protease inhibitors, lectin, phenolic composition, color, and texture were determined in uncooked and cooked pasta. The highest total inositol phosphates and protease inhibitors contents were found in the samples with a higher bean percentage. After cooking, the content of total inositol phosphates ranged from 2.12 to 7.97 mg/g (phytic acid or inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) was the major isoform found); the protease inhibitor activities showed values up to 12.12 trypsin inhibitor (TIU)/mg and 16.62 chymotrypsin inhibitor (CIU)/mg, whereas the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed the elimination of lectins. Considering the different α-galactosides analyzed, their content was reduced up to 70% (p < 0.05) by the cooking process. The total phenols content was reduced around 17–48% after cooking. The cooked samples fortified with 10% carob fruit resulted in darker fettuccine with good firmness and hardness and higher antioxidant activity, sucrose, and total phenols content than the corresponding counterparts without this flour. All of the experimental fettuccine can be considered as functional and healthy pasta mainly due to their bioactive compound content, compared to the commercial rice pasta.
... Cooking effectively removes trypsin inhibitor and lectin from vegetable peas and significantly reduces protein and amino acid solubility (Habiba, 2002). Lectin can be completely removed from lentil flour after 72 h fermentation at 42ºC with a flour concentration of 79 g L -1 (Cuadrado, et al., 2002). Amount of lectin in pulses vary significantly (Zhang et al., 2009). ...
... Of the Leguminoceae family, lentils (Lens culinaris L) are nowadays considered among the most important legumes for human nutrition [6]. Lentil seeds are rich sources of proteins [6] and bioactive peptides, including lectins [7], "defensin" protein [8], and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors [9]; each of which aids in halting tumorigenesis and has gained special attention for its inhibitory effect against CRC [10,11]. ...
Article
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Although lentils (Lens culinaris L) contain several bioactive compounds that have been linked to the prevention of cancer, the in vivo chemopreventive ability of lentils against chemically induced colorectal cancer has not been examined. Our present study examined the hypothesis that lentils could suppress the early carcinogenesis in vivo by virtue of their bioactive micro- and macroconstituents and that culinary thermal treatment could affect their chemopreventive potential. To accomplish this goal, we used raw whole lentils (RWL), raw split lentils (RSL), cooked whole lentils (CWL), and cooked split lentils (CSL). Raw soybeans (RSB; Glycine max) were used for the purpose of comparison with a well-studied chemopreventive agent. Sixty weanling Fischer 344 male rats, 4 to 5 weeks of age, were randomly assigned to 6 groups (10 rats/group): the control group (C) received AIN-93G diet, and treatment leguminous groups of RWL, CWL, RSL, CSL, and RSB received the treatment diets containing AIN-93G+5% of the above-mentioned legumes. After acclimatization for 1 week (at 5th to 6th week of age), all animals were put on the control and treatment diets separately for 5 weeks (from 6th to 11th week of age). At the end of the 5th week of feeding (end of 11th week of age), all rats received 2 subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane carcinogen at 15 mg/kg rat body weight per dose once a week for 2 consecutive weeks. After 17 weeks of the last azoxymethane injection (from 12th to 29th week of age), all rats were euthanized. Chemopreventive ability was assessed using colonic aberrant crypt foci and activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferases. Significant reductions (P < .05) were found in total aberrant crypt foci number (mean +/- SEM) for RSB (27.33 +/- 4.32), CWL (33.44 +/- 4.56), and RSL (37.00 +/- 6.02) in comparison with the C group (58.33 +/- 8.46). Hepatic glutathione-S-transferases activities increased significantly (P < .05) in rats fed all treatment diets (from 51.38 +/- 3.66 to 67.94 +/- 2.01 micromol mg(-1) min(-1)) when compared with control (C) diet (26.13 +/- 1.01 micromol mg(-1) min(-1)). Our findings indicate that consumption of lentils might be protective against colon carcinogenesis and that hydrothermal treatment resulted in an improvement in the chemopreventive potential for the whole lentils.
... 23 Fermenting lentils also results in an almost total removal of lectin content. 24 Sprouting also destroys some lectins. In one study, sprouting soybeans resulted in a 58.7% reduction of lectin content. ...
... In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-mediated fermentation can reduce phytates and trypsin inhibitors [25], and hydrolyze tannic acid via their tannase activities [26,27]. Almost all lectins in soybeans are destroyed during fermentation processes over 72 h [28]. Moreover, various novel compounds are generated during the fermentation process not originally present in raw soybean (Table 1). ...
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Fermented soybean products, such as cheonggukjang (Japanese natto), doenjang (soy paste), ganjang (soy sauce), and douchi, are widely consumed in East Asian countries and are major sources of bioactive compounds. The fermentation of cooked soybean with bacteria (Bacillus spp.) and fungi (Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus spp.) produces a variety of novel compounds, most of which possess health benefits. This review is focused on the preventive and ameliorative potential of fermented soy foods and their components to manage neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
... Natural fermentation was shown to result in partial or complete removal of α-Galactosides (raffinose family of oligosaccharides), tannins, phytic acid, lectin and trypsin inhibitor activity in pulses (Cuadrado et al., 2002;Granito et al., 2005). In faba beans, the amount of vicine and convicine was significantly reduced by >91% and condensed tannins in the protein fractions by >40% after fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum (Coda et al., 2015;Rizzello et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Diversification of plant-based food sources is necessary to improve global food and nutritional security. Pulses have enormous nutritional and health benefits in preventing malnutrition and chronic diseases while contributing positively to reducing environmental footprint. Pulses are rich in diverse nutritional and non-nutritional constituents which can be classified as bioactive compounds due to their biological effect. These bioactive compounds include but are not limited to proteins, dietary fibres, resistant starch, polyphenols, saponins, lectins, phytic acids, and enzyme inhibitors. While these compounds are of importance in ensuring food and nutritional security, some of the bioactive constituents have ambivalent properties. These properties include having antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and prebiotic effects. Others have a deleterious effect of decreasing the digestibility and/or bioavailability of essential nutrients and are therefore termed antinutritional factors/compounds. Various processing techniques exist to reduce the content of antinutritional factors found in pulses. Traditional processing of pulses comprises soaking, dehulling, milling, germination, fermentation, and boiling, while examples of emerging processing techniques include microwaving, extrusion, and micronization. These processing techniques can be tailored to purpose and pulse type to achieve desired results. Herein, the nutritional qualities and properties of bioactive compounds found in pulses in meeting the sustainable development goals are presented. It also discusses the effect of processing techniques on the nutritional and non-nutritional constituents in pulses as well as the health and environmental benefits of pulse-diet consumption. Major challenges linked to pulses that could limit their potential of being ideal crops in meeting the sustainable development goal 2 agenda are highlighted.
... Lentil seeds provide an excellent source of dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates (Sotomayor et al. 1999). Lentil seeds are rich sources of proteins (Iqbal et al., 2006) and bioactive peptides, including lectins (Cuadrado et al., 2002), " defensin " protein (Finkina et al., 2008), and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors (Losso, 2008); each of which aids in halting tumorigenesis and has gained special attention for its inhibitory effect against colorectal cancer (Mejia et al., 2005; Clemente et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
The maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases are influenced by naturally occurring chemicals in foods. In addition to supplying the substrates for producing energy, many dietary chemicals are bioactive; they alter the regulation of biological processes and expression of genetic information. Pulses are legume seeds used for human consumption and include peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, and faba beans. In addition to being a source of macronutrients and minerals, pulses also contain plant secondary metabolites that are increasingly being recognized for their potential benefits for human health. Emerging evidence stresses the importance of pulses as carriers of several constituents of potential biological importance, including enzyme inhibitors, lectins, phytates, oxalates, polyphenols, saponins and phytosterols. Recent investigations suggest that pulses may contribute to human health and wellbeing, mostly through prevention of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, cancer, diabetes and obesity. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions. Taking advantage of the above, great efforts have recently been invested to potentiate their technological use on the development of healthful ingredients, such as flour mixtures and extruded snacks, aimed to create functional and healthy food. This chapter investigates the health potential of pulses, examining their bioactivity, highlighting the studies involving functional compounds that modulate genes for prevention of diseases as well as their potential use in industry.
Chapter
The importance of lentils as important dietary sources of macro and micronutrients essential for human welfare has been recognized since ancient times. Lentils provide sufficient amounts of most essential amino acids to meet the nutrient requirements, although they are deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids like most legumes. Lentils also contain fair amounts of other essential nutrients like minerals, vitamins and complex carbohydrates. In contrast, lentils exhibit a considerable amount of non-nutritional compounds like trypsin inhibitors, tannins or phytic acid that are able to interfere with the availability of several nutrients. Different processing conditions that range from the traditional soaking/cooking to germination, fermentation, or several thermal treatments, are usually employed to improve the organoleptic properties of lentil seed and its nutritional value through reducing the negative effect of the above mentioned non-nutritional components. In addition, technological treatments may significantly enhance the functional and beneficial health properties of the processed lentil food products, making consumption of this legume an appealing alternative for today’s world
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This work examined the content and distribution of the pyrimidine glucosides vicine and convicine, and the nonproteic amino acid L-DOPA in cotyledons and embryo axes along the germination and seedling growth of Vicia faba L. vars. Alameda and Brocal. The behaviour of these compounds was similar in both varieties. Vicine and convicine, implicated in favism disease, slowly declined in cotyledons. In embryo axis, vicine levels were sharply reduced and convicine amount was slightly increased as assay progressed. Total pyrimidine glucosides remained unchanged in the whole plant during the study. L-DOPA only appeared in the embryo axis of V. faba seeds and the highest content was observed in Brocal variety at 6 DAI (days after imbibition). The information provided in this study could be valuable for a possible role of embryo axis, rich in L-DOPA, for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and also as a choice ingredient for functional foods or as nutraceutical.
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Natural fermentation and an inoculum containing 10% (vol/vol) Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus plantarum were used to obtain fermented flours from Vigna sinensis L. var. carilla seeds that had been washed with distilled water and dried at 55 degrees C for 24 h. To optimize the fermentation parameters (lactic acid bacterium level, bean flour concentration, and fermentation time), several small-scale fermentation processes were carried out. On the basis of the results obtained, fermentor-scale bean fermentation by microorganisms present on the seeds (natural fermentation [NF]) or by inoculation with L. plantarum (PF) was carried out at 37 degrees C for 48 h with a concentration of 300 g of bean flour per liter. The fermented flours (NF and PF) were also autoclaved. The levels of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), soluble carbohydrates, starch (total and available), total available carbohydrates, thiamin, and riboflavin were determined for the processed cowpea flours, and microbiological studies were also carried out. The beans' levels of alpha-galactosides, TIA, and inositol hexaphosphate decreased by 95, 50, and 85%, respectively, for the NF flour and by 87, 27, and 85%, respectively, for the PF flour, while inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate were present in both fermented flours. The sucrose content decreased, and glucose, fructose, and galactose appeared as a result of fermentation. The levels of total available sugars and thiamin decreased by 2 and 12% and by 69 and 43%, respectively, while the riboflavin content increased by 106 and 94% for NF and PF flours, respectively. When NF and PF cowpea flours were heated in an autoclave for 20 min, TIA decreased further (by 80 and 56%, respectively). According to the chemical and microbiological results obtained in this study, fermentation with L. plantarum and autoclaving is an excellent process by which to produce a new functional food from the seed of a cheap legume (Vigna sinensis L. var. carilla).
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It is a well known fact that legumes are excellent source of protein and other nutrients and contribute significantly to the global productivity and nutrition. The nutritional composition of legumes depends on variety, species and the growing region. The legume protein though adequate in lysine, is deficient in methionine and cysteine. They act as a good supplement for cereals which are deficient in lysine, an essential amino acid from nutritional point of view. Grain legumes are also a good source of minerals and vitamins in particular vitamin B complex. Despite such advantageous characteristic, legume seeds generally contain anti-nutrients mostly in their raw state and thereby their direct consumption is associated with decreased bioavailability of nutrients (Saharan et al. 2001; Tharanathan and Mahadevamma 2003). Considering the nutritional merits of legumes, it is imperative to adopt the methodologies for lowering/minimizing the level of anti-nutrients from legumes.
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Plant lectins, a unique group of proteins and glycoproteins with potent biological activity, occur in foods like wheat, corn, tomato, peanut, kidney bean, banana, pea, lentil, soybean, mushroom, rice, and potato. Thus, dietary intakes by humans can be significant. Many lectins resist digestion, survive gut passage, and bind to gastrointestinal cells and/or enter the circulation intact, maintaining full biological activity. Several lectins have been found to possess anticancer properties in vitro, in vivo, and in human case studies; they are used as therapeutic agents, preferentially binding to cancer cell membranes or their receptors, causing cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor growth. These compounds can become internalized into cells, causing cancer cell agglutination and/or aggregation. Ingestion of lectins also sequesters the available body pool of polyamines, thereby thwarting cancer cell growth. They also affect the immune system by altering the production of various interleukins, or by activating certain protein kinases. Lectins can bind to ribosomes and inhibit protein synthesis. They also modify the cell cycle by inducing non-apoptotic G1-phase accumulation mechanisms, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and can activate the caspase cascade. Lectins can also downregulate telomerase activity and inhibit angiogenesis. Although lectins seem to have great potential as anticancer agents, further research is still needed and should include a genomic and proteomic approach.
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The subunit structure and complete amino acid sequence of the lectin extracted from Lens culinaris (LcL) seeds was determined. In previous studies, the primary structure of the alpha-chain (Mr = 5,710) was shown to be homologous to the alpha-chain of the lectin from Pisum sativum, the Vicia cracca glucose-specific lectin, and a region in the middle of the concanavalin A sequence (residues 70-121). The complete amino acid sequence of the beta-chain (Mr = 17,572) has been determined from 11 tryptic peptides, 4 peptides derived by chemical cleavage of the beta-chain at its three tryptophan residues, 11 peptides obtained after digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease, and 5 tryptic peptides from the succinylated polypeptide chain. The extensive homologies by alignment of the alpha- and beta-chains of the L. culinaris lectin with portions of concanavalin A situated between 1 to 45 and 70 to 237, suggest that the L. culinaris and Canavalia ensiformis lectins have evolved from each other. A comparison was made between the secondary structure of the C. ensiformis lectin and the probable secondary structure of the L. culinaris lectin as predicted by two different methods. The results indicate that the folding of these two polypeptides has been particularly well conserved during evolution. It is suggested that the L. culinaris lectin is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain and cleaved subsequently into two or possibly three fragments, two of which would be alpha and beta and the third a fragment homologous to portion 46 to 69 in concanavalin A. As in favin, the amino acids postulated to be involved in the formation of the hydrophobic cavity and the sugar and metal binding sites are highly conserved in L. culinaris lectin.
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A diet-switching experiment, which aimed to improve the utilization of soyabean whey was carried out for 61 d with young rats. Feeding was arranged in such a way that after a few days on the soyabean diet, the rats were switched to a high-quality lactalbumin diet for a short period, after which the cycle was repeated several times. The weights of the rats at the end of the soyabean phases were significantly less than those of animals pair-fed on a high-quality diet throughout. However, the test group regained the weight loss after switching to the lactalbumin diet. After three cycles there were no significant differences between the weights of the test rats fed on a poor soyabean diet for over a third of the experiment and those fed on the lactalbumin diet throughout. Feed conversion was always significantly higher with test rats in the lactalbumin period than with continually pair-fed controls. Similarly, faecal N losses were significantly higher for test rats in the soyabean phase, but these differences disappeared after switching to the lactalbumin diet. At the end of the experiment there were no significant differences in body protein or lipids between the groups although the pancreas was significantly heavier while the liver was lighter in soyabean-fed rats. The high destruction of trypsin inhibitors in the gut suggests that they probably had little effect on protein digestion in the gut. In contrast, as selective depletion of the agglutinin from soyabean whey removed the nutritional benefit in the lactalbumin part of the cycle, the improved feed conversion in this period must have been the result mainly of the survival and functionality of soyabean agglutinin and the benefits due to the hyperplastic growth and faster renewal of the gut surface it induced. As processing is unnecessary, this novel method is cheap and can be easily adapted for the use of soyabean whey, regarded as a waste product.
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The lectins from lentils and peas after isolation and purification have been fed to albino rats and their effects on the various intestinal and hepatic enzymes have been studied after 7 d and 14 d of feeding. The feeding of the lectins resulted in significant growth retardation of the animals. In general, the lectins decreased the activities of intestinal disaccharidases and proteolytic enzymes and increased the activities of the intestinal alkaline and acid phosphatases and Ca⁺⁺-ATPase. The activities of some hepatic dehydrogenases decreased after feeding of the lectins. The decreased activities of intestin al disaccharidases and proteases may be partly responsible for the growth inhibitory effect of the ingested lectins but a fter some time the animals seem to adapt to the inimical effect of lectins.
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Lectins are one of the most important physiologically active ingredients and potent exogeneous biological signals in the diet. Although the amounts of lectins in foodstuffs can vary considerably, they can dramatically affect the entire digestive tract and its bacterial population, body metabolism and health. Their extraordinary effectiveness stems from resistance to gut proteolysis and a high and specific chemical reactivity with endogenous surface receptors of the epithelial cells of the gut of both higher animals and lower organisms. Lectins are powerful oral and parenteral immunogens and some of their physiological effects are intricately linked to interference with immune function. However, the primary effects and the potency of lectins as biological signals are the direct result of their specific chemical reactivity with saccharides. As these reactions are predictable, the use of lectins as blockers of pathogens, immune stimulants, hormone modulators and metabolic agents in clinical-medical applications and as natural insecticides in trans-genic plants, offers great promise.
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Lentils were subjected to natural fermentation for 4 days at 30C. The pH value fell to 3.8 during the process. -Galactosides and sucrose were not detected in fermented lentils but a significant increase in the fructose content was observed. In fermented lentils the neutral detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose contents decreased and the lignin content increased. After fermentation the riboflavin content was higher and the trypsin inhibitor activity decreased.Es wurde die Linsenfermentation durch natrlich vorkommende Mikroorganismen whrend 4 Tage durchgefhrt. Die Temperatur wurde bei 30C gehalten. Durch die Vergrung fllt der pH-Wert auf 3,8. -Galaktoside und Saccharose wurden in den Linsen nicht nachgewiesen, jedoch eine signifikante Zunahme des Fructosegehaltes. Es zeigte sich, da in den Linsen die neutrale Detergent-Faser, der Cellulose- und Hemicellulosegehalt und die Trypsininhibitor-Aktivitt abnimmt, aber der Lignin- und Riboflavingehalt zunimmt.
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Lentil (Lens culinaris var. vulgaris) flour was naturally fermented for 4 days at different temperatures (28C, 35C and 42C) and concentrations (79 g/1, 150 g/1 and 221 g/1). Samples were analysed to establish the changes of total protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and phenolic compound content during natural fermentation of lentils. The preparation of lentil flour suspensions to be fermented caused a slight increase in total protein and in vitro protein digestibility content, a decrease of TIA and a sharp decrease the tannin/catechin ratio. During the whole fermentation procedure, the minimum initial lentil concentration and temperature used (79 g/1, 28C) achieved the maximum protein content and the lowest tannin/catechin ratio. The TIA was more affected by temperature than by concentration, and a 62.5% reduction was observed at 42C and 79 g/1.
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Many food plants contain proteins that are usually referred to as lectins on the basis of their specific carbohydrate-binding properties. Some of these lectins protect the plant against predatory invertebrates and higher animals, and they may also be harmful to humans. Therefore, the presence of lectins in food plants and foodstuffs is an important issue in food science. Although the risks of acute toxicity are low, prolonged exposure to low levels of lectins may be harmful to human health. Hence, the introduction of foreign lectin genes into food plants should be restricted to those lectins that are harmless to humans. Elimination of lectins from crop plants using breeding programmes or genetic engineering should, in principle, be achievable in the case of some important legumes.
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Cereals, legumes, and tubers that are used for the production of fermented foods may contain significant amounts of antinutritional or toxic components such as phytates, tannins, cyanogenic glycosides, oxalates, saponins, lectins, and inhibitors of enzymes such as alpha-amylase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. These substances reduce the nutritional value of foods by interfering with the mineral bioavailability and digestibility of proteins and carbohydrates. In natural or pure mixed-culture fermentations of plant foods by yeasts, molds, and bacteria, antinutritional components (e.g. phytate in whole wheat breads) can be reduced by up to 50%; toxic components, such as lectins in tempe and other fermented foods made from beans, can be reduced up to 95%. These reductions in antinutritional and toxic components in plant foods during fermentation are discussed.
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In vitro absorption of nutrients like glucose, leucine, protein hydrolysate and Ca2+ by ligated loops of small intestine was significantly affected in presence of lectins from peas and lentils. Except for sucrose, all other nutrients showed significant decrease in their absorption in presence of lectins. Lentil lectins had a greater inhibitory effect than pea lectins.
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. High titred monospecific antibodies are obtained in rabbits injecting as little as 25 μg pure antigen per kg body weight. For polyspecific antibodies the dose is increased 10 times. The immunization schedule is described in detail. A procedure is given for the isolation of the immunoglobulins from antiserum by salting out and ion exchange chromatography. Finally antibody titres as measured by 4 different titration methods are compared using anti-human IgG from rabbits as a model.
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Both isophytohemagglutinins present in the hemagglutinin preparation of the lentil seeds (Lens esculenta, Moench.) have been found to be composed of two types of subunits differing in their molecular weights, 18 000 and 8000, as determined by sodium dodecylsulfate electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel.The protein molecule dissociates easily in acidic solutions (0.1 M glycine-HCl buffer, pH 2.2, or 1 M acetic acid) or in 8 M urea. The dissociation of the phytohemagglutinin molecules is accompanied by a complete release of manganese from the protein. Neutral sugars and calcium remain bound to both subunits. A very low hemagglutinating activity is associated only with the heavy subunit; the light subunit is inactive.Valine was found to be the N-terminal amino acid of the light subunit and threonine of the heavy one. Both subunits contain serine, as the C-terminal amino acid.
Lentil (Lens culinaris var. vulgaris) flour was naturally fermented for 4 days at different temperatures (28 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 42 degrees C) and concentrations (79 milligrams, 150 milligrams and 221 milligrams). Samples were analysed to establish the changes of total protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and phenolic compound content during natural fermentation of lentils. The preparation of lentil flour suspensions to be fermented caused a slight increase in total protein and in vitro protein digestibility content, a decrease of TIA and a sharp decrease the tannin/catechin ratio. During the whole fermentation procedure, the minimum initial lentil concentration and temperature used (79 milligrams, 28 degrees C) achieved the maximum protein content and the lowest tannin/catechin ratio. The TIA was more affected by temperature than by concentration, and a 62.5% reduction was observed at 42 degrees C and 79 milligrams.
The effects of natural fermentation upon phytic acid and less phosphorylated inositol phosphates ofLens culinaris var vulgaris cultivar Magda-20 were investigated. Seven fermentation runs were made following a 22 complete factorial design with three replicated centre points to study the effect of different conditions of temperature (28, 35 and 42°C) and broth concentration (79, 150 and 221 g/l). Samples were taken for each of them at daily intervals (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). The pH value declined sharply in the first 24 h of fermentation, becoming stabilized from this time. The relation between lactic acid and titratable acidity presented important differences between the different fermentations, ranging from 30–80%. Phytic acid (IP 6), inositol pentakis (IP 5), tetrakis (IP 4) and tris-(IP 3) phosphates were quantitatively determined. The content of total inositol phosphates showed a maximum reduction of 63% at 72 h under the fermentation conditions of 42°C and 79 g/l.
Measurements of the antinutrient contents of legume samples, in Cost 98 – Effects of Antinutrients on the Nutritional Value of Legume Diets
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Nutritional manipulation of immune competence in young non-ruminant animals
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Mé de Laboratorio en Microbiolo g´gá de Alimentos y Productos Lá Effect of feeding of lectins from lentils and peas on the intestinal and hepatic enzymes of albino rats
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Analytical methods for the analysis of antinutritional factors in legume seeds Wageningen Pers
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