Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

Article (PDF Available)inMolecules 13(11):2859-70 · February 2008with13 Reads
DOI: 10.3390/molecules13112859 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR), a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu) had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu) had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

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    • "An Acquity UPLC system coupled with a SYNAPT Q-TOF mass spectrometer (Waters, Milford, Conn., U.S.A.) was used for the identification of anthocyanins. The analysis followed the previously published studies with some modifications (Han and others 2008; He and others 2010; Alberts and others 2012). A reversedphase C18 column (BEH C18, 100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.7 μm, Waters, Milford, Massachusetts, U.S.A) was used to separate an- thocyanins. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monomeric anthocyanin contributions to young red wine color were investigated using partial least square regression (PLSR) and aqueous alcohol solutions in this study. Results showed that the correlation between the anthocyanin concentration and the solution color fitted in a quadratic regression rather than linear or cubic regression. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside was estimated to show the highest contribution to young red wine color according to its concentration in wine, whereas peonidin-3-O-glucoside in its concentration contributed the least. The PLSR suggested that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside under the same concentration resulted in a stronger color of young red wine compared with malvidin-3-O-glucoside. These estimates were further confirmed by their color in aqueous alcohol solutions. These results suggested that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside were primary anthocyanins to enhance young red wine color by increasing their concentrations. This study could provide an alternative approach to improve young red wine color by adjusting anthocyanin composition and concentration.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    • "The analyses of anthocyanins in the enzyme assays and in the grape skin extracts were carried out according to the method reported by Han et al. (2008) with little alteration. An Agilent 1100 series LC-MSD trap VL (http://www.agilent.com) "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generally, red Vitis vinifera grapes only contain monoglucosidic anthocyanins, whereas most non-vinifera red grapes of the Vitis genus have both monoglucosidic and bis-glucosidic anthocyanins, the latter of which are believed to be more hydrophilic and more stable. Although previous studies have established the biosynthetic mechanism for formation of monoglucosidic anthocyanins, less attention has been paid to that of bis-glucosidic anthocyanins. In the present research, the full-length cDNA of UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. 'Zuoshanyi' grape (Va5GT) was cloned. After acquisition and purification of recombinant Va5GT, its enzymatic parameters were systematically analyzed in vitro. Recombinant Va5GT used malvidin-3-O-glucoside as its optimum glycosidic acceptor when UDP-glucose was used as the glycosidic donor. Va5GT-GFP was found to be located in the cytoplasm by analyzing its subcellular localization with a laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscope, and this result was coincident with its metabolic function of modifying anthocyanins in grape cells. Furthermore, the relationship between the transcriptional expression of Va5GT and the accumulation of anthocyanidin bis-glucosides during berry development suggested that Va5GT is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of bis-glucosidic anthocyanins in V. amurensis grape berries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
    Fei HeFei HeWei-Kai ChenWei-Kai ChenKe-Ji YuKe-Ji Yu+1more author...[...]
    • "2.4.1. Anthocyanins Anthocyanins were examined according to our previously published method (Han et al., 2008). The wine samples were filtered through 0.22-lm filters (cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose, CAN) and the resulting filtrates were directly injected into an Agilent 1200 LC-UV-MS equipped with a reversed-phase column [ "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the correspondence between the evolution of phenolic compounds and the development of appearance and mouthfeel in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) dry red wines during 18-month aging in bottle. The wines were sealed with six types of bottle stoppers. The results showed that phenolic compounds presented four evolution patterns along with wine aging in bottle, mainly depending on their chemical nature. Most of the anthocyanins had significant differences in concentration amongst the wines sealed with the six bottle stoppers at the 18-month point. Analysis of Partial Least Squares (PLS) revealed that wine appearance quality was positively correlated with the levels of malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-4-vinylguaiacol, gallocatechin and dihydrokaempferol-3-O-rhamnos, while the development of mouthfeel properties was positively associated with the evolutions of malvidin-3-O-glucoside-ethyl-(epi)catechin, peonidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside-pyruvic acid and peonidin-3-O-glucoside-4-vinylphenol. No obvious association was observed between the development of wine sensory characteristics and the evolution of dissolved oxygen in wine.
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