Article

Food for thought: Integrated testing strategies for safety assessments

Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, CAAT, Baltimore, USA.
ALTEX 01/2013; 30(1):3-18.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that toxicology uses many stand-alone tests, a systematic combination of several information sources very often is required: Examples include: when not all possible outcomes of interest (e.g., modes of action), classes of test substances (applicability domains), or severity classes of effect are covered in a single test; when the positive test result is rare (low prevalence leading to excessive falsepositive results); when the gold standard test is too costly or uses too many animals, creating a need for prioritization by screening. Similarly, tests are combined when the human predictivity of a single test is not satisfactory or when existing data and evidence from various tests will be integrated. Increasingly, kinetic information also will be integrated to make an in vivo extrapolation from in vitro data. Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) offer the solution to these problems. ITS have been discussed for more than a decade, and some attempts have been made in test guidance for regulations. Despite their obvious potential for revamping regulatory toxicology, however, we still have little guidance on the composition, validation, and adaptation of ITS for different purposes. Similarly, Weight of Evidence and Evidence-based Toxicology approaches require different pieces of evidence and test data to be weighed and combined. ITS also represent the logical way of combining pathway-based tests, as suggested in Toxicology for the 21st Century. This paper describes the state of the art of ITS and makes suggestions as to the definition, systematic combination, and quality assurance of ITS.

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    • "They present a conceptual framework for the cumulative synthesis of information and for guiding testing in such a way that the information gain is maximized in a testing sequence that leads to a risk decision (Jaworska et al. 2010; Jaworska and Hoffmann 2010). As described by Jaworska and Hoffmann (2010) and further emphasized by Hartung et al. (2013) and Rovida et al. (2015), ITS are combinations of tests in a battery covering the relevant mechanistic steps organized in a logical, hypothesis-driven decision scheme, which is required to make efficient use of generated data and to provide a comprehensive information basis for making decisions regarding hazard or risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: The presented Bayesian network Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS-3) for skin sensitization potency assessment is a decision support system for a risk assessor that provides quantitative weight of evidence, leading to a mechanistically interpretable potency hypothesis, and formulates adaptive testing strategy for a chemical. The system was constructed with an aim to improve precision and accuracy for predicting LLNA potency beyond ITS-2 (Jaworska et al., J Appl Toxicol 33(11):1353-1364, 2013) by improving representation of chemistry and biology. Among novel elements are corrections for bioavailability both in vivo and in vitro as well as consideration of the individual assays' applicability domains in the prediction process. In ITS-3 structure, three validated alternative assays, DPRA, KeratinoSens and h-CLAT, represent first three key events of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization. The skin sensitization potency prediction is provided as a probability distribution over four potency classes. The probability distribution is converted to Bayes factors to: 1) remove prediction bias introduced by the training set potency distribution and 2) express uncertainty in a quantitative manner, allowing transparent and consistent criteria to accept a prediction. The novel ITS-3 database includes 207 chemicals with a full set of in vivo and in vitro data. The accuracy for predicting LLNA outcomes on the external test set (n = 60) was as follows: hazard (two classes)-100 %, GHS potency classification (three classes)-96 %, potency (four classes)-89 %. This work demonstrates that skin sensitization potency prediction based on data from three key events, and often less, is possible, reliable over broad chemical classes and ready for practical applications.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Archive für Toxikologie
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    • "On the basis of such new technologies, roadmaps have been defined on how to approach an evaluation of toxicological hazard and risk employing mainly animal-free methods (Basketter et al., 2012; Leist et al., 2014; Embry et al., 2014; Pastoor et al., 2014). Importantly, methods are increasingly combined in integrated testing strategies (ITS) or integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA) (Hartung et al., 2013; Rovida et al., 2015; Tollefsen et al., 2014). It will be important that these efforts are met with adaptations to the validation process (Hartung , 2007; Judson et al., 2013; Leist et al., 2012a). "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate long-term trends of animal use, the EU animal use statistics from the 15 countries that have been in the EU since 1995 plus respective data from Switzerland were analyzed. The overall number of animals used for scientific purposes in these countries, i.e., about 11 million/year, remained relatively constant between 1995 and 2011, with net increases in Germany and the UK and net decreases in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The relatively low and constant numbers of experimental animals used for safety assessment (toxicology, 8%) may be due to the particularly intensive research on alternative methods in this area. The many efficiently working NGOs, multiple initiatives of the European Parliament, and coordinated activities of industry and the European Commission may have contributed to keeping the animal numbers in this field in check. Basic biological science, and research and development for medicine, veterinary and dentistry together currently make up 65% of animal use in science. Although the total numbers have remained relatively constant, consumption of transgenic animals has increased drastically; in Germany transgenic animals accounted for 30% of total animal use in 2011. Therefore, more focus on alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical research, in particular on transgenic animals, will be important in the future. One initiative designed to provide inter-sector information exchange for future actions is the "MEP - 3Rs scientists pairing scheme" initiated in 2015 by CAAT-Europe and MEP Pietikäinen.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    • "Indeed, it is generally believed that the safety of a compound cannot be based on a single in vitro assay. Therefore, scientists are working on the design of testing batteries and coupled strategies (Hartung et al. 2013). Over the last decade, imaging as a detection system for cell-based assays has emerged and offers a new way of evaluating a wide range of cell biological parameters. "
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    ABSTRACT: High-content screening is the application of automated microscopy and image analysis to both cell biology and drug discovery. Over the last decade, this technique has emerged as a useful technology that allows the simultaneous measurement of different parameters at a single-cell level. Hepatotoxicity is a compelling reason for drug nonapprovals and withdrawals. It is recognized that the safety of a compound cannot be based on a single in vitro assay, and existing methods are not predictive of drug-induced toxicity. However, different HCS assays have been recently demonstrated as being powerful for identifying different mechanisms implicated in drug-induced toxicity with high sensitivity and specificity. These assays integrate the data obtained from different cell function indicators and can be easily incorporated into basic screening processes for the safety evaluation and selection of drug candidates; thus, they contribute greatly to lessen the likelihood of drug failure. Exploring the use of cellular imaging technology in drug-induced liver injury by reviewing the different tests proposed provides evidence that this technology has a strong impact on drug discovery.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Archives of Toxicology
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