Contribution of Na+-independent nucleoside transport to ribavirin uptake in the rat intestine and human epithelial LS180 cells

Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
European journal of pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.53). 11/2008; 601(1-3):61-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.10.047
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to characterize the intestinal absorption of ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1, 2, 4-trizole-3-carboxamide). We evaluated the contribution of Na(+)-dependent and -independent transport to ribavirin absorption in the rat intestine using an in situ closed loop method. In addition, we performed pharmacokinetic analysis of the uptake of ribavirin in human intestinal epithelial LS180 cells, and also evaluated the effect of extracellular Na(+) concentration and an inhibitor of the Na(+)-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporter, nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (NBMPR), on the uptake of ribavirin in the cells. In the presence and also absence of Na(+) in rat intestinal loops, more than 80% of the administered dose (50 microg at a concentration of 100 microg/ml=409 microM) of ribavirin was absorbed in 40 min. The absorption of ribavirin in the rat intestine was significantly reduced by coadministration of 10 mg/ml (=37.3 mM) inosine. In LS180 cells, 100 microM ribavirin was taken up time-dependently, and the influx clearance of the drug was similar to the efflux clearance. Five mM inosine and mizoribine reduced the uptake of 100 microM ribavirin in LS180 cells. The absence of extracellular Na(+) decreased the uptake of 100 microM ribavirin only weakly in the cells, whereas the uptake of 100 microM-2 mM ribavirin was markedly decreased by 100 microM NBMPR. These findings suggested that Na(+)-independent nucleoside transport contributes significantly to intestinal absorption of ribavirin at relatively high concentrations (>or=100 microM).

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    • "This indicated that the intestinal absorption of mizoribine is mediated by CNT1 and CNT2. The suppression of ribavirin uptake by LS180 cells in the presence of mizoribine (5 mM) is also reported by Takaai et al. [37]. In the study by Mori et al. [18], bile and bile salts such as sodium cholate and sodium glycocholate (10 mM) were also found to cause interaction with mizoribine. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mizoribine is administered orally and excreted into urine without being metabolized. Many research groups have reported a linear relationship between the dose and peak serum concentration, between the dose and AUC, and between AUC and cumulative urinary excretion of mizoribine. In contrast, a significant interindividual variability, with a small intraindividual variability, in oral bioavailability of mizoribine is also reported. The interindividual variability is mostly considered to be due to the polymophisms of transporter genes. Methotrexate (MTX) is administered orally and/or by parenteral routes, depending on the dose. Metabolic enzymes and multiple transporters are involved in the pharmacokinetics of MTX. The oral bioavailability of MTX exhibits a marked interindividual variability and saturation with increase in the dose of MTX, with a small intraindividual variability, where the contribution of gene polymophisms of transporters and enzymes is suggested. Therapeutic drug monitoring of both mizoribine and MTX is expected to improve their clinical efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Pharmaceuticals
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    • "Given that ENT1 is the primary transporter involved in ribavirin uptake in hepatocytes, we hypothesize that changes in expression and/or activity of this transporter might influence ribavirin intrahepatocyte concentration and therefore its antiviral activity. However, it must be noted that ENT1 is also expressed in the intestinal epithelia434445 and renal epithelia [46, 47] , and therefore the cellular uptake of ribavirin at absorption and excretion sites might also be influenced by polymorphisms at the SLC29A1 gene. In this regard, it is remarkable that both ribavirin plasma trough concentrations and the SLC29A1 SNP were both independently associated with the achievement of RVR in our study, which suggests that ribavirin plasma concentrations but mainly ribavirin intrahepatocyte exposure determined the antiviral activity of ribavirin. "
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    ABSTRACT: The equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is the main protein involved in ribavirin cellular uptake. Polymorphisms at the ENT1 gene may influence ribavirin activity as part of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. A retrospective study was conducted in 109 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who were infected with HCV genotypes 1 or 4 who had received pegylated interferon (pegIFN)-ribavirin. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the ENT1 gene were examined using TaqMan 5'-nuclease assays. In the study population, allelic frequencies at rs760370 were as follows: A3 (43 [39%] of 109 patients), AG (50 [46%] of 109 patients), and GG (16 [15%] of 109 patients). Achievement of rapid virological response was more frequent in GG carriers than in AA/AG carriers (50% vs 17%, respectively; P = .007). In multivariate analysis, the GG genotype (odds ratio [OR], 15.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-92.2; P < .002), a baseline serum HCV-RNA level <600,000 IU/mL (OR, 45.7; 95% CI, 8.7-240.5; P <.001) and a serum ribavirin trough concentration >2.5 μg/mL (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-17.1; P < .016) were associated with rapid virological response. When 2 or more of these factors were present, positive and negative predictive values of rapid virological response were 65% and 91%, respectively. In summary, a SNP rs760370A→G at the ENT1 gene influences the chance of rapid virological response to pegIFN-ribavirin therapy in HIV-infected patients with chronic HCV infection due to HCV genotypes 1 or 4, most likely modulating intracellular ribavirin exposure within hepatocytes.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: It was reported previously that specific levofloxacin uptake in Caco-2 cells was inhibited by nicotine, enalapril, L-carnitine and fexofenadine. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cellular uptake of levofloxacin using another human intestinal cell line, LS180. Levofloxacin uptake in LS180 cells was temperature-dependent and optimal at neutral pH, but was Na(+)-independent. The rank order of inhibitory effects of the four compounds on [(14)C] levofloxacin uptake in LS180 cells was nicotine>enalapril>L-carnitine>fexofenadine, which is consistent with that in Caco-2 cells. The mRNA levels of OATP1A2, 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 in LS180 cells were markedly different from those in Caco-2 cells, and OATP substrates/inhibitors had no systematic effect on the levofloxacin uptake. The mRNA levels of OCTN1 and 2 in LS180 cells were similar to those in Caco-2 cells. However, the inhibitory effect of nicotine on L-[(3)H]carnitine uptake was much less potent than that of unlabeled L-carnitine. These results indicate that the specific uptake system for levofloxacin in LS180 cells is identical/similar to that in Caco-2 cells, but that OATPs and OCTNs contribute little to levofloxacin uptake in the human intestinal epithelial cells.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
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