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Agile Project Management: Creating Innovative Products

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Abstract

“Jim Highsmith is one of a few modern writers who are helping us understand the new nature of work in the knowledge economy.”-Rob Austin, Assistant Professor, Harvard Business School“This is the project management book we've all been waiting for-the book that effectively combines Agile methods and rigorous project management. Not only does this book help us make sense of project management in this current world of iterative, incremental Agile methods, but it's an all-around good read!”-Lynne Ellen, Sr. VP & CIO, DTE Energy“Finally a book that reconciles the passion of the Agile Software movement with the needed disciplines of project management. Jim's book has provided a service to all of us.”-Neville R(oy) Singham, CEO, ThoughtWorks, Inc.“The world of product development is becoming more dynamic and uncertain. Many managers cope by reinforcing processes, adding documentation, or further honing costs. This isn't working. Highsmith brilliantly guides us into an alternative that fits the times.”-Preston G. Smith, principal, New Product Dynamics/coauthor, Developing Products in Half the TimeNow, one of the field's leading experts brings together all the knowledge and resources you need to use APM in your next project. Jim Highsmith shows why APM should be in every manager's toolkit, thoroughly addressing the questions project managers raise about Agile approaches. He systematically introduces the five-phase APM framework, then presents specific, proven tools for every project participant. Coverage includes: Six principles of Agile Project Management How to capitalize on emerging new product development technologies Putting customers at the center of your project, where they belong Creating adaptive teams that respond quickly to changes in your project's “ecosystem” Which projects will benefit from APM-and which won't APM's five phases: Envision, Speculate, Explore, Adapt, Close APM practices, including the Product Vision Box and Project Data Sheet Leveraging your PMI skills in Agile environments Scaling APM to larger projects and teams For every project manager, team leader, and team member

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... As a result of these changes, new trends in project management are taking shape, emerging from the criticism of the traditional approach. In the literature, this new approach has been referred to as agile project management (Highsmith 2009;Layton et al. 2020;Bogdanova et al. 2020) consisting of freedom during project execution, using less formalized and rigorous approaches in favor of greater flexibility of activities to the circumstances in which the project is implemented (Schwaber and Sutherland 2017;Vallon et al. 2018;Schmitt and Hörner 2021). ...
... The former highlights the importance of risk analysis in the project management process (Little 2006, as an additional element performed by the team leader (Shore and Warden 2008;Schwaber and Sutherland 2017); however, it does not present risk management models that could be used in practice. In contrast, the latter approach treats project risk as a natural element (Highsmith 2009), built into agile methods through transparency, prioritization, an iterative approach, or constant contact with the contracting entity and almost immediate response to changes, whether in requirements, technology, or even scope elements (DeMarco and Lister 2013). One aspect of risk that receives some attention in the agile approach is the balance between risk and delivering value to customers when prioritizing tasks (Moran 2014). ...
... A synthesis of literature studies including determinants of agile project management methods (Highsmith 2009;Stare 2014;Niazi et al. 2016), risk management processes (Thamhain 2013;Hopkin 2018;Buganová and Šimíčková 2019;Tavares et al. 2020), and IT project stakeholders (Orłowski et al. 2017;Vallon et al. 2018) as well as the factors that shape project success and failure (The Standish Group) clearly indicates that in most publications on risk in agile-managed projects, the human factor is heavily underestimated at the expense of sometimes over-favoring procedures. Meanwhile, after analyzing the risk factors that arise in agile-managed IT projects, it became apparent that in addition to aspects such as technology, hardware, system, or even project schedule and cost, the project team is highlighted. ...
Article
Full-text available
A synthesis of literature studies covering the determinants of agile project management methods, risk management processes as well as factors influencing the shaping of project success and failure clearly indicates that in most publications on risk in agile managed projects, the human factor is heavily underestimated at the expense of often excessive favoring of procedures. Meanwhile, after analyzing the risk factors that arise in agile-managed IT projects, it became apparent that in addition to aspects such as technology, hardware, system, or even project schedule and cost, the project team is highlighted, which is also the second concept with the GPM P5 Standard for Sustainability in Project Management. Thus, the purpose of this article is to develop a model for risk management in IT projects. As a result of the empirical research carried out by means of an expert interview (108 experts) and a questionnaire survey (123 respondents), a risk management model was developed and six original risk management areas were identified, describing 73.92% of all risk factors that may occur during the implementation of an IT project. Furthermore, empirical studies confirm that basic processes such as risk factor identification, impact assessment, and key risk factor management are used by managers and/or team leaders during the implementation of IT projects.
... 2) High-level initial planning: The initial project plan involves outlining the main project results and an overview of project deliverables, without providing many details as to what activities should be undertaken throughout the project (APA_38= YES); 3) High-level scope statement: The content of the scope statement includes the preconditions or rules on how to act with respect to project changes, providing a "direction" for product/software/service development rather than details (APA_40= YES); 4) Resource estimation based on product complexity and innovation: The number of project team members required to perform the work is identified based on product complexity and innovation (APA_44= YES); 5) High communication with stakeholders: The meeting frequency between the project team and other stakeholders to discuss project-related topics (e.g., progress, issues, ideas) is high (e.g., daily, weekly; APA_45= YES). Hybrid [34], [35], [67], [68] High-level initial planning Agile [65], [66], [69] High-level scope statement Agile [70], [71] Hybrid [34] Resource estimation based on product complexity and innovation Agile [65], [66], [71] High communication with stakeholders Waterfall [72] Agile [70] Hybrid [4] Regarding scope, a high level of initial planning and the use of a scope statement are recommended. For resource estimation, it is recommended that this be based on product complexity and innovation. ...
... 2) High-level initial planning: The initial project plan involves outlining the main project results and an overview of project deliverables, without providing many details as to what activities should be undertaken throughout the project (APA_38= YES); 3) High-level scope statement: The content of the scope statement includes the preconditions or rules on how to act with respect to project changes, providing a "direction" for product/software/service development rather than details (APA_40= YES); 4) Resource estimation based on product complexity and innovation: The number of project team members required to perform the work is identified based on product complexity and innovation (APA_44= YES); 5) High communication with stakeholders: The meeting frequency between the project team and other stakeholders to discuss project-related topics (e.g., progress, issues, ideas) is high (e.g., daily, weekly; APA_45= YES). Hybrid [34], [35], [67], [68] High-level initial planning Agile [65], [66], [69] High-level scope statement Agile [70], [71] Hybrid [34] Resource estimation based on product complexity and innovation Agile [65], [66], [71] High communication with stakeholders Waterfall [72] Agile [70] Hybrid [4] Regarding scope, a high level of initial planning and the use of a scope statement are recommended. For resource estimation, it is recommended that this be based on product complexity and innovation. ...
... Scenario 2 presents an environment with near and accessible clients, high executive support, a team comprising professionals with multiple skills, a small project team, a client and project team that are geographically close, and a team that is totally dedicated to the project, has autonomy in decision-making, and that constantly absorbs changes throughout the project. This environment is in line with agile project management [70], [71]. According to the results, the practices that could allow the projects to achieve a high level of agility in this environment are indicated below (TABLE VII). ...
Article
Dealing with an uncertain and dynamic environment when facing multiple and fast-paced challenges forces professionals to adopt agile practices in different environments, resulting in the use of hybrid project management models. However, identifying the right practice to adopt can be challenging, given the variety of project types and environmental factors. In this article, a recommendation method that would allow for the identification of patterns of project management practices for different environments—using an agility indicator—is proposed. The proposed method is tested with a dataset of 856 projects. A cluster analysis is applied to divide the projects into three groups according to environmental characteristics, called scenarios: waterfall, agile, and hybrid. Then, we apply the association rule technique for each group separately, identifying specific patterns of practice for each group. Through a comparative analysis, we verify the consistency between the recommendations of the proposed method for each scenario and the literature on project management. The results indicate the feasibility of the proposed method, thus opening up new research opportunities for hybrid models that can be customized for different projects. This article can help project management professionals apply the agile method beyond its use in software development and improve the process of combining project management practices. We also suggest directions for new research to advance the knowledge of useful decision support tools for hybrid model customization.
... According to the Agile Manifesto (2001), during software development, an adaptable quick plan is more effective and can respond flexibly to changes in requirements than the up-front detailed project plan with heavy documentation. It is critical to comprehend both the system functionality and the system architecture that will be employed (Highsmith, 2009). Highsmith (2009 explains that agility should strike a balance between flexibility, thorough documentation, structure, and some upfront planning. ...
... ding to the Agile Manifesto (2001), during software development, an adaptable quick plan is more effective and can respond flexibly to changes in requirements than the up-front detailed project plan with heavy documentation. It is critical to comprehend both the system functionality and the system architecture that will be employed (Highsmith, 2009). Highsmith (2009 explains that agility should strike a balance between flexibility, thorough documentation, structure, and some upfront planning. However, in GDAD, a certain level of architectural planning is required to ensure that distributed teams are aligning on the business goals (Batra et al., 2010;Leffingwell, 2007). The enormous architecture mus ...
... However, in GDAD, a certain level of architectural planning is required to ensure that distributed teams are aligning on the business goals (Batra et al., 2010;Leffingwell, 2007). The enormous architecture must be split down into smaller sections in GDAD projects so that they may be constructed and evaluated progressively (Highsmith, 2009;Sauer, 2006). Moreover, while agile development promotes a self-organized team, not like collocated teams, GDAD may require a level of control in order to keep all distributed teams on track, especially if the GDAD project includes many distributed teams (Dreesen et al., 2020;Highsmith, 2009). ...
Article
A potential solution to the high failure rate in distributed agile development and enhance the success of projects is through implementing agile enterprise architecture, though the success is still to be established. The present paper empirically investigates the gap, by defining the role and commitment of implementing agile enterprise architecture on distributed agile development. The data were collected by interviewing 12 key team members and observing four team meetings over 2 months and analyzing using thematic analysis. The present study suggests that implementing agile enterprise architecture is possible in distributed agile development and may have a positive impact on project success. However, many questions demand further investigation.
... This is called Agile Management of Projects (APM). Practices, values, and a conceptual framework form the basis of APM [7]. Agile can be used to create a hybrid solution with other methodologies. ...
... Continuous innovation, product adaptability, reducing time-to-market, and adapting to unavoidable change are examples. The capabilities of APM for any working environment are all influenced by their adaptability to people and processes as well as their quality and reliability [7]. APM is thus a methodology for project management to be implemented if a company or organization wants to be as agile as possible. ...
... The culture and strategy of the company are of fundamental value, and variables such as the nature of the problem to be addressed must be considered. The organization, the staff and the world outlook of the leader are all key issues [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There have been a few studies that have adequately compared the advantages and disadvantages of various types of agile techniques. This research study develops a conceptual model that enables top management team members, software developers, project managers, and researchers to gain insight and understanding of agile techniques and methods. Those involved in the project want to successfully complete projects on time and within budget while maintaining high quality standards and operating in a safe and environmentally conscious manner They also want to minimize the negative impact on the environment. When it comes to project execution, however, there are numerous constraints and risks that limit their ability to begin or progress operations, and which frequently have a significant negative impact on the overall performance of the project. After reviewing the literature, it was discovered that the Agile method is capable of accurately representing most factors. It is based on the findings of this research that this paper presents a conceptual model for the effect of agile project management on project performance in terms of timeliness, cost, and quality. factors are unpredictable and can have consequences that are difficult to undo without incurring significant costs in the process. As a result, it is more critical than ever to investigate their impact on project outcomes. The ability of countries to manage risks, control expenditures, exploit and benefit from opportunities is dependent on their ability to comprehend the impact of Agile methods on their respective organizations and cultures.
... The question is, "How can a project leader embrace all these requirements in a rapidly changing project environment?" Studies on agile project management have gained momentum over the years (Highsmith, 2009;Bergmann & Karwowski, 2018;Loiro et al., 2019). Some of these studies have had a particular focus on the challenges and impact of agility on specific non -software development projects, including Information Technology (IT) projects (Azanha et al., 2017), construction projects (Truong & Jitbaipoon, 2016;Albuquerque et al., 2020), transportation infrastructure projects (Safapour et al., 2020), and academic writing projects (Eschenbach et al., 2015). ...
... Various other researchers have profiled elements such as application of appropriate project leadership styles (De Poel et al., 2014;Yang et al., 2011); dynamic project team leadership (De Poel et al., 2014;Hoda & Murugesan, 2016;Natvig & Stark, 2016); stress and conflict management (Berg & Karlsen, 2013;Du Plessis, 2014;Moradi et al., 2020); and the management of organizational dynamics and politics (Bruch & Ghoshal, 2003;Ferris et al., 1999;Martin et al., 2005;Highsmith, 2009;Abbasi & Ruf, 2020). ...
... A recent review of the agility construct by Conforto et al. (2016) unpacked some gaps in the theory, and the authors noted that agility should combine "rapid project planning change and active customer involvement" and that "agility has different intensities and depends on multiple organization factors". The customer involvement variable, which is aimed at prioritizing customer satisfaction early and continuous project delivery, comes as an addition to the other three determinants of agile project leadership, i.e. technology project leadership, people and process adaptability, as well as reliable results, as proffered by preceding studies (Fernandez & Fernandez, 2008;Highsmith, 2009;Owen & Koskela, 2006). As the "customer involvement" phenomenon is revisited, a study by Najafi -Tavani et al., (2020) echoed the need for relationship learning and customer involvement in new product development projects. ...
Chapter
The agile revolution and increasing cross-functionality nature of project teams imply an increasing need for effective and results-orientated project leadership. Irrespective of one's role in a project, there is a need for self-examination and self-reflection regarding how members relate during the various phases of project implementation. This chapter focuses on a theoretical review of the various elements necessary for effective agile project leadership. Through a synthesis of both old and more recent literature, the chapter identifies and conceptualizes ten determinant factors of effective agile project leadership and proposes a self-reflection framework for each of the ten project leadership competency areas. The chapter concludes by proposing a personal agile project leadership development plan (PAPLDP) template with an agility component that can be adopted for improvement and growth. This chapter challenges project managers and/or project team leaders to define their own value-based leadership competence and continuously reflect, evaluate, and improve themselves.
... Agile practices recently received significant attention in the literature on project management [1], [2], [3], especially because they allow firms to flexibly react to environmental changes and reduce overall time-to-market [4], [5]. Agile practices are usually conducted by small, autonomous project teams [6] that work in iterative planning and execution cycles and regularly present minimum viable products [2]. ...
... For example, Scrum's daily stand-up meetings, retrospectives, and backlog meetings enable fast and iterative planning, leading to frequent information exchange between team members [13], [15]. These routines force team members to work together intensively [4], [5], [69]. ...
Article
Agile practices present one approach for firms to adapt to an increasingly dynamic and competitive environment. Although prior studies have investigated performance outcomes of agile projects, agile practices’ consequences on a project team's collaborative processes have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. It also remains unclear whether practices on a higher organizational level, such as project portfolio management (PPM), support or constrain agile practices’ benefits, especially if a firm simultaneously conducts traditionally managed and agile projects. Therefore, this article investigates the role of agile practices for a project's teamwork quality (TWQ) and project success and examines the influence of organizational contingencies. Specifically, we conceptually and empirically analyze the moderating impact of PPM practices on the relationship between agile practices, TWQ, and project success. A multi-informant analysis of 378 projects nested in 100 portfolios shows that agile practices positively relate to project success through TWQ. We find that traditional PPM practices such as business case existence, strategic clarity, and operational control constrain this relationship. Our article contributes to the literature on project teams and portfolio management by providing empirical insights on the interaction between project and portfolio management practices.
... Agile methods ensures that changing user requirements and changes are continually accommodated (Bonner et al. 2010). This is achieved through an iterative, incremental development process that involves active commitment from clients (Cockburn 2001;Highsmith 2009;Martin 2002) since feedback and communication are key elements of an evolutionary development process (Boehm and Turner 2005;Highsmith 2009;Highsmith and Highsmith 2002). Finishing the tasks quickly is one of the benefits established here (Sect. ...
... Agile methods ensures that changing user requirements and changes are continually accommodated (Bonner et al. 2010). This is achieved through an iterative, incremental development process that involves active commitment from clients (Cockburn 2001;Highsmith 2009;Martin 2002) since feedback and communication are key elements of an evolutionary development process (Boehm and Turner 2005;Highsmith 2009;Highsmith and Highsmith 2002). Finishing the tasks quickly is one of the benefits established here (Sect. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides empirical evidence to the body of knowledge in Agile methods adoption in small, medium and large organizations in international context. This research explores the factors involved in the adoption of Agile methods in software development organizations. A survey was conducted among Agile professionals to gather survey data from 52 software organizations in seven countries across the world. Statistical techniques are applied towards empirical assessment. Organizational culture, team structure and management support are found to be crucial success factors whereas lack of management support, a large organization size and traditional organizational culture are found to be detrimental for the adoption of Agile approach in an organization. The selection of an appropriate Agile method depends on the project size and, for each size, there are specific methods preferred by different enterprises. Providing better control over the work is viewed as the primary advantage of the Agile methods within large and small organizations, while for the medium-size organizations, the priority is switched to coping with changing user requirements. Majority of the respondents did not consider embracing agile methods as a reason for project failure which indicates that Agile methods are, indeed, beneficial.
... According to Highsmith [2], agile management can be explained as a flexible and stable ability to respond the change in a turbulent business environment. Augustine [3] indicates that APM is a way of working by constantly learning and adapting to changes according to customer needs and business environment, thus, the project team can deliver business value quickly and confidently. ...
... (4) Responding to change over following a plan It questions the traditional PM techniques with the limitation of the inflexibility towards dynamic environment and uncertainties. According to Highsmith [2], six principles are provided for APM to solve the uncertainties and constant business changes: ...
... The input-processoutcome [IPO] model of team effectiveness argues that the structure of teams-i.e., how they are composed, the nature of their work, and the way decision making is handled-is an important precursor to the execution of team processes, which in turn yield specific team outcomes (Cohen et al. 1997;Ilgen et al. 2005). Within an agile environment, self-organization may shed some light on the structure of agile teams to facilitate exploration and exploitation (Highsmith 2004;Hoda et al. 2013). In fact, selforganization has been portrayed as a hallmark of the agile method, and both Scrum (Schwaber et al. 2005) and eXtreme Programming (XP) (Beck et al. 2004) suggest such a structure when teams create software outputs. ...
... In their study of agile ISD teams, Lee and Xia (2010) proposed the concept of team diversity "as important principles for improving software development agility" (p.90). Indeed, the IS literature indicates that team diversity stimulates the formation of self-organizing teams in agile ISD projects (Highsmith 2004;Lee et al. 2010). One explanation for this relationship is that the diverse teams are self-motivated because they experience their work assignments as meaningful (Hackman 1986). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Agile information system development (ISD) teams face the ongoing challenge of balancing exploration and exploitation so as to be innovative while also achieving improvements in performance. Prior research has suggested that the self-organizing nature of agile ISD teams may contribute to the execution of these ideals. Yet, the literature is silent on what comprehensively constitutes a self-organizing agile ISD team and how characteristics of a self-organizing agile ISD team contribute to exploration and exploitation. This study draws on the body of research in ISD and management to identify characteristics of these teams. Using these characteristics, we then theorize how they facilitate exploration and exploitation. This research–in–progress paper contributes first by providing a more complete understanding of the structure of selforganizing teams. Second, it theoretically links self-organization to exploration and exploitation at a granular level.
... This evolution is studied by Sanchez et al. [5], and these authors refer to some projects that streamlined the traditional PM, and transitioned to a new agile approach, namely agile project management (APM). This is studied by Špundak et al. [11] and Highsmith et al. [12], who point out that agility is the word that differentiates APM from traditional PM. In fact, agility deals with constant innovation, product adaption, shortening delivery times, adjustment of processes and people, quality, and reliable results. ...
... Regarding the 'Companies' degree of change', the best approach to take is adopting APM, since it focuses on agility, adaptation, response to unpredictable changes, continuous improvement, and innovation [11,12]. A recent study by Bottani [55] concludes that the introduction of agile management in companies has a very small number of enablers, and that they vary markedly between different types of industries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Projects have grown into more dynamic and complex endeavors, and agile project management should be considered as a way to deal with them. This is a novel study in this field, because the implementation of agile project management in the automotive industry was not explored so far, thus, this work intended to fill this gap, by identifying barriers in the implementation of agile methodologies in project management regarding the automotive industry. This was conducted through a questionnaire survey, which was developed and distributed to 148 manufacturing companies of components for the automotive industry, out of a total number of companies of 240, and 56 complete answers were obtained (23.33%). Statistical analyses were performed using a Kruskal-Wallis test, a Mann-Whitney test, and Spearmen's correlation. A real picture of the implementation of agile project management in the Portuguese automotive industry is depicted through this work. 'Organizational', 'Knowledge and Technology', 'Institutional', and 'Financial' barriers are found to be the most important. However, in overcoming these barriers, companies can be more sustainable in economic, environmental, and social terms. Recommendations on how to overcome these barriers were presented, and a framework sequencing these recommendations was presented, leading to an effective implementation of agile methodologies. It starts with the willingness of the company, and all collaborators, to adopt the agile methodologies, looking for the agile values as an input in order to achieve a competitive advantage. It is followed by an initial investment, which intends to attain the deployment of an agile team, composed of highly skilled collaborators with a clear understanding of the agile objectives, who disseminate knowledge about agile methodologies to the other collaborators, increasing their ability to implement agile methodologies in project management. This team should work and develop frameworks and workflows, according to each company's characteristics and environment. The studied aspects can be replicated in other countries, and allow a comparison of the situation between countries, trying to correlate the culture of each country with the ability to implement agile methodologies, among other aspects, such as economical level of the companies, type of production, and the commitment of the collaborators to improve processes and create competitive advantages with which to face competitors.
... Adherence or compliance to such practices has been considered a reasonable assurance for minimizing project risks and managing project uncertainties. However, the unarticulated expectations from the multi-project stakeholders, especially the high-demanding project customers, have signaled a massive shift from a predictive (plan-driven) to an innovative (creativity-driven) approach to project management (Highsmith, 2009;Rincon, 2010;de Melo et al., 2021). Hence, the recent edition of PMBOK (PMBOK R Guide-Sixth Edition, 2017) has introduced for the first time the agile project management practices alongside traditional approaches. ...
... Innovation provides firms with the highest level of value creation in their project portfolios (Highsmith, 2009;Barbosa et al., 2021), while project leaders have a significant role in introducing management innovation (Volberda et al., 2013). This study underscored the definition of project management innovation which refers to "new knowledge" applications in managing projects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Project managers seem to be puzzled in resolving the global dilemma of project failures across industries. Hence, the present study introduces project management innovation (PMI) as a determinant of project success (PS) and explores whether project governance (PG) and high-performance work practices (HPWPs), strengthen this relationship. To confirm these propositions, study data using adapted scales were collected from project professionals representing software development companies in the emerging IT industry in Pakistan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to examine the hypothesized relationships and encourage PMI-guided solutions for project failures. SEM results statistically validated that project success is positively influenced by PMI, whereas this relationship is significantly strengthened through the moderating influence of PG and HPWPs, respectively. Theoretically, the present research is the first of its kind to introduce and empirically examine these untested relationships between PMI, PG, HPWPs, and PS in a single framework. These novel findings hold strategic value for both project managers and organizational leaders who oversee a range of project portfolios. Long-lasting advantages and superior achievements can be reinvigorated through PMI, after departure from traditional approaches and answering calls for new solutions to new problems in managing projects. Moreover, project governance and HPWPs should be reconfigured to oversee, as well as meet the special needs of each unique project.
... Agile practices recently received significant attention in the literature on project management [1], [2], [3], especially because they allow firms to flexibly react to environmental changes and reduce overall time-to-market [4], [5]. Agile practices are usually conducted by small, autonomous project teams [6] that work in iterative planning and execution cycles and regularly present minimum viable products [2]. ...
... For example, Scrum's daily stand-up meetings, retrospectives, and backlog meetings enable fast and iterative planning, leading to frequent information exchange between team members [13], [15]. These routines force team members to work together intensively [4], [5], [69]. ...
Article
Seit über 15 Jahren untersucht das Forschungsteam MPM im Rahmen der MPM-Benchmarking-Studien Erfolgsfaktoren und Best Practices im Multiprojektmanagement (MPM). Fokus der 9. MPM-Studie 2020 mit über 120 Unternehmen war die Fragestellung, wie Unternehmen ihr Projektportfolio effektiv an Veränderungen anpassen und langfristig erfolgreich ausrichten können. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Triple-A PPM – die integrierte Verbindung agiler, adaptiver und ambidexterer Fähigkeiten – auf strategischer, kultureller und prozessualer Ebene eine nachhaltig erfolgreiche Ausrichtung ermöglicht. Dies beinhaltet eine regelmäßige Strategieüberprüfung, Mitarbeiterstärkung und effiziente Entscheidungsprozesse – organisationale Kompetenzen, die durch Promotoren gefördert werden. Klassische Erfolgsfaktoren, wie die Einzelprojektreife, Strategieklarheit und Prozessformalisierung, bleiben weiterhin wichtig und bilden die Basis für ein erfolgreiches Portfolio.
... Traditional methodologies have been replaced by modern methodologies in today's software development processes 15 . Agile methodologies pay special attention to quality because the ultimate purpose is to deliver high quality software to the end-user 16 . Research over the past decade has shown that organizations which develop software need to regulate agile approaches according to their requirements. ...
Article
Although Scrum is one of the most preferred agile development frameworks that guide the development process, measuring sprint productivity is still challenging. In fact, it is hard to provide a continuous measurement during consecutive Scrum sprints, especially selecting the optimal metrics that fit better for real industrial applications. To bridge this gap, we conducted an industrial case study within the TÜBİTAK SAGE software development group to demonstrate the performance and applicability of a systematic selection process for fitting add-on components using various scrum metrics tools. Next, we analyzed the combination of software developers' preferences of process metrics concerning their characteristics and their defense industry compatibility. Consequently, we assessed the metrics that might likely integrate into the Scrum development using the analytic hierarchy process. The results indicated that the Actionable Agile Add-on scored the highest, followed by the Screenful Add-on. Ultimately, this contemporary study presented a novel approach that has increased individuals' participation in metric planning, implementation, and monitoring, therefore moving towards more achievable software development goals.
... ). In addition, by working closely with customers, there is an opportunity for them to clarify the initial requirements and participate in the development process, try solutions and provide feedback after each iteration which reduces the feedback cycle between the generation of the idea and its realization and the chance of misinterpreted but implemented user requirements, help to keep focus on the part of the system that is most valuable to them at that moment, as well as ensure that the final product meets their expectations (Fustik, 2017; Robson, 2013;Highsmith, 2009). Also, if agility is truly implemented in project teams, they become much more flexible and move towards higher value business goals by embedding change in each iteration (Highsmith, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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The omnipresence of small and medium-sized enterprises at the international level has aroused the interest of several research authors to study to what extent these small structures influence and affect the economies at the national level of each country on different levels. On the economic level, the issue of small and medium-sized enterprises is often highlighted in relation to their ability to create stable and permanent jobs. Also, these companies are analyzed in times of crisis and volatility in order to test their resilience. Faced with these multiples analyzes and different readings, we propose to review, in a general and progressive manner, the main themes and facets related to the study of the role of SMEs in the light of recent developments following the publications of international organizations responsible for economic and works of certain academic authors. Keywords: Small and medium-sized enterprises, Role of SMEs, SMEs challenges, National economies. Full text at: https://www.esd-conference.com/upload/book_of_proceedings/Book_of_Proceedings_esdTangier2022_Online.pdf
... O conceito de equipes autogeridas foi incorporado em projetos ágeis e ficou conhecido como um dos elementos centrais no Manifesto Ágil de Software em 2001 (AMARAL et al., 2011). De acordo com o Manifesto Ágil, as melhores arquiteturas, requisitos e designs emergem de equipes auto-organizáveis (HIGHSMITH;FOWLER, 2001). ...
... Aunque ya se ha indicado que las prácticas de innovación ágil han estado casi todo este tiempo circunscritas a la industria del software, se cuenta ya con experiencias de productos tangibles en empresas manufactureras (Lego, General Electric, Adidas…) y de servicios (Telefónica, BBVA, Endesa…), las cuales han incorporado metodologías agiles a sus tradicionales procesos estructurados por etapas (idea-diseño-preproducción-lanzamiento) para el desarrollo de nuevos productos. En general, las metodologías ágiles son ideales en proyectos que exhiben una alta variabilidad de tareas (normalmente porque los requerimientos también son cambiantes) que necesitan de capacidades humanas y tecnológicas diversas (Highsmith, 2009). En este ámbito todas las combinaciones son a priori posibles; por ejemplo, pueden utilizarse los sprints en las primeras fases del proceso de innovación para obtener diseños factibles o pueden emplearse al final del proceso estructurado por etapas para obtener feedback de los clientes durante el prelanzamiento y hacer adaptaciones de última hora (Lichtenthaler, 2020). ...
Chapter
El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar en qué forma las capacidades dinámicas de agilidad que están adoptando algunas empresas pueden conformar organizaciones agiles y modificar su gobernanza. El desarrollo de este trabajo se basa primero en una revisión de la literatura, apartado 2, que incluye aportaciones de los propios autores sobre la agilidad en las organizaciones y, en segundo lugar, apartado 3, en un estudio de aquellas aportaciones que el profesor Vicente Salas ha realizado sobre las cuestiones de gobernanza en las empresas innovadoras y basadas en el conocimiento que pueden ser de utilidad para el devenir de las organizaciones ágiles.
... The advent of the Agile Software Development Manifesto 1 brought about improvements within the software development culture. Essentially, the Manifesto outlines a new perspective on software development that focuses on mobility, flexibility, soft skills and the potential in a short time to deliver new highvalue products and services to the market [9]. ...
Article
Gaining insight into what students experience in a course in software engineering is essential to the continuous development of the course design. The growing use of agile approaches in professional settings has facilitated their introduction into training and undergraduate courses in software engineering. This paper reports a case study of student participation in a course project by using a previously presented training model. We aimed to assess how students felt with the training model when conducting the 5 Scrum events: Sprint Planning, Daily Meeting, Sprint, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective. To achieve our goal, we applied a 22-item survey to 31 undergraduate students to gather students’ opinions. Results showed that most students had a positive opinion about team communication, the position of Scrum Master, Sprint goals definition, and guidance using meetings as a means of checkpoints.
... To help, there are numerous project management methodologies and guides on the market. Some o them are PMBOK [1], PRINCE2 [2] [3], APM [4], ISO 21500 [5], SCRUM [6] [7], KANBAN [8], CRISP-DM [9] [10]. The correct management of projects looks for the conclusion in time and with the desired quality [11]. ...
Chapter
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Metrics allow the evaluation of project management methodologies. They can identify aspects related to the quality of the results and the economy of resources. This chapter introduces a proposal for metrics to assess the performance in the use of project management methodologies and the first results on a small number of use cases. From bibliographic sources, a set of new metrics are defined to include those evaluations that up to now are subjective or nonexistent. As part of the scope, a detailed presentation of some of the metrics and their application to a case study, along with some statistics, are included. The applicability of the proposal to real cases is also analyzed. The full derivation of the metrics, the complete listing, and the functional prototype that is being used to apply them are not part of the scope.
... Finally, emergent complexity, characterized by elements of novelty, uncertainty, and lack of experience, can be addressed with flexibility. Examples of flexibility include agile project management and working with SCRUM [22]. Maylor & Turner also note that other coordination responses can be used to address complexities [1]. ...
Conference Paper
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Large-scale inter-organizational transportation projects play a critical role in the design and development of existing and new railway networks. However, in the past, inter-organizational projects have shown shortcomings in effective decision-making and system integration due to an unilateral use of coordination mechanisms. The goal of this work is to provide an operationalization of the complexity-response framework for the Dutch railway project context, thereby extending the coordination mechanisms currently considered. To that end, we conducted design science research to operationalize the complexity-response framework based on an analysis of the specific inter-organization railway context, and evaluate its validity by means of follow-up discussions with project members. The operationalization of the framework can be used to capture and evaluate the coordination mechanisms employed, and identify potential matching coordination responses to the assessed railway system project complexities at the outset of the project. Further research is needed to assess the fit between the coordination responses applied and those proposed.
... Moreover, they revealed that the software development industry has been developing agile project management approaches since the early 1990s, focusing on tight client participation and frequent involvement in rapid product iterations and continuous feedback. From the various agile project management approaches, the approach that is primarily used is Scrum, according to J. A. Highsmith (2004). In Scrum, the collaboration with the client done directly is allowed with the autonomous cross-functional teams of provider firms. ...
Article
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Agile and Integrated Business Solutions (Henceforth IBSs) have existed for years, and the primitive state indicates their evolution. In Peru, Innovative manufacturers employed IBSs and agile to cofound goods and services to solve various business difficulties and participate more successfully in their respective fields. However, the usefulness and benefits of IBSs and agile have declined due to the tight project management style used. This study proposes a method dealing with a concept for Peruvian manufacturers. The conceptual method to adjust new income sources in making good consumer partnerships by using the methodology of an agile project taking into account the iterative and interactive nature of IBS development. This study revealed that typical project management as a delivery strategy for IBSs is ineffective. Its Webology (ISSN: 1735-188X) Volume 18, Number 4, 2021 212 http://www.webology.org customer-centred and iterative philosophy presents an alternate option in using an agile project management strategy. This study shows how the agile process known as Scrum works better with innovative IBS development and presents a conceptual description. This finding contributes to the corpus of knowledge about agile's application possibility in Peru.
... Compared to SGPM, which relies on robust long-term planning of project activities [29], APM follows the idea that prototypes and intermediate outputs are needed as soon as possible to collect feedback from the main project stakeholders, particularly the customers [5]. The inputs received about the working product are used to appropriately execute and eventually adjust subsequent iterations, arriving at a final output that best incorporates and requirements [30]. ...
Article
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The cultural component of the project team is recognized as one of the most critical factors in the implementation of agile project management (APM), especially in nonsoftware industries, where the diffusion of APM still involves several challenges. Particularly, the successful implementation of scrum—the most diffused APM methodology—seems related to the project teams’ subculture, which may differ from the overall organizational culture of the company. This article contributes to the APM literature in nonsoftware contexts by studying the cultural values that develop inside agile teams and the scrum principles and practices that are particularly relevant for fostering these values. Using interview data collected from seven manufacturing and service organizations, we use the competing value framework as the theoretical model to understand the cultural profiles of their organizations, how they deploy into the project teams’ subculture, and what, if any, connections exist with the adoption of scrum principles and practices. We find that clan and market values are the dominant subcultures in agile teams. These cultural values are fostered at a strategic level by a subset of scrum values (i.e., courage, openness, and respect) and pillars (i.e., transparency and adaptation). At an operational level, retrospective meetings and the definition of particular artifacts also contribute to develop these dominant cultural values.
... Based on four values and twelve principles, the Agile Manifesto aims to optimise the software development process and team collaboration. Since the focus is on developing customer value, many AMPs have been designed that can also be applied in other, non-ITrelated areas [54,55]. The practices are linked to one method, but can also be used partly in combination with other methods (see Table 1). ...
Article
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Background: The logistics industry has seen the emergence of many startups in recent years. Many of these logistics startups use new technologies to develop disruptive products, services or platforms that are based on software. This paper presents the results of a Delphi study and a survey that were consolidated in a framework. The purpose is to understand the benefits that logistics startups derive from using agile methods, the difficulties they face in using these methods and the evolution of logistics startups in terms of using agile methods. Methods: A Delphi study with 29 experts and a global survey with 95 participants was conducted to look at the implementation of agile methods. The largest group of participants were members of (top) management, agile coaches and team leaders. Results: The framework consolidates gathered data to demonstrate how logistics startups apply agile methods and practices based on the results of the Delphi study and the survey, and how the usage of agile methods changes over the age of logistics startups. The results indicate that younger logistics startups use agile methods predominantly to design product features and maximise customer value, whereas logistics startups older than five years focus more on the optimisation of internal processes. Conclusions: The value of the present study lies in its contribution to the hitherto hardly examined research field of agility in logistics startups and the notable views of the experienced participants.
... Existem os sprints que compõem o conjunto de tarefas. Já o desenvolvimento do backlog do produto aborda o conjunto de tarefas pendentes do projeto(Highsmith, 2009;Schwaber & Sutherland, 2013). Albino, Souza e Prado (2014) informam que, em um projeto complexo, a concepção da imprevisibilidade resulta com que ele seja entendido como de configuração aberta, sendo admissível conservar a competência de adicionar valor ao longo dos diversos sprints até a sua entrega final.Outra ferramenta importante da metodologia ágil é o uso de minimun viable product (MVP -Mínimo Produto Viável). ...
Article
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Resumo O objetivo do estudo de caso foi entender quais metodologias ágeis são utilizadas para a validação de entregáveis e posterior priorização de escopo, bem como atuar em oportunidades de melhoria nestas tomadas de decisão em uma startup Edtech. Para alcançar os resultados deste estudo, foi realizada pesquisa quantitativa com os funcionários do time de tecnologia da empresa. Os resultados indicam que há oportunidades de envolver e engajar mais os times, principalmente os relacionados à gestão de dados, gerando mais valor para o usuário do produto, além de melhor aplicação do ágil, validações com os usuários e inovação. Palavras-chave: Metodologia ágil. Scrum. Validação de entregas. Abstract The purpose of the study is to understand the validation of deliverables and subsequent prioritization of scope, as well as acting on opportunities for improvement in these decisions making processes using agile methods in an Edtech startup. To achieve the results, we conducted a quantitative survey with the employees of the company's technology team. The results indicate that there are opportunities to involve and engage teams more, especially those related to data management, generating more value for the product user, in addition to better application of agile, validations with users and innovation.
... Maylor and Turner (2017) subsequently updated the Geraldi et al. (2011) literature review and showed (see Table 1) an underlying set of responses based on the CAT. They posited that Meredith and Mantel, 2015;PMI, 2017), socio-political complexities via a focus on relationship-building with key stakeholders (Park and Lee, 2014), and emergent complexities by enabling flexibility, including agile techniques (Dybå and Dingsøyr, 2008;Highsmith, 2009). Some complexities cannot be solved or alleviated, and these must be 'lived with'. ...
Article
Navigating complexity remains one of the key pragmatic challenges that call for temporal organizing as a response. Whilst project-based organizing is established as an approach integral to temporal organizing we still know little about the lived experiences of project managers as they enact it through the judgements guiding their action choices. We present findings from a qualitative study investigating the lived experience of 43 project managers from key sectors in countries around the globe. We show how project managers embody and not only enact the dynamics of temporary organizing in the ways they navigate project complexities and form their judgements on an ongoing basis. This process of practising is marked by leaps of faith that can mark new measures of project success beyond the traditional parameters of project completion, namely time and budget. This paper makes a compelling case for a new school of thought in advancing temporal organizing that we will call the ‘Practising School’, which informs our understanding of the dynamics of project-based organizing and offers insights into how practitioners navigate the ongoing project complexities inherent in project-based organizing. We pave the way for advancing a practice-based perspective for studying projectification and extend current conceptualizations of temporal organizing.
... The agile method achieves a close ISD team-customer partnership through the role of CRs-a concept known in Scrum as product owner and in XP as on-site customer (Wang et al. 2012). 2 Drawing on prior research (Beck and Andres 2004;Koskela and Abrahamsson 2004;Martin et al. 2004;Matook and Maruping 2014), we offer the following definition of CRs: In agile ISD, a CR is an individual from the customer sphere (e.g., department or company) who closely collaborates with the ISD team by providing requirements and other development-relevant information, and has decision-making authority over requirements regarding approval and change requests. The CR can be a real user who uses the software once it is implemented (Beck and Andres 2004) or a proxy for end-users when they are external to the organization (Highsmith 2004). In the case of in-house ISD projects, the CR can be a representative from the user community, a product manager, or product champion with domain expertise from the department that requested the software (Mohammadi et al. 2008). ...
Article
It is well acknowledged that close collaboration with the customer serves as the lynchpin to ensuring that agile information systems development (ISD) teams produce the right software within mutually agreed targets. In several agile ISD methods, this emphasis on close collaboration is enacted through the role of a designated customer representative (CR). The agile ISD literature has recognized the behaviors in this role to be inherently complementary and contradicting in nature, presenting a challenge to whoever occupies the role and hampering their ability to add value to the project. How do CRs manage these challenges and why do they do so in a particular manner? Unfortunately, there has been little theory to answer these questions. In this research, we explore and theorize about this phenomenon by leveraging role multiplexity as a theoretical lens in making sense of the behavior of CRs in agile ISD. Results suggest that the CR role is multiplex, exhibiting multiple manifestations with different orientations. We develop a theoretical model that articulates the instan-tiation of these role manifestations and the mechanisms that enable the CR role to remain intact while managing these challenges. The theoretical model highlights the CR role in agile ISD as being dynamic and multi-oriented.
... The Agile Manifesto is comprised of four values and twelve principles with the goal of optimizing the software development process and collaboration with and within teams. Focusing on the development of customer value, many agile methods and practices that can also be applied in other non-IT related domains [56], [57] have been developed as well (see Table I). Practices are associated with one method, but can also be partially applied in combination with other methods. ...
Preprint
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An increasing number of companies and start-ups aims to enhance their agility through the use of agile methods and practices in order to cope with raising product development and project complexity and quickly changing requirements [1]-[3]. Especially in the logistics industry, which is known as a slow adapter to changes in general but regarding new innovations in particular [4]-[6], it is relevant to see how these companies cope with change. Opposed to that, logistics start-ups seem to be able to create customer value with disruptive products and services. This paper aims to capture the current state of the literature related to the use of agile methods and practices in established logistics companies and logistics start-ups. Of particular interest will be analyzing which methods and practices are used, what specific challenges established logistics companies and logistics start-ups aim to solve with these agile methods and practices, and the difficulties they face in doing so. A systematic literature review (SLR) with an extensive quality assessment of the included nine studies was conducted. After the analysis, insights on the following points were derived: use of agile methods and practices, the challenges that are solved with these methods and practices, and difficulties in the application of these methods and practices. Future research should deepen these findings with, for instance, qualitative data from real-life cases of logistics companies and start-ups. The originality of the SLR presented lies in its contribution to the largely unexplored field of agility in traditional logistics companies and logistics start-ups, as well as its assessment of the state-of-the-art literature analyzed.
... The deployment of an AI/ML Product reproduces the experimental design with additional requirements related to the quality assurance of the produced insight. The development of these DataOps and MLOps solutions follow the Agile methodology [25,31]. Since the solution architectures for MLOps are getting more established, there is a trend to build reusable elements with so-called design patterns [32]. ...
Preprint
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This framework enables C suite executive leaders to define a business plan and manage technological dependencies for building AI/ML Solutions. The business plan of this framework provides components and background information to define strategy and analyze cost. Furthermore, the business plan represents the fundamentals of AI/ML Innovation and AI/ML Solutions. Therefore, the framework provides a menu for managing and investing in AI/ML. Finally, this framework is constructed with an interdisciplinary and holistic view of AI/ML Innovation and builds on advances in business strategy in harmony with technological progress for AI/ML. This framework incorporates value chain, supply chain, and ecosystem strategies.
... In team formation, selforganization usually describes the behavior of individuals as they form groups and collaborate autonomously and without pre-defined leadership. In software development, the term selforganization typically indicates the distribution of workload among teammates who flexibly shift responsibilities and partake in decision-making (Highsmith, 2009). Self-organized teams are known to benefit from transferable authority (Moe and Dingsøyr, 2008), as well as from robust and adaptable collaborative networks (Marzo Serugendo et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Modern crowdsourcing offers the potential to produce solutions for increasingly complex tasks requiring teamwork and collective labor. However, the vast scale of the crowd makes forming project teams an intractable problem to coordinate manually. To date, most crowdsourcing collaborative platforms rely on algorithms to automate team formation based on worker profiling data and task objectives. As a top-down strategy, algorithmic crowd team formation tends to alienate workers causing poor collaboration, interpersonal clashes, and dissatisfaction. In this paper, we investigate different ways that crowd teams can be formed through three team formation models namely bottom-up, top-down, and hybrid. By simulating an open collaboration scenario such as a hackathon, we observe that the bottom-up model forms the most competitive teams with the highest teamwork quality. Furthermore, we note that bottom-up approaches are particularly suitable for populations with high-risk appetites (most workers being lenient toward exploring new team configurations) and high degrees of homophily (most workers preferring to work with similar teammates). Our study highlights the importance of integrating worker agency in algorithm-mediated team formation systems, especially in collaborative/competitive settings, and bears practical implications for large-scale crowdsourcing platforms.
Article
Although many companies pursue agile projects, extant literature reveals a lack of research on project agility determinants. This study examines the project team characteristics' impact on project agility and success using cross-sectional survey data from 292 agile projects. Using agile principles and complex adaptive systems theory, we find that project team autonomy, team diversity, and client collaboration have significant positive relationships with project agility. Project agility, in turn, has a significant positive relationship to project success. We measure project success by on-time completion, on-budget completion, specifications' attainment, and success rating by the project sponsor, client, and project team members. We find that project team members' adaptive performance partially mediates the relationship between project agility and success. These results guide agile project managers while facilitating team members to independently schedule their work, determine effective work methods, and develop innovative solutions. Moreover, they help agile managers recruit team members with relevant, diverse skill sets, domain knowledge, and expertise. Agile project managers must emphasize client collaboration in requirements gathering, designing, testing, and project reviews.
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This research aims to contribute to the development of knowledge in project management, by searching for management approaches that can be useful in construction projects. A bibliometric approach based on quantitative analysis methods was applied to investigate the synergy between Traditional, Agile, and Lean management approaches. This study also evaluates the status of the three different approaches using a visualization analysis of journal articles. The bibliometric study was developed with a portfolio of 200 papers around "synergy between Traditional, Agile and Lean approaches" collected at the Web of Science database, covering the evolution of this topic over the last ten years (from 2011 to 2020). The retrieved records were analyzed in terms of year of publication, country, subject, and keywords. The analysis of the original articles revealed that the total number of publications has continuously increased over the last few years. The country producing more papers on this theme was the United States followed by England and Germany. Few studies in the literature have discussed this theme in the construction industry, which means that the concept of combining Traditional, Agile, and Lean approaches is a new concept in construction projects.
Article
Numerous recent studies have identified critical issues with a high percentage of museum storage facilities around the world. The problems detected in such studies are usually solved with ambitious renovation projects, or through the reorganisation of existing resources. This article, drawing from the example of five Spain-based museums, explores the new concept of ‘Storage Debt’. Storage debt refers to the cumulative processes and factors that generate the critical conditions mentioned above, which are quite costly to reverse and which adversely affect museums’ activities at multiple levels. The storage debt concept arose from the theoretical framework of ‘technical debt’ (coined in the software development industry) and applied to the museum field. The former concept refers to actions and decisions that solve a need in the short term, but that in the future generate contexts that make core activities challenging and whose resolution involves extra efforts and resources. This article brings the theory of debt to the museum discipline by defining the concept, characterising the debt that accumulates in the context of museum storage and identifying strategies that museums can apply to solve the problem within the context of their collections. Making the accumulation of storage debt visible raises awareness around the additional cost that it implies for museum operations, but also around its potential effects on the value of collections. In this sense, the concept can facilitate communication with museum partners unfamiliar with the more technical aspects of museum management, such as patrons or sponsors. Likewise, when paired with risk analysis, the concept of storage debt makes it possible to shift away from a crisis model toward a predictive model: one that is more institutionally viable and sustainable.
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Die Komplexität der Aufgaben, die für die Erstellung einer Doktorarbeit relevant sind, erfordert ein professionelles und zielorientiertes Vorgehen. Bei der Bewältigung der Aufgaben können Werkzeuge aus dem Projektmanagement sowohl am Anfang stehenden Doktorand*innen als auch Promovierenden, die bereits mit ihrer Dissertation weit fortgeschritten sind, helfen. Diese Erkenntnis trägt dazu bei, die Anforderungen, die an eine Doktorarbeit gestellt werden, besser zu begreifen und daraus den Arbeitsumfang abzuleiten, zu planen und zu managen. Als Ergebnis entsteht eine Doktorarbeit, die in Inhalt, Zeit, Budget und Umfang voll den Anforderungen entspricht.
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Government funding supports industry-academia research and innovation projects in Norway, sharing the risk of the research component in innovation. However, funding alone may not be sufficient to overcome potential differences in collaborative agendas and ways of working. As a result, positive research outcomes often get stuck in the valley of death , instead of ending up as successful innovations that create value. To contribute to bridging the valley of death , we investigated the importance of six agile principles for collaborative industry-academia research and innovation projects, abbreviated IPN in Norway. The study was limited to the manufacturing sector. We surveyed 124 IPN project leaders (70 from industry; 54 from academia) to evaluate the importance of the knowledge management practices associated with the six agile principles across the three project stages. The statistical analyses indicate the consistency of the agile principles throughout the project stages. This means that agile principles are relevant for IPN projects and can be used as guidelines for improvement of the knowledge management practices. Moreover, the study identifies the agile principles that are perceived as most important to use in different stages of a project. It also identifies the different perceptions of the importance of agile principles of the project leaders from industry and academia. These findings can support project leaders who are implementing agile principles to industry-academia research and innovation projects. The results from the study can also support national and federal research/innovation councils in decision-making when assessing industrial research applications.
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Open source software (OSS) is very well known for allowing free access to the source code of the application. The idea is to allow for the creation of a better product. The more people working to make each aspect of an application better, more minds create more ideas, create a better project. OSS runs the internet since all of the protocols—network time protocol (NTP), HTTP, amongst many others—are OSS projects with many years of use. These projects are run by volunteers worldwide. But, none of these projects are run using the traditional methodologies of project management: Waterfall and Agile. This chapter asks: How does an open source development environment facilitate conventional Waterfall project management approaches? and How does an open source development environment facilitate Agile project collaborative work? The method used to determine the answers used surveys and questionnaires involving actual participants in a variety of OSS projects from across the United States (US). The questions asked concerned the organization OSS projects, did they use a particular traditional methodology or some other non-defined method of organization? The answers received by this study centered on non-defined methods of organization; traditional methodologies were considered too restrictive and not agile enough to allow for the freedom cherished by their volunteers.
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The persona technique came into widespread use and acceptance shortly after its inception (Cooper, 1999), although it was sometimes criticized along the way (Laubheimer, 2017; McKeen, 2019) for shortcomings relative to other user research methods. There are different approaches apart from personas that can be used during a user-centered design process. All these approaches have their advantages and shortcomings. In this chapter, we explore the employment of data-driven personas in combination with five other HCI techniques used in a user-centered design process. Personas put the focus on the user by being part of a broader user-centric design process. We also present use cases showing data-driven personas from the APG system. Data-driven personas are flexible artifacts that can be tailored to different projects and can be used at any stage of a product lifecycle. Moreover, data-driven personas can also be efficiently used in conjunction with other user research techniques to reflect (Bradley et al., 2021) a holistic understanding of the end user.
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Modern workflows have shifted from linear processes to those that allow more feedbacks across the project timescale. The conventional project control methods such as work breakdown structure and critical path method are very common in the construction industry. However, these linear processes do not allow for iterations and are being criticised for being inflexible, not being completely suitable for managing complex projects and not having the capability to take into account the cyclical process mainly due to their one-way progression manner. Nevertheless, the adoption of building information modelling (BIM) has provided the necessary infrastructure for adopting new iterative workflows including Agile management in general and its specific methods such as Scrum and Kanban. This chapter will explore the suitability of nonlinear project management methods for construction projects and how digital construction can play an important role in implementing them. It will then argue how design and construction firms can benefit from implanting Agile management to transform the way buildings are being designed and constructed by demanding feedback from a wide range of backgrounds more frequently. Finally, it will discuss the industry needs to further explore disruptive methods, examine and test them to unlock the potential benefits of implementing them.
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Die Führung in einem Projekt unterscheidet sich deutlich von einer Führungsaufgabe in der Linienfunktion einer Fachabteilung. Deshalb ist es für den Projektmanager besonders wichtig, die entsprechende Führungskompetenz zu haben und einen passenden Führungsstil zu wählen. Es geht aber nicht nur darum, Projektteammitglieder zu führen, sondern auch zu verstehen, was Menschen antreibt in Projekten zu arbeiten – die Motivation. Eng verbunden mit der Motivation ist auch das Feedback und die Leistungsbeurteilung.
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Zusammenfassung Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung der Schreibplattform „Thesis Writer“, die Studierende beim Verfassen ihrer Abschlussarbeit und Lehrende bei deren Anleitung unterstützt. Der Beitrag erläutert zunächst, vor welchen Problemen Studierende stehen, wenn sie erstmals eine wissenschaftliche Arbeit selbständig verfassen müssen und nach welcher Logik die gewählte digitale Anleitung aufgebaut ist. Der Beitrag bietet einen Überblick über die Vorarbeiten, auf denen das Projekt beruht und stellt einige Schritte des design-based Ansatzes dar, die zu seiner heutigen Form geführt haben. Struktur und Aufbau des Tools werden ausführlich dargestellt, ebenso wie die Hilfsfunktionen, die zusätzlich zu dem Word Editor angeboten werden. Zwei Pilotstudien, die der Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung der Plattform dienen, werden vorgestellt, ehe ein letztes Kapitel darauf eingeht, vor welche Probleme ein solches Tool die Entwicklerinnen und Entwickler stellt, nachdem es fertig ist.
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Dieses Open-Access-Buch beschreibt exemplarisch anhand von sechs Projekten in unterschiedlichen Wissensdomänen, wie das Konzept des «Seamless Learning» umgesetzt werden kann. «Seamless Learning» unterstützt kontextübergreifendes und barrierefreies Lehren und Lernen durch die Integration digitaler Technologien und die Berücksichtigung von Kontext und Anforderungen der jeweiligen Lehr- / Lernszenarien. Die Herausgeber Prof. Dr. Bernadette Dilger ist Professorin für Wirtschaftspädagogik an der Universität St. Gallen, Schweiz und leitet das Institut für Wirtschaftspädagogik (HSG IWP). Im Kontext von „Seamless Learning“ entwickelt sie gemeinsam mit Projektpartnern die weitergehende konzeptionelle Basis. Jennifer Erlemann, MSc, ist Software-Entwicklerin am Zentrum für Innovative Didaktik der ZHAW School of Management and Law. Kerngebiet ihrer Arbeit ist die Konzeption und Entwicklung von computergestützten Lehr- und Lernumgebungen. Prof. Dr. Claude Müller leitet das Zentrum für Innovative Didaktik an der ZHAW School of Management and Law. Seine hochschuldidaktischen Arbeits- und Forschungsschwerpunkte liegen beim Educational Design mit Fokus digitales Lehren und Lernen. Dr. Christian Rapp leitet das Educational Technology Team am Zentrum für Innovative Didaktik der School of Management of Law der ZHAW. Er koordiniert internationale Forschungsprojekte, die von der EU und vom Schweizerischen Nationalfonds finanziert werden.
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Zusammenfassung Das Lehrprinzip PIPE (Projekt-im-Projekt-Erfahrung) wurde an der Hochschule Konstanz über 7 Jahre hinweg entwickelt und dabei stetig anhand eines Masterkurses in Informatik verfeinert. PIPE setzt einen einen projektartigen Kompetenzerwerb voraus. Dies ist etwa der Fall, wenn die für das jeweilige Lehrgebiet relevanten Kompetenzen in einer projektartigen Form geübt oder trainiert werden können oder wenn die spätere Anwendung erlangter Kompetenzen im Berufsalltag ein projektartiges Tätigkeitsfeld ist.
Article
In this paper, we analyse the impact of the Covid-19 crisis in organizations from the point of view of knowledge management. Specifically, we address the question of technology, people and processes. We conclude, first, that KM should be put at the centre stage in 2021 because, above all, first and foremost, the Covid-19 crisis is a crisis about knowledge, and that a massive knowledge failure has been at its core – namely, the absence of a vaccine and the cure for Covid-19. We furthermore conclude that in organizations, there was a complete lack of “social knowledge” linked with “organizational behaviour” which led to an organizational crisis; quite crucially, we believe that the mentioned crisis was even fostered by the immense technology available, but continued because, despite all the value of people, there was not knowledge about processes; in fact, suddenly, the drastic change in setting caused previously competent people to become incompetent. All this leads to the third conclusion, namely, the solution of the crisis will be achieved using technology and making people competent again and teaching them the right processes. Finally, for the time being, Humanity is still searching for answers, and we believe that all the partial measures (such as use of masks, social distance, washing hands, home/remote working, etc.) will mean an advance and increase in organizational agility.
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In the previous two chapters it has been elaborated, firstly, what the possible sources of waste in project management are and, secondly, the key points of the ‘Lean’ idea. In this chapter the attempt is made to transfer the ‘Lean’ principles to project management. This is realized in such a way that in the first step, the respective key point of the ‘Lean’ idea is explored for its significance for project management (“problem definition”). Subsequently, the tasks for project management that derive from this principle are specified (“tasks”). In a third step, tools are proposed on how to implement the tasks (“tools”). These three steps are executed for all three principles of “Lean Project Management”. Hence, this chapter is structured in accordance to the five principles of “Lean Project Management”:Identify the best possible cost-benefit ratio from the customer’s point of view (Sect. 4.1).Define the minimum value-adding work packages and work processes (Sect. 4.2).Establish clear responsibilities, tasks and authorities on the lowest possible organizational level (Sect. 4.3).Ensure a continuous flow of results by limiting work in progress (Sect. 4.4).Identify defects immediately and remove or repair them (Sec. 4.5). Identify the best possible cost-benefit ratio from the customer’s point of view (Sect. 4.1). Define the minimum value-adding work packages and work processes (Sect. 4.2). Establish clear responsibilities, tasks and authorities on the lowest possible organizational level (Sect. 4.3). Ensure a continuous flow of results by limiting work in progress (Sect. 4.4). Identify defects immediately and remove or repair them (Sec. 4.5).
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What project managementProject management means seems to be familiar at the first glance: Performing the tasksTasks of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and terminating projectsProjects. At the second glance, however, the question arises in repeatedly in specific cases whether a particular operation should be defined and organized as a “projectProjects”, as a “taskTasks” or as a “case”. This is because each category involves different managementManagements efforts. For this reason, the notion of a projectProjects will firstly be critically examined (Sect. 2.1). Based on this definition, the tasksTasks of project managementProject management, as codified in norms and standards, will be summarized (Sect. 2.2). Of particular interest for the topic of this book is the question, how effective these norms and standards are for ensuring the success of projectsProjects (Sect. 2.3) and where sources of wasteWaste in project managementProject management may be located (Sect. 2.4). This perspective yields starting points for “streamlining” project managementProject management as proposed in “agileAgiles approaches” (Sect. 2.5). Said approaches will then be critically reviewed with regard to their contributions and limitations for minimizing wasteWaste in project managementProject management. This point of view underlines the position of the author that “leanLean” and “agileAgiles” project managementProject management are not necessarily congruent. Rather, “Lean Project ManagementLean project management” is positioned here as an approach that offers potential for reducing wasteWaste in both, “classic” and “agileAgiles” project managementProject management approaches.
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In this article, we analyze the link between knowledge management and the use of foreign languages. In a globalized world, the mastery of foreign languages is a factor of business creation and business success. Of course, not all the national languages have the same international importance, and this is a double‐edge relation. In this context, we relate foreign languages, business, KM, productivity, and agile business. After a theoretical analysis, we address two different countries—Portugal and Russia. We conclude that investment in foreign languages is higher in Portugal than in Russia, probably due to the fact that Russia still sees itself as a superpower, whereas Portugal, (even if Portuguese is a language spoken worldwide), sees itself as a European Union member. As a consequence, and particularly in the last decade, Portugal has become more international (business is done in Portuguese, English, French, or Spanish), whereas in Russia, the language is still seen as a big barrier to entry. In accordance with this situation, Portugal saw its level of knowledge‐related activities to grow more than Russia. This increase in turn led to a higher increase in economic and social standards and a higher increase in the level of agile related activities. These results mean that even when a country has as large a continental dimension, as Russia, it is useful to become global in linguistic terms.
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The objective of this chapter is to give a basic introduction to projects and Project Management as they relate to a company’s PLM Initiative. This introduction will help those in the Initiative to understand project-related topics and Project Management activities. In turn, this will help them participate more fully in the PLM Initiative. This chapter also aims to give students a basic understanding of the role and activities of Project Management in a PLM Initiative.
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O Agile Project Management (APM) surgiu como uma nova abordagem para o gerenciamento de projetos de alto risco e sensíveis ao tempo, uma vez que provou fornecer melhor produtividade, maior qualidade e tomada de decisão mais eficiente. Além disso, o APM provou resultar em menores custos gerais do projeto e menor tempo de colocação no mercado, devido à sua estrutura baseada na iteração com o cliente e ciclos de entrega frequentes e rápidos. Apesar das metodologias de gerenciamento de projeto serem comumente utilizadas, de acordo com as características particulares de cada projeto, nem sempre os gerentes de projeto optam pela melhor metodologia que se adequa às necessidades e estrutura que o projeto possui. Nesse contexto, o presente artigo, tem como questão norteadora: o gerenciamento ágil de projetos pode ser aplicado em uma empresa de pequeno porte? Como objetivo, buscou-se verificar como a metodologia ágil pode ser aplicada em uma empresa de pequeno porte de revenda de materiais de limpeza. Para isto, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma empresa de pequeno porte que atua no desenvolvimento, fabricação e comercialização de produtos de limpeza e derivados. Como resultados, observou-se que a APM se mostra uma ferramenta eficiente no que diz respeito à organização das atividades e otimização de resultados. Por fim, concluiu-se que esta metodologia pode ser aplicada em micros e pequenas empresas, sendo responsável por estruturar os processos de forma mais prática, gerando maior otimização do tempo e dos recursos.
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The enhanced penetration of digital technologies into the business processes of enterprises creates the need to review the existing project management tools and models at the enterprise. Digital transformation has had a significant impact on the product development velocity, openness and accessibility of all company processes, and also increased the value of intermediate interactions between project stakeholders. Such a transition has demonstrated the limitations of traditional managerial approaches and created the need to search for new management tools that meet the digital economy requirements. The author proposes is to consider agile project management models as such tools. The aim of article is to analyze the existing models and methods of agile project management under digitalization of the economy. The hypothesis of article is the assumption that models of agile project management may act as a successful alternative to traditional approaches of project management in the digital economy. To verify the hypothesis such general scientific methods as analysis, synthesis and modeling were used. The paper studies the conceptual framework of digital economy management, concludes that the existing definitions are limited, and proposes an alternative definition. A special attention is given to the digital economy peculiarities, which act as a decision-making criteria on the possibility of using existing models of agile project management. The key point in the article is given to an analytical review of models and methods of agile project management. The paper presents characteristics of each frameworks from the standpoint of a number of criteria, which makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the possibility or limitations using its under new type of economic relations. The results can be used in practice in the process of choosing and implementing a project management model under digitalization of the industry. It is proposed to study the practical experience of applying agile project management models under digitalization of the economy as one of the promising directions for further research.
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You've heard about the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace - that there's an incontrovertible link between executives' emotional maturity, exemplified by such capabilities as self-awareness and empathy, and their financial performance. Now, new research extends that base. Drawing on two years of research, the authors contend that the leader's mood and his or her attendant behaviors have enormous effects on bottom line performance. Moods are, quite literally, contagious: A cranky and ruthless boss creates a toxic organization of negative underachievers; an upbeat and inspirational leader spawns acolytes for whom any challenge is surmountable. And the final link in the chain is performance: profit and loss. Since leaders' moods and behaviors are such potent drivers of business success, top executives' premier job - their primal task, even - is emotional leadership. in other words, before leaders can turn to setting strategy, fixing budgets, or hiring staff, they must first attend to the impact of their moods and behaviors. To help them do that, the authors introduce a five-step process of self-reflection and planning. Executives should ask themselves: Who do I want to be? Who am I now? How do I get from here to there? How do I make change stick? And who can help me? Working through this process will help leaders determine how their emotional leadership is driving the moods and actions of their organizations, and how to adjust their behavior accordingly. That's not to say, the authors point out, that a leader's actions aren't critical. But the message sent by neurological, psychological, and organizational research is startling in its clarity. Emotional leadership is the spark that ignites a company's performance.
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The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.
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What do ants and bees have to do with business? A great deal, it turns out. Individually, social insects are only minimally intelligent, and their work together is largely self-organized and unsupervised. Yet collectively they're capable of finding highly efficient solutions to difficult problems and can adapt automatically to changing environments. Over the past 20 years, the authors and other researchers have developed rigorous mathematical models to describe this phenomenon, which has been dubbed "swarm intelligence," and they are now applying them to business. Their research has already helped several companies develop more efficient ways to schedule factory equipment, divide tasks among workers, organize people, and even plot strategy. Emulating the way ants find the shortest path to a new food supply, for example, has led researchers at Hewlett-Packard to develop software programs that can find the most efficient way to route phone traffic over a telecommunications network. South-west Airlines has used a similar model to efficiently route cargo. To allocate labor, honeybees appear to follow one simple but powerful rule--they seem to specialize in a particular activity unless they perceive an important need to perform another function. Using that model, researchers at Northwestern University have devised a system for painting trucks that can automatically adapt to changing conditions. In the future, the authors speculate, a company might structure its entire business using the principles of swarm intelligence. The result, they believe, would be the ultimate self-organizing enterprise--one that could adapt quickly and instinctively to fast-changing markets.