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The Effects of Grouping Practices and Curricular Adjustments on Achievement

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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of curricular (textbook, revised, and differentiated) and grouping (whole, between, and within-class) practices on intermediate students' achievement in mathematics. A pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design using a stratified random sample of 31 teachers and their students (N = 645) was used in this study. Achievement data were collected using a curriculum-based assessment. Repeated measures analysis of variance was employed to investigate the effects of grouping arrangements and curricular design on the treatment and comparison group posttest scores. Results indicated significant differences, F (5, 246) = 22.618, p less than 0.001, between comparison and revision treatment groups on the posttest after adjusting for grade level (4 or 5). Further results indicated significant differences, F (11, 673) = 41.548, p less than 0.001, among all treatment groups after adjusting for grade level. Comparison of Textbook, Revised, and Differentiated Unit is appended. (Contains 6 tables.)

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... Differentiated instruction can also enhance students' cognitive skills because they are encouraged to expand their knowledge and explore beyond what the teacher has offered. This outcome is consistent with the findings of Beecher and Sweeny (2008), Carol (2005), Castle, Deniz and Tortora (2005), Garba and Muhammad (2015), all of whom argued that a new approach to mathematics instruction will lead to improved results. ...
... Differentiated instruction, according to Castle et al. (2005), Garba and Muhammad (2015), allows students to actively participate in observations, discovering patterns, and making conclusions based on the data collected. On one hand, the findings of the study corresponded with those of Beecher and Sweeny (2008), Carol (2005), Castle et al. ...
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... Students' cognitive skills can as well be stipulated in differentiated instruction since they are encouraged to develop their knowledge and explore beyond what the teacher provided. This finding is in agreement with the findings of Beecher and Sweeny (2008), Carol (2005), Castle et.al, (2005, Garba and Muhammad (2015), who asserted that new approach to mathematics teaching will provide opportunity for better achievement. ...
... According to Castle et al. (2005), Garba and Muhammad (2015), differentiated instruction allows students to actively participate in observations, identifying trends and drawing conclusions based on the collected information. On one hand, the study's finding agreed to the findings of Beecher and Sweeny (2008), Carol (2005), Castle et al. (2005), Garba and Muhammad (2015); whereas on the other hand it contradicts that of Preckel and Brull (2008) who found no difference among gender using differential instruction. ...
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There are several methods of teaching; lecturing, demonstration and discussion methods, while some teachers focus on principles while others on applications. This therefore affects the level of students' understanding and prior preparation of his or her learning style. The derivative functions are fundamental concept for the basis of calculus and are used in many areas including mathematical modelling, engineering, physics, economics, etc. Thus, this study intends to investigate the effects of differentiated instruction on performance in the concept of derivative functions among polytechnic students in Kebbi state. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study, National Diploma two (ND II) polytechnic students in Kebbi state during the 2020/2021 academic session constitutes the population of the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 100 ND II polytechnic students in Kebbi state. A Derivative Functions Performance Test (DFPT) was used for the study as the DFPT was validated by experts as various suggestions were noted to improve its validity. The instrument was pilot tested and gave a reliability index of 0.79 using Cronbach's alpha reliability test. Descriptive statistic was used to answer the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that polytechnic students' taught concepts of derivative functions using differentiated instruction have significant effect on their performance compared to those exposed to lecture method. It was furthermore recommended that teachers should explore the use of differentiated instruction frequently.
... A téma vizsgálatával több hazai és nemzetközi kutató foglalkozott már (Golnhofer és M. Nádasi, 1979;Báthory, 1985;Hortobágyi, 1985Hortobágyi, , 1995M. Nádasi, 1986;Tóth, 2000;Réthyné, 2003;Balogh, 2006;Kagan és Moss, 1962;Maslow, 1970;Kozéki, 1975Kozéki, , 1980Tomlinson és Kalbfleisch,1998;Tomlinson, 2000;Baumgartner, Lipowski és Rush, 2003;Lawrence-Brown, 2004;Tieso, 2005;Tomlinson és Strickland, 2005;Anderson, 2007;Rock és társai, 2008;McQuarrie, McRae és Stack-Cutler , 2008). Jelen kutatás újszerűségét a longitudinális jellege jelentette, azaz a kiválasztott két tanulói csoport esetében 5. osztálytól 8. osztályig követték a vizsgálatok, így nemcsak keresztmetszeti, hanem hosszmetszeti összehasonlításokra is mód nyílt. ...
... Az átlagos tanulói populációval összehasonlítva különösen jól profitáltak a differenciálásból az enyhe vagy súlyosabb fokú tanulási zavarral küzdők, főleg akkor, ha a fejlesztés kiscsoportos formában történt. Tieso (2005) 31 matematikatanárt és 645 tanulót vizsgált, és azt találta, hogy a differenciált oktatás a heterogén osztályokban főként a tehetségeseket mozgatta meg igazán. Ebben a tanulmányban a statisztika és valószínűségszámítás három hetes tanítási egységét megelőző felmérés azt mutatta, hogy a kiválóan teljesítő tanulók nagyobb előzetes tudással rendelkeztek a tanítási egység elkezdésekor, ugyanakkor a differenciált tantervvel tanulók -bármelyik csoportba is tették őket -magasabb teljesítményt nyújtottak az utótesztben, mint a frontális oktatással tanuló ugyancsak tehetséges diákok. ...
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Jelen tanulmány a nevelés-oktatás egyik kiemelkedő feladatára, a tanulók megfelelő motiválására fókuszál. A kutatás célja a 10–14 éves tanulók differenciált fejlesztés melletti motivációjának vizsgálata. Feltételezésünk szerint a motiváció magas szinten tartása a differenciált foglalkoztatással elősegíti a hatékonyabb és eredményesebb ismeretelsajátítást. Minta: 5-8 osztályos, összesen 354 (177 kísérleti és 177 kontrollcsoportos) tanuló vizsgálata. Módszer: A kutatás során alkalmazott módszerek segítségével, longitudinális vizsgálattal, négy tanéven keresztül követtük nyomon a kísérleti csoportban differenciálva fejlesztett tanulók motivációjának alakulását. Emellett mértük a motivációt kontrollcsoportnál is, akiknél nem került sor differenciált fejlesztő foglalkozásokra. A motiváció mérése a Kozéki–Entwistle-féle tanulási motivációs kérdőív segítségével történt. Eredmények: A kísérleti csoport tanulóinál mind a három (követő, érdeklődő, teljesítő) fontos motívumcsoportban jelentős pozitív változás történt a kontrollcsoporthoz képest. A motiváció magas szinten tartása a kísérleti csoportnál nagyobb mértékben elősegítette az eredményesebb tanulást. Következtetések: A differenciált fejlesztés a tanulási motivációra pozitívan hat.
... A téma vizsgálatával több hazai és nemzetközi kutató foglalkozott már (Golnhofer és M. Nádasi, 1979;Báthory, 1985;Hortobágyi, 1985Hortobágyi, , 1995M. Nádasi, 1986;Tóth, 2000;Réthyné, 2003;Kagan és Moss, 1962;Maslow, 1970;Kozéki, 1975Kozéki, , 1980Tomlinson és Kalbfleisch,1998;Tomlinson, 2000;Baumgartner, Lipowski és Rush, 2003;Lawrence-Brown, 2004;Tieso, 2005;Tomlinson és Strickland, 2005;Anderson, 2007;Rock és társai, 2008;McQuarrie, McRae és Stack-Cutler , 2008). Jelen kutatás újszerűségét a longitudinális jellege jelentette, azaz a kiválasztott két tanulói csoport esetében 5. osztálytól 8. osztályig követték a vizsgálatok, így nemcsak keresztmetszeti, hanem hosszmetszeti összehasonlításokra is mód nyílt. ...
... Az átlagos tanulói populációval összehasonlítva különösen jól profitáltak a differenciálásból az enyhe vagy súlyosabb fokú tanulási zavarral küzdők, főleg akkor, ha a fejlesztés kiscsoportos formában történt. Tieso (2005) 31 matematikatanárt és 645 tanulót vizsgált, és azt találta, hogy a differenciált oktatás a heterogén osztályokban főként a tehetségeseket mozgatta meg igazán. Ebben a tanulmányban a statisztika és valószínűségszámítás három hetes tanítási egységét megelőző felmérés azt mutatta, hogy a kiválóan teljesítő tanulók nagyobb előzetes tudással rendelkeztek a tanítási egység elkezdésekor, ugyanakkor a differenciált tantervvel tanulók -bármelyik csoportba is tették őket -magasabb teljesítményt nyújtottak az utótesztben, mint a frontális oktatással tanuló ugyancsak tehetséges diákok. ...
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Különleges Bánásmód, 2017. 3. (3.) - teljes szám
... The findings also revealed that the assessment and evaluation of their achievement in the exams were in the favor of the empirical group learners because it became clear that there is a statistically significant variation among the degrees of the empirical group students and the control group students. Which confirms that the DI strategy has a significant effect on learners' achievement [4,8,11,23,28,41,52] With regard to studies to determine the impact of a differentiated teaching strategy on science education for students and its effect on student achievement, these studies also showed the positive impact of differentiated instruction DI strategy on increasing student achievement in science topics [18,36,45,47,48] . On the other hand, other studies revealed that despite the widespread recognition that the differentiation instruction strategy represents an important educational approach for students' and is concerned with taking into account their individual differences, their tends, interests, and readiness to learn. ...
... Our findings illustrated in Table 10 showed that students' of the empirical group do not vary according to the variable of gender did not show differences between them with regard to this variable. Results are consistent with previous studies [4,11,23,28,47,52]. The findings of these studies have shown that the performance and achievement of learners who have been educated by utilizing the DI strategy have been increased in a positive way compared to the conventional approach. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the impact of using the differentiated instruction strategy on students 'achievement in an intermediate school course and their attitudes towards it. The study was conducted using a semi-experimental method. Participants were 483 students, split into two groups: empiric (n = 244) and control (n = 239). Achievement tests and questionnaires were used as tools for this study. Data analyzed through the SPSS program. The results indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the groups for the benefit of the empiric group that taught via DI. The results also revealed positive attitudes towards the strategy used. The study recommends that attention to applying the differentiated teaching strategy for teaching science curricula and other textbooks.
... One of the major goals of gifted education programs is to support academic achievement of gifted students through delivering enriched and accelerated education in different grouping settings, such as special schools, self-contained classrooms, and after-school programs. Benefits of these programs have been investigated and proved in a number of studies, including meta-analyses (Kulik & Kulik, 1992;Shields, 2002;Steenbergen-Hu & Moon, 2011;Steenbergen-Hu, Makel, & Olszewski-Kubilius, 2016;Tieso, 2005). However, the controversy about the effect of gifted education programs on students' academic self-concepts has gained much attention since the first BFLPE study on gifted education was published by Marsh et al. (1995). ...
... The BFLPE hypothesis has been criticized strongly by opponents in the field of gifted education for a number of reasons. First, participation in gifted education programs has been found to increase academic achievement substantially (e.g., Kulik & Kulik, 1992;Shields, 2002;Steenbergen-Hu & Moon, 2011;Steenbergen-Hu et al., 2016;Tieso, 2005). Second, as reviewed before, most gifted students participating in gifted education programs have been found to have high levels of academic selfconcepts. ...
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According to the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), equally able students would have lower academic self-concepts in high-ability settings than those who attend low- or mixed-ability settings. This study was an investigation of the BFLPE on math and science academic self-concepts of gifted students. Participants included 50 fifth- and sixth-grade gifted students who participated in an after-school program for gifted students (EPTS) at a university campus for five terms. Students’ academic self-concepts were measured using the Math and Science Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire both in the EPTS setting and in the school setting in three measurement points. Findings showed that gifted students’ academic self-concepts declined significantly from time 1 measurement to time 3 measurement. However, the level of their academic self-concepts was still high in the EPTS and very high in school. The main effect of setting showed that the overall academic self-concept in school (M = 34,24; SD = 2,26) was significantly higher than the mean of academic self-concepts in the EPTS (M = 31,49; SD = 3,87). They used the EPTS and school as two different frames of reference and thus held adaptable academic self-concepts, relatively low in the EPTS and relatively high in school.
... Αρκετές εμπειρικές μελέτες έχουν επικεντρωθεί στην εφαρμογή της ΔΔ και στην επίδρασή της στα παιδιά, αναδεικνύοντας τη θετική της σχέση με την επίτευξη υψηλής μαθησιακής επίδοσης (π.χ. Baumgartner, Lipowski, & Rush, 2003• Little, McCoach, & Reis, 2014• Mavidou & Kakana, 2019• Tieso, 2005, αλλά και στην αύξηση των κινήτρων και της ενεργής εμπλοκής τους στη διαδικασία της μάθησης (π.χ. Danzi, Reul, & Smith, 2008• Koeze, 2007• Martin & Pickett, 2013. ...
... Baumgartner, Lipowski, & Rush, 2003• Little, McCoach, & Reis, 2014, στα μαθηματικά (π.χ. Faber, Glas, & Visscher, 2018• Scott, 2012• Tieso, 2005 και στις φυσικές επιστήμες (Odgers, Symons, & Mitchell, 2000). Το γεγονός αυτό δημιουργεί ένα σημαντικό χάσμα ανάμεσα στη διαφοροποιημένη προσέγγιση και τους/τις νηπιαγωγούς που έχουν την πρόθεση να την εντάξουν στην πρακτική τους. ...
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Η θεμελιώδης αποδοχή ότι κάθε παιδί είναι μοναδικό σημαίνει την ύπαρξη ποικίλων διαφορών σε γνωστικό και κοινωνικό επίπεδο μεταξύ των παιδιών. Δεδομένου ότι αυτά τα χαρακτηριστικά επηρεάζουν τη μάθηση, οι εκπαιδευτικοί καλούνται να ανταποκριθούν αποτελεσματικά στην αξιοποίηση αυτής της ετερογένειας. Η Διαφοροποιημένη Διδασκαλία (ΔΔ) θεωρείται μία καινοτόμα διδακτική προσέγγιση, η οποία στοχεύει στη μεγιστοποίηση της μάθησης για το κάθε παιδί, λαμβάνοντας υπόψη τις ανάγκες του στην οικοδόμηση της διδασκαλίας. Παρόλο, που υπάρχουν αρκετές έρευνες που να συνηγορούν στη θετική επίδραση της ΔΔ στα παιδιά, υπάρχει σημαντικό έλλειμα στην εφαρμογή της στο πεδίο της προσχολικής εκπαίδευσης, όπου προωθείται η Διαθεματική προσέγγιση της γνώσης. Για το λόγο αυτό, η παρούσα δημοσίευση συζητά τα αδύναμα σημεία της ΔΔ, στα οποία έχει ασκηθεί έντονη κριτική (π.χ. μαθησιακό προφίλ/μαθησιακό στυλ, ερμηνεία των ενδιαφερόντων), η οποία αναπόφευκτα οδηγεί στην αναθεώρηση και τον εκσυγχρονισμό του πλαισίου της, προκειμένου να αυξηθεί η εφαρμοσιμότητά της στην προσχολική εκπαίδευση. Οι προτάσεις του αναθεωρημένου πλαισίου αφορούν την ένταξη της διαθεματικότητας, την έμφαση στην αυθεντική αξιολόγηση, την τοποθέτηση του μαθησιακού στυλ σε δευτερεύοντα ρόλο, την ερμηνεία των ενδιαφερόντων σύμφωνα με σύγχρονα ερευνητικά πορίσματα. Επίσης, συζητώνται οι εκπαιδευτικές προεκτάσεις, αλλά και η ανάγκη για περαιτέρω έρευνα και εφαρμογή, ώστε να αποδειχθεί η αποτελεσματικότητά του στην προσχολική τάξη.
... The results agree with the Kim research findings (2005) that presented elements of positive results in the students' achievement when exposed to differentiated teaching. The results also agree with Tieso (2005) who claims that students taught through differentiated teaching reached significantly higher goals in their scores after the examination than those exposed to conventional teaching methods. ...
... The results coincide with Tieso (2005) who reached the conclusion that differentiation in the curriculum, along with the creation of flexible group teaching, can significantly improve the students' technological achievements. The results are, also, compatible with the findings of Brighton, Hertberg, Moon, Tomlinson & Callahan, (2005) who ascertained that students in differentiated secondary school classrooms have shown statistically more important results than those students in the control groups. ...
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Nowadays, differentiation in teaching is considered to be a given fact on all levels of education. Responding to the needs of all students in a class with various needs constitutes a major challenge. The weakness on the teacher’s part to deal with different students on different cognitive levels leads to their failure at school and to all the negative results that arise from it. Differentiated teaching and learning contributes to the dealing of the problem maintaining at the same time the respect to different levels of knowledge existing in the class and responds to the needs of every student.The present article presents a case study where a group of Technology teachers and an expert on the development of a curriculum developed and applied a differentiated learning environment of teaching on the third grade of secondary school in two secondary schools in Greece. This study proves that differentiated teaching has a positive impact on the involvement and motivation of students and improves their understanding difficult meanings of applied sciences.
... The constructivist approach, according to Sani et al. (2014), allows students to actively participate in observations, analyzing trends, and forming conclusions based on the collected data. The findings of the study corroborated those of Beecher and Sweeny (2008), Carol (2005), Castle, Deniz, and Tortora (2005), Garba and Muhammad (2015). ...
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Students learn in a variety of ways, with some instructors lecturing, others demonstrating/discussing, and some focusing on principles while others on applications. As a result, the level of understanding and prior preparation of a student's learning style is affected. Because learners develop their own knowledge or at least interpret it based on their perceived experiences, one of the most essential ways for teaching calculus is the constructive approach. In this study, two research questions were raised, and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted, with one hundred (100) students randomly sampled from the population of all ND 2 students taking the course of Calculus for Science (STP 213). The research instruments used were self-developed pre-test and post-test that was validated by experts. The instruments were pilot tested and confirmed to be reliable using Cronbach's alpha (α=0.82) coefficient. The data were statistically analyzed using mean, SD, and independent sample t-test. The findings revealed that using a constructivist approach, polytechnic students' understanding of the concepts of limits can be improved.
... Despite broad support for differentiation, it has not been implemented with fidelity in most schools, where one-size-fits-all instruction remains common (Brighton, Hertberg, Moon, Tomlinson, & Callahan, 2005;Callahan, Moon, & Oh, 2017;Tomlinson, 2016). When the model has been implemented with fidelity, however, positive effects on student achievement and higher-order thinking skills have been documented in diverse populations (Richards & Omdal, 2007;Tieso, 2002Tieso, , 2005Rasmussen, 2006;Tomlinson, Brimijoin, & Narvaez, 2008). ...
... Grouping is a topic that has caused much disagreement. On the one hand, it has been considered to cause negative effects on students with high abilities, and, on the other hand, the benefits of this type of intervention have been mentioned to underline the greater evidence of its positive effects [14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
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Background: Creativity is one of the most relevant aspects in students' training. One of the purposes of the present work is to show the lack of differences between boys and girls in creativity; the other is the possibility of improving creativity among high-ability students who received specific training as part of their intra-curricular content in a total grouping program for gifted students. Method: The sample consisted of 42 students from first to third grade (13 females and 29 males) and 58 students from fourth to sixth grade (21 females and 37 males). Creativity was measured with the CREA test for younger students and with the PIC-N for older students. Training was carried out through an Integral Innovation and Creativity Program (PIIC). Results: The results showed no differences between genders, except in one of the graphic creativity scales (Details). There were improvements due to the training in all measures of narrative creativity and in the scale of elaboration of graphic creativity. Conclusions: The main conclusions are the importance of increasing creativity with specific programs and the need to improve interventions in graphic creativity.
... Chamberlin and Powers (2010) in their quasi-experimental study demonstrated that DI contributes to the higher mathematical achievement of college students. Tieso (2005) showed that differentiated curriculum and adequate grouping of students contribute to students' mathematical achievement. Goddard, Goddard, and Kim (2015) found that schoolwide support for DI is positively linked to students' achievement. ...
Article
Teachers around the world are expected to respect the diversity of students and differentiate instruction. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that are related to the use of differentiated instruction. The aim of this study was to examine the indirect effects of transformational school leadership on teachers’ use of differentiated instruction. Data were collected from 314 Serbian teachers who work in different school settings. Structural equation modelling with latent variables showed that teacher collaboration and self-efficacy had significant direct effects on the use of differentiated instruction. Transformational school leadership positively predicted differentiated instruction via teacher collaboration. Moreover, the obtained results revealed that both teacher collaboration and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between transformational school leadership and teachers’ use of differentiated instruction. Implications for educational policy and practice were discussed.
... Subsequently, association between differentiated instruction and students' academic achievement were examined in science (Abigail & Ebele, 2013;Ferrier, 2007;Graham, 2009;Pablico et al., 2017;Sondergeld & Schultz, 2008;White, 2015), reading comprehension and language (Aliakbari & Haghigh, 2014;Beecher & Sweeny, 2008;Boges, 2015;Cusumano & Muelier, 20007;Fisher et al., 2002;Servilio, 2009), and Mathematics (Amadio, 2014;Beecher & Sweeny, 2008;Butler & Lowe, 2010;Cannon, 2017;Ogunkunle & Henrietta, 2014;Magayona & Tan, 2016;Tieso, 2001Tieso, , 2002Tieso, , 2005. These studies found that students exposed to differentiated instruction performed significantly higher than those taught with a time-honored one-size-fits-all traditional method. ...
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The present study developed and evaluated the content validity of a survey questionnaire titled, "Instrument to Assess Teachers' Practice of Differentiated Instruction (IATPDI)." The items of IATPDI questionnaire were adapted from the pre-existing survey questionnaires and existing literature on differentiated instruction. To quantify the content validity of IATPDI questionnaire, a pre-developed survey questionnaire with 40 items was emailed to two established content experts to: (1) rate each item in terms of its clarity and relevancy to the measured domain; (2) evaluate which item should be deleted or revised; and (3) get recommendation about whether additional items are needed to adequately tap the domain of interest. The Delphi method was used to collect the data. Subsequently, two rounds of Delphi process culminated in a revised and refined IATPDI questionnaire with 40 simplified items divided into four sections. The content validity of IATPDI questionnaire was quantified by calculating the content validity index (I-CVI and S-CVI) and modified kappa statistics, which indicated the high content validity of the 40 items. Taken together, the results show that the IATPDI questionnaire is a content valid instrument.
... Thus, although the learning objectives apply to all students, individual students would be able to accomplish these objectives on different levels, breaking away from lockstep learning. Research by Förster et al. (2018) and Tieso (2005) supports the assumed positive effect of scripted teaching materials that are aligned with students' requirements and the learning objectives (Stecker, Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2005). Accordingly, the step from evidence to action is likely to be facilitated by supporting teachers with training and high-quality, tailor-made teaching materials. ...
Article
The paper analyzes the efficacy of a data-based differentiated instruction (DBDI) intervention in addressing growing achievement-related heterogeneity in school. The intervention consisted of a reading strategy training conducted by teachers, in which 27 secondary-school classes (nstudents = 656) participated. The propensity-matched control group consisted of another 27 classes (nstudents = 558). Linear mixed models showed that students of the intervention classes had no greater gain in reading competence on average compared to students of the control classes. However, the groups differed regarding the learning gain at different achievement levels. In the control group, the gain was greatest for the low achievers and lowest for the high achievers. This imbalance was not found in the intervention group, where the learning gain was similar for students of each achievement level. This shows that DBDI is a tool for addressing achievement-related heterogeneity which empowers teachers to cater to the differences between students.
... These authors linked teachers' use of differentiated instruction to student engagement. Tieso (2005), who measured differentiated instruction by examining teachers' grouping practices and curricular adjustments, demonstrated a link between differentiated instruction and students' mathematics achievement. Ernest, Thompson, Heckaman, Hull, and Yates (2011) worked closely with 35 teacher education candidates who were assigned to K-12 classrooms across various subjects in rural, urban, and suburban settings. ...
Article
Background/Context Teacher collaboration, instructional practices, and efficacy are linked in various ways in the literature. For example, in schools where teachers reported greater use of differentiated instruction, team collaboration and culture were reportedly higher (Smit & Humpert, 2012). Further, teachers’ instructional mastery experiences lead to higher efficacy (Tschannen-Moran & McMaster, 2009). Tomlinson (1995) suggests that getting teachers to continue using differentiated instruction requires those teachers to experience quick success (i.e., mastery experiences that lead to increased efficacy). Bruce, Esmonde, Ross, Dookie, and Beatty (2010) found that teachers with high efficacy were more likely to try challenging instructional approaches that required taking risks in their classrooms and to use assessments. Based on our literature review, we hypothesized that teachers’ reports of their collaborative practices would be related to their teaching efficacy when mediated by their reported differentiated instruction use. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine connections between teachers’ perceptions of their collaboration, their reported use of differentiated instruction (a particular instructional practice), and teacher efficacy in high-poverty rural schools in a Midwestern state. Participants Survey, demographic, and assessment data were collected for 95 elementary schools, 1,623 elementary teachers, and 4,167 students in rural high-poverty areas located in the northern regions of a Midwestern state. Research Design Data from the first year of a large-scale, longitudinal randomized control trial designed to evaluate the effects of a leadership training program were used for this study. Data Collection and Analysis Survey data containing collaboration, differentiated instruction, and teacher efficacy scales were collected from teachers during regularly scheduled faculty meetings. Demographic and achievement data were collected from a state accountability data system. We employed multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) to analyze our data, allowing us to take into account the nested structure of the data (i.e., teachers’ responses nested within schools). Results After controlling for school- and student-level characteristics, we found positive, statistically significant connections between teacher collaboration and teachers’ reports that they differentiated instruction (β =.43, p<.001) and between differentiated instruction and teacher efficacy (β =.38, p<.001). Conclusions The results are potentially significant for researchers and practitioners interested in approaches to improving teacher practices and strengthening efficacy beliefs. Our outcomes demonstrate the importance of teachers’ collaborative work around school improvement, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. Further, our work extends what is known about sources of teacher efficacy. Theoretically, via mastery experiences gained through collaboration and reports of using differentiated instruction in their classrooms, teachers’ efficacy beliefs were strengthened. In sum, district and school leaders, as well as policy makers, should recognize the kinds of supports that teachers need to improve instruction.
... In many countries of the world, although DI reflects promising benefits for both teachers and students to cope with the diversity of students as well as to improve the student achievement (Koeze, 2007;Subban, 2006;Tobin & McInnes, 2008;Tomlinson, Brimijoin, & Narvaez, 2008;Tomlinson & Imbeau, 2010) and is also recommended as a promising approach to address diversity in learning (Rock, Ellis, Greg & Gable, 2008). Many research findings also support the use of differentiation as a way of meeting the needs of academically diverse learners in today's classrooms (Carolan & Guinn, 2007;Dee, 2010;Dunn & Dunn, 2008;Good, 2006;Heck, 2009;Mulder, 2014;Rakow, 2007;Roy et al., 2013;Santamaria, 2009;Tieso, 2005;Tomlinson et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study was to investigate primary school teachers' practice of Differentiated Instruction (DI). For this study, a sequential mixed methods design was utilized. and data were collected from randomly selected primary school teachers, school principals, students and woreda education officers using questionnaire, interview, FGD and observation. Data were analyzed quantitatively using mean, standard deviation, one sample t-test, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA and qualitatively through descriptions and narrations. The main findings of the quantitative data revealed that the majority of primary school teachers have limitations in practicing DI. Many teachers teach diversified learners in the same classroom in a form of 'one-size-fits all' approach. However, significant differences were scrutinized based on qualification, in-service training, and teaching experience in executing the content, process, learning environment, and product differentiations. In other words, degree holder teachers, teachers who participated in in-service training on DI, and experienced teachers (teachers of 10-20 years of teaching experience) practiced DI better than their counterparts. Similarly, the qualitative findings revealed that teachers' practice of both content differentiation and product differentiation were lower than process and learning environment differentiations. Knowledge and training gaps of teachers, scarce school facilities, low commitment of teachers, weak school leadership support, and lack of favorable school environment were the major impeding factors. Therefore, it is timely to devise mechanisms to strengthen in-service capacity building training for teachers to effectively execute DI so as to address the diversified interests, readiness and learning profiles of students.
... Another programming option, flexible grouping, typically refers to cluster grouping by ability level or pull-out enrichment grouping. Cluster grouping by ability level allows students to be placed with their like-ability peers and reduces the range of variation in ability within a classroom, making not only better outcomes for gifted students (Brulles et al., 2010;Robinson et al., 2007;Tieso, 2005), but also for the general student population (Gentry & Owen, 1999;Pierce et al., 2011). This programming option is best implemented by teachers who have received strong professional learning on how to best differentiate for students based on their cluster's ability. ...
... Research shows that physically placing pupils together is not sufficient to ensure DI and increase student achievement (Deunk et al., 2018). Flexible grouping practices therefore need to be combined with adaptations of curricula, teaching methods and instructional materials (Lou et al., 1996;Tieso, 2005). Importantly, DI is not an isolated element. ...
Article
The interrelationship between UDL and DI has long been a topic of debate. This empirical study of pre-service teachers has been carried out to explore underlying beliefs and practices about these two inclusive frameworks and to tap into their potential interrelationship. The results show that UDL and DI practices are different but highly interrelated. Both practices share important predictors (i.e., ongoing assessment, self-efficacy, self-regulation and motivation). However, flexible grouping was found to be a predictor of UDL only. Overall, UDL and DI are perceived as two complementary approaches with sufficient internal consistency to be integrated. Free e-print: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1dgby,GtqvuBik
... Similarly, better academic performances also were shown in the researches about DI implementation from Tulbure (2011), Baumgartner et al. (2003), and Miller (1990). What is more, differentiation resulted in higher achievement in a speci c subject, like reading (Firmender et al., 2013), Mathematics (Chamberlin & Powers, 2010;Tieso, 2005). However, teachers who adopt DI in class are faced with many tasks (Moore & Kirkland, 2007;Tomlinson, 2001). ...
Preprint
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This study aims to probe into the concepts and use of differentiated instruction (DI) in Chinese primary and secondary schools by means of a systematic literature review from 1995 to 2019. Outcomes are presented in the form of thematic overview. Findings report that Chinese national conditions contributed to DI’ s definitions and theoretical basis from historical and realistic perspectives. Then, the selected articles show that Chinese teachers from primary and secondary schools are aware of the importance of student diversity, such as interests, learning style and abilities. Moreover, teachers can organize many teaching methods, like flexible grouping and collaborative learning, to build DI classrooms for satisfying various needs of learners. Results also point out DI’ s positive effect on students’ achievement, but Chinese large class size and teacher incapability are the main obstacles to the implementation of DI.
... Although the research results on flexible grouping differ (e.g. Tieso, 2005), in our teaching experience, we have found it to be an effective method to acknowledge the diversity of learners. Flexible grouping does not aim at permanent homogeneous groups. ...
Book
This edited book provides professionals in the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) with a situated and culturally-responsive account of diversity and inclusion in English language education, from primary to higher education and in a wide range of settings. The volume focuses on three overlapping areas: interculturality, special education needs, and gender. The chapters in each section seek to help readers reflect on the opportunities and challenges of diversity as a step towards inclusive practices, and raise awareness of critical topics across the curriculum and beyond by engaging in wider social issues. This book will be of interest to language teachers and teacher trainers, as well as scholars working in applied linguistics, higher education, intercultural studies, and related fields. Darío Luis Banegas is a Lecturer in TESOL in the University of Strathclyde and an Associate Fellow with the University of Warwick, UK. His main teaching and research interests are CLIL, action research, and initial English language teacher education. Griselda Beacon is a Lecturer in Literature at Universidad de Buenos Aires and at several teacher training colleges in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A NILE (Norwich Institute for Language Education) trainer in the UK, she has an MA in Literature from Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany. Her interests include literature and intercultural education. Mercedes Pérez Berbain is a former Lecturer in Teaching Practice at Joaquin V. Gonzalez College of Education, Argentina. She holds an MA in Education from Oxford Brookes University, UK and is involved in CPD (ESSARP, OUP, Pilgrims). Her main interests include teaching young learners and teacher development.
... Although the research results on flexible grouping differ (e.g. Tieso, 2005), in our teaching experience, we have found it to be an effective method to acknowledge the diversity of learners. Flexible grouping does not aim at permanent homogeneous groups. ...
Chapter
This chapter describes the result of changes made to year one undergraduate programmes to be all inclusive at one English medium instruction (EMI) institution within China. Recognising the similarities in the skills and techniques used to teach students the language and successful study skills, and students with dyslexia, this chapter draws on both a multi-sensory and a technology led approach. It highlights how compulsory (credit-bearing) English for academic purposes (EAP) modules, and associated teaching techniques, have been adapted to take into account issues related to students with dyslexia, enabling them to perform on an equal footing with other students. The positive impacts on progression rates for EAP modules, as well as migration of the teaching techniques into degree content classes are also highlighted, emphasising the wider impact on learning and teaching within the university and beyond.
... As a specialised area of teaching, gifted and talented education requires teachers who have undergone specialised training (Rowley, 2012;Henderson & Jarvis, 2016). Specifically, for the education of the gifted and talented to be effectively implemented, teachers require special training in practices such as identification (Hodge & Kemp, 2006;Siegle & Powell, 2004), assessment (Ysseldyke & Tardrew, 2007), differentiation (Dixon, Yssel, McConnel, & Hardin, 2014;Wiggins, 1998), grouping (Tieso, 2005), and acceleration (Geake & Gross, 2008). ...
... Existing studies on the practice of differentiated instruction have been conducted on numerous academic subjects and different groups of learners revealing varied outcomes especially on the students. Lawrence-Brown (2004) and Tieso (2005) had previously found differentiated instruction as beneficial for gifted students. While Kondor (2007) found a slight increase of student engagement and motivation, Powers (2008) revealed that the use of independent study for gifted learners in the regular classroom promote high motivation among the gifted learners. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Differentiated instruction has been implemented in classrooms where students who come from various backgrounds require appropriate lessons that are tailored to their varied learning preferences. As the spread of coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) is becoming more rampant, online learning has been lifted up as the main platform of teaching and learning, forcing the need to shift from the conventional face-to-face classroom to online, or virtual, mode of knowledge transfer. Having such global phenomenon affecting education, how does it affect the implementation of differentiated instruction that has been practised regularly by teachers before the wake of Covid-19? Previous studies have shown how it is done in the normal classroom setting, and that the practice of differentiated instruction contributes to students' motivation as well as academic performance. However, there is a need to explore how do teachers go about with online differentiated instruction and how does it affect the students, since online learning poses various threads to both teachers and students; and thus, one might argue the effectiveness of not only the teaching approach but also the overall teaching and learning outcomes. Borg's framework of teacher cognition, which has been extensively used in exploring how teachers teach, can be utilized to document the practice of online differentiated instruction. This study aimed to explore the practice of online differentiated instruction by teachers and examined its impact on students' motivation and academic performance during the Covid-19 outbreak. The participants of this study consists of 247 gifted students from a public school in Ma-laysia. To meet these aims, this study employed a mixed method research design, utilizing the framework of teacher cognition to explore the teachers' practice of online differentiated through interviews; and, utilizing a survey design using a questionnaire to determine the impact of online differentiated instruction towards students' motivation and academic performance. The findings revealed that although online differentiated instruction is feasible, however, appropriate combination of differentiation constructs need to be applied in order to achieve higher motivation and better academic performance among the students.
... Existing studies on the practice of differentiated instruction have been conducted on numerous academic subjects and different groups of learners revealing varied outcomes especially on the students. Lawrence-Brown (2004) and Tieso (2005) had previously found differentiated instruction as beneficial for gifted students. While Kondor (2007) found a slight increase of student engagement and motivation, Powers (2008) revealed that the use of independent study for gifted learners in the regular classroom promote high motivation among the gifted learners. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Differentiated instruction has been implemented in classrooms where students who come from various backgrounds require appropriate lessons that are tailored to their varied learning preferences. As the spread of coronavirus 19 (Covid-19) is becoming more rampant, online learning has been lifted up as the main platform of teaching and learning, forcing the need to shift from the conventional face-to-face classroom to online, or virtual, mode of knowledge transfer. Having such global phenomenon affecting education, how does it affect the implementation of differentiated instruction that has been practised regularly by teachers before the wake of Covid-19? Previous studies have shown how it is done in the normal classroom setting, and that the practice of differentiated instruction contributes to students’ motivation as well as academic performance. However, there is a need to explore how do teachers go about with online differentiated instruction and how does it affect the students, since online learning poses various threads to both teachers and students; and thus, one might argue the effectiveness of not only the teaching approach but also the overall teaching and learning outcomes. Borg’s framework of teacher cognition, which has been extensively used in exploring how teachers teach, can be utilized to document the practice of online differentiated instruction. This study aimed to explore the practice of online differentiated instruction by teachers and examined its impact on students’ motivation and academic performance during the Covid-19 outbreak. The participants of this study consists of 247 gifted students from a public school in Malaysia. To meet these aims, this study employed a mixed method research design, utilizing the framework of teacher cognition to explore the teachers’ practice of online differentiated through interviews; and, utilizing a survey design using a questionnaire to determine the impact of online differentiated instruction towards students’ motivation and academic performance. The findings revealed that although online differentiated instruction is feasible, however, appropriate combination of differentiation constructs need to be applied in order to achieve higher motivation and better academic performance among the students.
... In particular, it appears that students perceive that their teachers generally implement mastery learning, tutoring systems and build heterogeneous ability and interest groups. Although establishing specific student groups have been previously reported as a common DI practice (Chiner and Cardona, 2013;Tieso, 2005), mastery learning and tutoring systems are not frequently used (Letzel, V. 2019). Nonetheless, as discussed in the theoretical background, recent studies revealed that Mexican school teachers' main strategy to differentiate their instruction are in fact variants of mastery learning such as adapting and personalising curriculum as well as establishing expectations and goals for all students (Lav ın et al., 2020a(Lav ın et al., , 2020b. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing student diversity, the establishment of inclusive classrooms has become a top concern of policy‐makers worldwide urging teachers to differentiate their instruction according to students’ individual learning needs. As the implementation of differentiated instruction (DI) relies mainly on teachers, previous research has mostly focused on examining teachers’ perspectives on their use of differentiation. In contrast, far less attention has been paid to explore students’ perspectives about their experiences in inclusive classrooms. Therefore, this study aims at examining students’ experiences of their teachers’ actual DI practice. Moreover, this study sets the spotlight on Mexico, a country that has faced changes with a recent proposed educational model. Results from a mixed analysis of variance revealed that students do in fact perceive that their teachers implement DI practices. It appears that both primary and secondary school teachers implement more frequent variants of mastery learning as well as tutoring systems as a means to differentiate their instruction. Implications of the results, as well as further lines of research, are discussed.
... Επίσης, οι έρευνες που έχουν διεξαχθεί δίνουν έμφαση στην αποτελεσματικότητα της προσέγγισης κυρίως στις γνωστικές περιοχές της γλώσσας (Reis, McCoach, Little, Muller, & Kaniskan 2011) και των μαθηματικών (Tieso 2005, Scott 2012, ενώ λίγοι έχουν μελετήσει την επίδραση της διαφοροποιημένης προσέγγισης σε άλλες μαθησιακές περιοχές, όπως οι Φυσικές Επιστήμες (Odgers, Symons και Mitchell 2000). Το γεγονός ότι δεν υπάρχουν άλλα ερευνητικά δεδομένα που εστιάζουν στη διαφοροποίηση της διδασκαλίας στις ΦΕ οδηγεί στην έλλειψη ασφαλών συμπερασμάτων σχετικά με την αποτελεσματικότητά της σε αυτή τη γνωστική περιοχή. ...
... Reis et al. (2011) concluded that differentiated instruction in combination with enrichment improved reading achievement. Tieso (2005) examined the effects of differentiated instruction and grouping and found that flexible ability grouping in combination with curriculum differentiation resulted in higher mathematics achievement for average-and high-ability students. Gentry (2013) stated that achievement grouping was beneficial for students of all ability levels because it allows teachers to better address individual students' needs. ...
Article
We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Classroom Practices Survey–Revised (CPS-R) when used with students achieving at low, average, and high levels. A total of 739 teachers completed CPS-R for students in their classrooms. Results showed improvement in the reliability of CPS-R across all achievement levels when compared with its previous version. Internal consistency estimates for the four factors were higher for the high-achieving students (α = .84–.94) compared with estimates for students who achieve at average (α = .83–.92) and low (α = .81–.90) levels. Model fit of the data was in the acceptable range across all achievement levels. However, model fit indices for the high-achieving group were slightly better than for the average- and low-achieving groups. Results support the practical value of CPS-R as a tool to assess teachers’ use of differentiation strategies.
... In order to ensure differentiated teaching and gains in achievement (Deunk et al. 2018), flexible grouping practices (e.g. work in pairs, individual work) need to be combined with adaptations of curriculum, teaching methods and instructional materials and practices (Lou et al. 1996;Tieso 2005). ...
Article
The ability of identifying decisive classroom situations such as inclusive instructions, named ‘noticing’, has been identified as a crucial skill in the context of creating inclusive classrooms. To our knowledge, the associations between differentiated teacher beliefs (i.e. growth mindset and ethical compass), noticing abilities, and implementation of differentiated teaching practices have not been empirically explored. This study aims to explore and contrast these associations by conducting two structural models within both pre-service teacher and in-service teacher contexts. The instruments consisted of self-reported questionnaires and a standardised video-based comparative judgement instrument. Results indicated that differentiated teachers’ beliefs predict teachers’ noticing of inclusive classroom situations. Regarding pre-service teachers, growth mindset beliefs also worked as filters on noticing inclusive instructions but not for ethical compass beliefs, as they are still inactive. Another important finding is that pre-service and in-service teachers’ ability to notice inclusive instructions did not function as mediator between differentiated beliefs and practices. It can be concluded that more empirical grounding on the connection between pre-service teachers’ and teachers’ noticing of inclusive classroom situations with actual classroom practices is needed. Free e-print: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/7WBBIYKFRYTW7GUK37YJ/full?target=10.1080/13603116.2020.1862404
... Drawing upon an education context, in the same way that coaches can play-up talented youth athletes to expose them to a greater intensity of practice and competition, teachers can move high-achieving students into advanced streams of study; providing them with learning opportunities that are more appropriately challenging (e.g., Kulik, 2004;Neihart, 2007;Tieso, 2005;Vygotsky, 1978). For example, acceleration (i.e., when students enter school early or skip a grade) is a strategy that is comparable to playing-up. ...
Article
In an attempt to facilitate more appropriate levels of challenge, a common practice in academy football is to play-up talented youth players with chronologically older peers. However, the context of playing-up in academy football is yet to be empirically explored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the multidimensional factors that differentiated players who play-up from those who do not. Ninety-eight participants from a single football academy were examined within their age phase: Foundation Development Phase (FDP; under-9 to under-11; n = 40) and Youth Development Phase (YDP; under-12 to under-16; n = 58). Drawing upon the FA Four Corner Model, 27 factors relating to Technical/Tactical, Physical, Psychological, and Social development were assessed. Following MANOVA analysis within both the FDP and YDP, significant differences were observed for Technical/Tactical and Social sub-components (P < 0.05). Further differences were observed for Physical and Psychological sub-components (P < 0.05) within the YDP. In sum, Technical/Tactical and Social characteristics appeared to differentiate those who play-up compared to those who do not within the FDP. In the YDP however, there were measures representing all sub-components from the FA Four Corner Model. Subsequently, it is suggested coaches and practitioners consider these holistic factors when playing-up youth football players within relevant age-phases.
... Multiple studies underpin the value of differentiated instruction for the inclusion of students with SEN in mainstream education. For instance, previous research revealed that this teaching approach fostered student achievement and reduced the achievement gap between low SES-students and high SES-students and among different ethnic groups (Beecher & Sweeny, 2008;Reis, McCoach, Little, Muller, & Kaniskan, 2011;Tieso, 2005;Valiandes, 2015). Additionally instruction and curriculum modifications may reduce students' problem behaviour and increase their task engagement (Kern, Delaney, Clarke, Dunlap, & Childs, 2001;Lee, Wehmeyer;Soukup, & Palmer, 2010). ...
Article
This study focuses on the link between teacher collaboration on the one hand and teachers’ beliefs towards inclusion and differentiated instruction on the other hand, using a social network approach. Multilevel analysis on data from teachers (N = 441) in primary schools (N = 24) shows that teachers in highly dense school networks are more positive towards inclusion and implement more differentiated instruction. Teachers in highly centralized school networks differentiate less. This centralization was not significantly related to teachers’ beliefs towards inclusion. Finally, school external support did not have a significant impact on teachers’ beliefs towards inclusion and differentiated instruction.
... The results revealed that the students enjoyed flexible grouping, one-to-one instruction, freely choosing topics of interest and presenting these in their preferred way (Aliakbari & Haghighi 2014). Also, the outcomes of Tieso (2004) provide empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of a revised and differentiated curriculum, especially when flexible within-class ability grouping is employed. In consonance with these research results, Coubergs et al. (2017) found that combining different forms of flexible grouping positively predicts the use of adaptive teaching according to students' differences in learning. ...
Article
Differentiated instruction (DI) addresses academic diversity in order to maximise learning. Although it is theorised as both a philosophy and as a praxis of teaching, it is rarely measured as such. This study examines teacher profiles on differentiated instruction relating to their philosophy and self-reported praxis. The data stem from an exploratory study on differentiated instruction, which served the purpose of creating a valid instrument to measure teachers’ philosophy and teaching approaches relating to academic differences in interests, readiness and learning profiles, namely the DI-Quest instrument. The results reveal three teacher profiles based on five DI-related factors. The patterns are almost identical in primary and in secondary education. Interestingly, if more frequent adaptations to students’ differences in interests, readiness and learning profile are what differentiated instruction aims for, both philosophical factors (namely growth mindset and ethical compass oriented to students) need to be present. Lacking one of these factors, will have less adaptations as a consequence. This study displays the predictive power of teachers’ philosophy about Differentiated Instruction for their daily classroom practices. Consequences for future research, professional development and teacher education are discussed in detail.
... Gifted students tend to express a strong desire for increasing levels of challenge, complexity, and depth in their learning (Coleman et al., 2015;Gentry & Owen, 2004;Kanevsky, 2011;Kitsantas et al., 2017;Matthews & Kitchen, 2007;Potts, 2019). Although differentiated learning for gifted students has a positive impact on student achievement Gavin et al., 2013;Tieso, 2005), Tomlinson (1995) suggests that teachers' approach to differentiation is more likely to be reactive than proactive or preplanned. Teachers seem hesitant to change learning material, lesson plans of individuals, or evaluation procedures Tomlinson et al., 2003;van Geel et al., 2018), and the use of differentiation for gifted learners can be limited in classrooms (Johnsen & Kaul, 2019;VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2005). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare students’ and teachers’ perceptions of differentiated practices, student engagement, and the qualities of an effective teacher by fostering student voice. Participants included 802 students and 867 teachers from Northern Sydney government schools in Australia. The researcher used a convergent parallel mixed methods design, including online questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Years 5 to 12 gifted students ( n = 38) from four schools acted as co-researchers at the methodological level. The student co-researchers co-designed and disseminated the student survey, and interviewed their own teachers. Significant differences were found between the students’ and the teachers’ perceptions of differentiated practices, student engagement, and the qualities of an effective teacher. The study’s findings highlight the need for a shared understanding of perspectives by both teachers and students to foster schoolwide optimal learning and teaching processes.
... Additionally, the enrichment programme's activities focus on the importance of learners in organising and modifying their own knowledge and experiences, and in encouraging them to change their knowledge-processing system. Many studies (Neihart et al., 2002;Hughes, 2003;Tieso, 2005) agree that enrichment programmes provide real services and opportunities for gifted students to work for some time with others who have similar interests, abilities and incentives in the programme. Teachers benefit from this freedom in developing students' social and emotional characteristics by forming flexible groups within activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current research aims to evaluate the added value of enrichment programmes in improving mental flexibility and inventive work behaviour among gifted students in the intermediate stage. Taking a sample of 92 students from the ninth grade who were participating in summer enrichment programmes, the researcher applied the scales of mental flexibility, and inventive work behaviour before and after the programme. By using cluster analysis, the sample was divided into three distinct groups according to their baseline performance (high, intermediate and low performance). The results of the research show that the programmes had a statistically significant effect on the dimensions of mental flexibility and inventive work behaviour in the three clusters. Additionally, the results indicated the effectiveness of the programme in providing low-performance students with greater added value than intermediate-performance students, and high-performance students. Also, the programme earned the intermediate-performance students greater added value than it did for high-performance students.
... Σε μια καινοτόμα, αναστοχαστική διδακτική πρακτική, όπως είναι η διαφοροποίηση, τα έτοιμα σχέδια διδασκαλίας δεν μπορούν να είναι αποτελεσματικά καθότι απαιτείται αυθεντικός σχεδιασμός της διδασκαλίας, όπου οι επιλογές των δραστηριοτήτων, των μέσων, των στρατηγικών και της οργάνωσης της τάξης αποτελούν συνειδητές επιλογές του εκπαιδευτικού στη βάση της γνώσης των μαθητών του (Hall, 2002, Valiande & Koutselini, 2008, Βαλιαντή, 2013. Η ερευνητική εγκυροποίηση της αποτελεσματικότητας της διαφοροποίησης της διδασκαλίας, για όλους των μαθητές ανεξάρτητα από το κοινωνικοοικονομικό τους επίπεδο ή το επίπεδο ετοιμότητας τους (Valiandes, 2015), αλλά και τις γενικότερες θετικές επιδράσεις που μπορεί να έχει στη μάθηση και την επιτυχία των μαθητών (Gayfer, 1991, Joseph et al. 2013, McAdamis, 2001, Good & Brophy, 2003, Tomlinson, 1999Chall, 2000, Kim, 2005, Pfannenstiel, 1997, Baumgartner, Lipowski & Rush, 2003, Geisler, Hessler, Gardner & Lovelace, 2009, McQuarrie, McRae & Stack-Cutler, 2008, Rock, Gregg, Ellis & Gable, 2008, Tieso, 2005 αναδεικνύουν τόσο τη σημαντικότητα όσο και την αναγκαιότητα υιοθέτησης της από τους εκπαιδευτικούς και τα εκπαιδευτικά συστήματα που θα πρέπει να στηρίξουν ποικιλοτρόπως την εφαρμογή της καθότι απαιτείται συστηματική και ουσιαστική επιμόρφωση των εκπαιδευτικών (Valiandes & Neophytou, 2017). ...
Article
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Στο άρθρο αυτό παρουσιάζονται οι βασικές αρχές της Διαπολιτισμικής Εκπαίδευσης και της Διαφοροποίησης της Διδασκαλίας, αναλύονται τα σημεία σύγκλισης τους και προτείνεται μια συνδυαστική, εκλεκτικιστική προσέγγιση. Το πλαίσιο σύζευξης των δύο προσεγγίσεων, όπως συζητείται στο άρθρο, μπορεί να αναζητηθεί μέσα από τη θεωρία της Πολιτισμικά Ευαισθητοποιημένης Παιδαγωγικής (Culturally Responsive Pedagogy) (Gay, 2010, Kea, Campbell-Whatley & Richards, 2006, Ladson-Billings, 1995) ενώ η πρακτική για τη βελτιστοποίηση της παιδαγωγικής μεθόδευσης, μέσα από το Διαφοροποιημένο Διαπολιτισμικό Αναλυτικό Πρόγραμμα (Alenuma-Nimoh, 2012).
Article
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The traditional classroom setting in emerging nation primarily involves teachers focusing their lessons solely on the class as a whole total group. At occasions when group activities are conducted, groupings are done randomly without any prior preparation or plan of purposeful grouping or students' need. In both the cases, chances are high that some of the students are dissatisfied while some are at a disadvantage, because the material/content is taught with a one-size fits all notion, overlooking the fact that some learn fast, while some still remain confused and need more attention in order to grasp what is being taught. Many studies have focused on grouping, streaming or tracking students based on their ability alone. The objective of this study is to determine different types of instructional grouping as a cooperative differentiated strategy that affect learning in the classroom. This study will specifically see how different types of instructional grouping could keep all of the students of mixed ability meaningfully engaged, thereby affect learning in middle school classrooms and determine students' overall cooperative growth.
Article
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Promoting high-achieving students plays an important role in the school context. Hence, one promising support measure within the mixed-ability classroom is differentiated instruction (DI). The current systematic review examined (1) the impact of DI on high-achieving students’ outcomes, (2) to what extent DI is used, (3) how useful teachers and high-achieving students perceive DI, and (4) which barriers and facilitators are encountered in DI’s implementation. Forty-nine studies from 2000 to 2019 were included. Differentiated instruction impacted high-achieving students’ academic achievement and motivational-affective characteristics predominantly positive. However, there was considerable heterogeneity between and within studies. Teachers typically did not use DI for high-achieving students proactively nor on a regular basis. However, teachers and high-achieving students perceived DI as valuable for encouraging high-achieving students. The barriers found might help to explain discrepancies between the extent of usage and the perceived utility, whereas the identified facilitators suggest how to overcome these barriers.
Article
Since the standards-based education movement began in the early 1990s, mathematics education reformers have developed and evaluated many interventions to support students in mastering more rigorous content. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of U.S. PreK-12 mathematics intervention effects from 1991 to 2017 to study sources of heterogeneity. From more than 9,000 published and unpublished study reports, we found 191 randomized control trials that met our inclusion criteria, with 1,109 effect size estimates representing more than a quarter of a million students. The average effect size on student mathematics achievement was 0.31, with wide heterogeneity of most effects ranging from −0.60 to 1.23. Two modeling approaches—meta-regression and machine learning—provided converging evidence that outcome measure type (researcher-created vs. standardized) and technology delivery (vs. teacher or interventionist delivery) were predictors of effect size. Intervention type, intervention length, grade level, and publication year were also identified as potentially explanatory factors.
Thesis
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Heterogenität ist Teil des (Schul-)Alltags, was sich in den Lerngruppen widerspiegelt, die Lehrkräfte in der Schule vorfinden. Unterschiedlichen Bedürfnissen auf Seiten der Schüler/-innenschaft soll – und das ist in zahlreichen der Öffentlichkeit zugänglichen Dokumenten, wie Schulgesetzen, Schulordnungen und Standards für die Lehrerbildung festgeschrieben – in Form von Differenzierung begegnet werden. Innerhalb dieser Dissertation wird untersucht, wie Binnendifferenzierung auf Mikroebene in der Schulpraxis implementiert wird. Dabei werden die Einsatzhäufigkeit binnendifferenzierender Maßnahmen und Kontextvariablen von Binnendifferenzierung untersucht. Anhand einer Stichprobe von N = 295 Lehrkräften verschiedener Schulformen, die die Fächer Deutsch und/oder Englisch unterrichten, wurde u.a. gezeigt, dass Binnendifferenzierung allgemein nicht (sehr) häufig eingesetzt wird, dass manche Maßnahmen häufiger Einsatz finden als andere, dass an Gymnasien Binnendifferenzierung nicht so häufig eingesetzt wird, wie an anderen Schulformen und dass die Einsatzhäufigkeit bedingende Kontextfaktoren bspw. kollegiale Zusammenarbeit bei der Unterrichtsplanung und -durchführung, die wahrgenommene Qualität der Lehramtsausbildung hinsichtlich des Umgangs mit Heterogenität und die Bereitschaft zur Implementation von Binnendifferenzierung sind und auch Einstellungen zu Binnendifferenzierung und (Lehrer/-innen)Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen in Zusammenhang mit dem Maßnahmeneinsatz stehen. Die durchgeführte Post-hoc Analyse zeigte bzgl. Einsatzhäufigkeit weiterhin Zusammenhänge zwischen der Persönlichkeit der Lehrkräfte und der Schulform, an der diese unterrichten. Die Ergebnisse entstammen der Schulpraxis und liefern deshalb praktische Implikationen, wie bspw. Hinweise zur Steigerung der Qualität der Lehramtsausbildung, die neben zukünftigen Forschungsansätzen im Rahmen dieser Arbeit expliziert werden. _____________________________________________________________________ Heterogeneity is part of everyday life, and classrooms mirror this reality. Thus, students’ broad array of learning needs should, as stipulated in numerous publicly accessible documents, such as school laws, school regulations and standards for teacher training, be meaningfully addressed through means of differentiated instruction. The present doctoral thesis examines how differentiated instruction at the micro level is implemented in school practice. In particular, teachers’ differentiated practice in terms of frequency of use, as well as context variables are examined. Data analyses from a sample of N = 295 German (as a school subject) and/or English teachers from different school tracks, indicated that: a) differentiated instruction is scarcely used in daily practice, b) that German and English teachers hold a low invariance in their differentiated instructional practices, and c) that in comparison to low and comprehensive school track teachers, high track school teachers implement far less differentiated instruction in their in-class practice. Additionally, the analyses from the present doctoral thesis show that teachers’ implementation of differentiated instruction is dependent on context factors, such as teacher collaboration in planning and implementation of lessons, the perceived quality of teacher training with regard to dealing with heterogeneity as well as teachers’ willingness to implement differentiated instruction, their attitudes and expectations of self-efficacy. Lastly, post-hoc analysis showed, with regard to the frequency of use, links between teachers’ personality and the school track at which they teach. Given that the results stem from school practice, they provide practical implications, such as information on the importance and necessity of increasing the quality of teacher training. Further practical implications are explored and future lines of research are discussed.
Chapter
The diverse nature of school populations in current education requires teaching that not only considers the differences in their students, but how their own practices have an impact on a student's ability to learn content. Traditional Eurocentric models of education are not relevant to the lives of racially culturally ethnically linguistically diverse students, thus creating barriers to learning for students who do not fit neatly into categories of Black or White. For the academic environment to be accessible for all students, classroom instruction must become culturally aligned. This may be somewhat of a challenge given that classroom teachers are ill-prepared to meet the needs of RCELD students in math education. Teachers are faced with the critical challenge of creating learning environments that bridge the gap between culture and curriculum with appropriate strategies and resources, while all the while adhering to state and federal standards. This chapter explores using culturally responsive teaching to teach mathematics.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on differentiation in English language teaching. We present the 5-dimensional (5D) model of differentiation which has been created based on the Finnish educational context. The model is grounded in the postulate that differentiation is a proactive and student-centred approach that permeates all teaching and involves the entire school community. The 5D model progresses from general to specific. It advocates for differentiation to be implemented holistically in several dimensions of teaching which are teaching arrangements, learning environment, teaching methods, support materials and assessment. Furthermore, it proposes that all differentiation should be based on students’ individual characteristics, such as learning profile, self-esteem, interests, readiness, needs, motivation, personality and history.
Article
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Von Seiten der Lehrkräfte wird – in Zeiten von Schulstrukturwandel, Migration und inklusiver Bildung – zunehmend die Forderung nach praxistauglichen Handlungsempfehlungen zum Umgang mit Heterogenität im Klassenzimmer artikuliert. Hierzu bieten sich verschiedene binnendifferenzierende Ausgestaltungsvarianten des Unterrichts an. Trotz des in Politik, Schulpädagogik und Schulpraxis bestehenden Konsenses darüber, dass Binnendifferenzierung sinnvoll und wünschenswert ist, ist deren Implementation in die tägliche Unterrichtspraxis über alle Schulformen der Sekundarstufe hinweg suboptimal (z.B. Schleicher, 2016). Des Weiteren weisen bereits existierende Konzepte und Systematisierungen binnendifferenzierender Maßnahmen Desiderata im Hinblick auf konkrete praktische Implikationen für die tägliche Unterrichtspraxis auf. In diesem Beitrag wird auf Basis der aktuell vorliegenden Literatur zum Themenkomplex eine Taxonomie der Binnendifferenzierung vorgestellt, die verschiedene Maßnahmen beschreibt und gruppiert. Die sechs Kategorien der Taxonomie umfassen: I. abgestufte Aufgaben und Materialien, II. gezielte Zusammensetzung von Schüler*innengruppen, III. Helfer- und Tutorensysteme innerhalb der Lerngruppe, IV. (gestufte) materielle Lernhilfen, V. zielerreichendes Lernen und VI. Öffnung des Unterrichts / Autonomiegewährung. Die vordringliche Intention dieser Taxonomie besteht darin, Lehrkräften eine kompakte Übersicht zu möglichen Handlungsweisen und unterrichtlichen Arrangements an die Hand zu geben. Auch wird die hier vorgestellte Taxonomie in Relation zu bereits bestehenden Systematisierungen gesetzt und Implikationen für die Forschung werden umrissen.
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This study determined the effect of differentiated instruction on students' achievement in geometry. Two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 alpha levels guided the study. The study employed pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study consisted of 1603 Senior Secondary two (SSII) students in Onitsha North Local Government of Anambra State and a sample of 224 SSII students were randomly selected from two co-education secondary schools from the population. Geometry Achievement Test (GAT) which contained 30 items was face and content validated by three experts. Reliability of the instrument was estimated at 0.78 using split-half reliability method. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested using z-test and t-test at 5% level of significance. The findings of the study showed that students that were taught geometry with differentiated instruction achieved better than those taught with conventional method. Both male and female students achieved high in geometry with the use of differentiated instruction. There is a statistically significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught geometry with differentiated instruction and those taught with conventional method. Again, there is no statistically significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught geometry with differentiated instruction. It was recommended among others that Mathematics teachers and educators should adopt the use of differentiated instruction while teaching and learning mathematics. Also curriculum developers should incorporate the use of differentiated instruction in the mathematics curriculum.
Chapter
This chapter aims to provide an in-service teaching model, which is named as a “reflective teachers-as-designers professional development model” based on the literature, designed to give teachers an understanding of teaching that focuses on developing real-life contexts and developing global competencies. First, the conceptual framework for the learning of teachers and their capacity as designers are discussed. Then, content components and process components of the model are presented by providing the rationale behind each element.
Article
This study implemented differentiated instruction (DI) featuring tiered tasks and heterogeneous grouping tasks in three mixed-level English classes at a military institution in Taiwan, a setting that is small, admits students with varying English proficiency levels, and is culturally cohesive. The end-of-semester student survey and interview show that the students appreciated the opportunity to choose among various kinds of activities in accordance with their levels and benefitted from cooperative learning. The qualitative data also show evidence that their classroom behaviours were aligned with the militarized culture’s values of group solidarity, hierarchical teamwork, and competitive striving. The results support further study into how cultural orientation can be used in planning DI activities for a military or other similar settings.
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Η Διαφοροποιημένη Διδασκαλία (ΔΔ) προσφέρει ένα πλαίσιο αξιοποίησης της διαφορετικότητας των παιδιών, με σκοπό τη μεγιστοποίηση της μάθησης. Η παρούσα διατριβή εστίασε στη σχέση της ΔΔ με την επίδοση των νηπίων στο πλαίσιο της διαθεματικότητας. Εφαρμόστηκε ημι-πειραματική έρευνα με 80 παιδιά στην πειραματική ομάδα και 74 στην ομάδα ελέγχου. Τα δεδομένα συλλέχθηκαν με ατομικές συνεντεύξεις προ- και μετά-ελέγχου και αναλύθηκαν με στατιστικά τεστ και Ανάλυση Περιεχομένου. Για τη διασφάλιση της πιστότητας των διαφοροποιημένων παρεμβάσεων, αναπτύχθηκε ένα πρόγραμμα Επαγγελματικής Ανάπτυξης των νηπιαγωγών της πειραματικής ομάδας. Από τα αποτελέσματα φάνηκε ότι η ΔΔ ήταν πιο αποτελεσματική στην επίτευξη υψηλότερης επίδοσης σε σύγκριση με τη διδασκαλία προς το μέσο επίπεδο, αλλά και ο αντισταθμιστικός της ρόλος μεταξύ διαφορετικών ομάδων παιδιών. Συνεπώς, τα επιμέρους στοιχεία της ΔΔ (π.χ. ελευθερία επιλογής, εργασία σε ομάδες, αυτενέργεια) προώθησαν την αυξημένη εμπλοκή των παιδιών στη διαδικασία της μάθησης, οδηγώντας σε καλύτερα μαθησιακά αποτελέσματα.
Article
This article focuses on cluster teachers’ differentiation of their classroom instructional practices within an urban setting. Data were gathered from classroom observations of the learning task, questioning, and the classroom environment; ratings of observations using the Classroom Instructional Practices Scale; and interviews with teachers, parents, and students. Ten observers assessed the differentiation of classroom instructional practices in literacy and mathematics of 79 cluster classrooms in 18 different elementary/intermediate schools. Results indicated the majority of cluster teachers used a standardized guide in structuring their curriculum, created positive learning environments, and varied their learning activities. Teachers appeared to need permission for flexibility and professional development for implementing acceleration, varying activities for individual students within small groups, varying time for learning, managing behavior of multiple groups and independent learning, making connections across subject areas to learning outside of school, and understanding the characteristics and role of gifted students in the classroom. Some system practices were also identified as creating obstacles for differentiation.
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This article presents an historical perspective on the evolution of three curiculum and instructionial models that have been shown to be effective with gifted learners in various contexts and at various grade levels It argies for consideration of all three models in a comprehensive program for gifted learners.
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The history of curriculum development for the gifted has witnessed a seesaw effect rather than an appropriate balance between authentic knowledge (content) and instructional techniques (process). The Multiple Menu Model is a practical set of planning guides that can assist curriculum developers in combining content with instructional strategies. Menus are provided in the areas of Knowledge, Instructional Objectives and Student Activities, Instructional Strategies, Instructional Sequences, and Artistic Modification. Each of the five planning menus is designed to provide specific forms of guidance for the construction of curricular material that is consistent with generally agreed upon goals of gifted education. A lesson planning guide is designed to synthesize and insure representation of the content and process selected from the respective menus.
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Certain grouping arrangements in elementary and secondary schools appear to be instructionally effective for students, but the psychological drawbacks may offset any advantages. The relative benefits and disadvantages of within-class grouping and between-class grouping are discussed, along with the problems with ability grouping. (TE)
Article
This article reviews research on the effects of between- and within-class ability grouping on the achievement of elementary school students. The review technique—best-evidence synthesis—combines features of meta-analytic and narrative reviews. Overall, evidence does not support assignment of students to self-contained classes according to ability (median effect size [ES] = .00), but grouping plans involving cross-grade assignment for selected subjects can increase student achievement. Research particularly supports the Joplin Plan, cross-grade ability grouping for reading only (median ES = +.45). Within-class ability grouping in mathematics is also found to be instructionally effective (median ES = +.34). Analysis of effects of alternative grouping methods suggests that ability grouping is maximally effective when done for only one or two subjects, with students remaining in heterogeneous classes most of the day; when it greatly reduces student heterogeneity in a specific skill; when group assignments are...
Article
Gifted and talented students need instruction at a level and pace as well as conceptual complexity commensurate with their advanced levels of ability and achievement. Grouping heterogeneously and providing cooperative learning in heterogeneous groups leads to lowered achievement and motivation as well as poorer attitudes toward school. Academic achievement of American youth is lower than the achievement of youth in many Asian and European countries. If we wish to sustain or increase the academic achievement of American youth they should be grouped for instruction according to ability and achievement levels, but grouping practices should be flexible, and rigid tracking should be avoided.
Article
As a result of our experience in developing thinking skills components within gifted education programs, we have identified several key issues in the creation of an effective thinking skills program. We believe that although the development of improved questioning strategies and classroom environments to enhance thinking skills is a vital and often neglected aspect of cognitive instruction, the actual teaching of thinking skills is even more important.We define “direct instruction” as the development and use of lesson plans that describe, define and model the appropriate strategies for applying a particular thinking skill. Given the necessary training and planning time, teachers can learn to develop units of instruction to introduce, practice and transfer a given thinking skill. By observing as the teacher models the use of these strategies, and by engaging in guided practice, the student can be “coached” to attain skill mastery and will eventually be able to transfer this new thinking skill to appropriate content areas.This article explains five steps that can be followed in the development of a thinking skills component within a gifted education program. Specific information about how to select skills, write lesson plans and teach these thinking skills lessons is discussed.
Article
The effects of within-class grouping on student achievement and other outcomes were quantitatively integrated using two sets of study findings. The first set included 145 effect sizes and explored the effects of grouping versus no grouping on several outcomes. Overall, the average achievement effect size was +0.17, favoring small-group learning. The second set included 20 effect sizes which directly compared the achievement effects of homogeneous versus heterogeneous ability grouping. Overall, the results favored homogeneous grouping; the average effect size was +0.12. The variability in both sets of study findings was heterogeneous, and the effects were explored further. To be maximally effective, within-class grouping practices require the adaptation of instruction methods and materials for small-group learning.
Article
The importance of textbooks to the U.S. mathematics curriculum cannot be overstated. The recent rejection by the California State Board of Education of all fourteen text series submitted for adoption illustrates the public perception of the importance of textbooks. Begle (1973) pointed to data from the National Longitudinal Study of Mathematical Achievement to emphasize the important influence textbooks have on student learning, citing evidence that students learn what is in the text and do not learn topics not covered in the book. The National Advisory Committee on Mathematical Education (1975) acknowledged the importance of textbooks as guides for teachers. Fey (1980) emphasized the important influence of texts and pointed out that text content is usually not ba ed on research. Investigators at the Insti tute for Research on Teaching offer evidence that, at the very least, texts are important exercise sources (see Porter et al. 1986). The overall picture is that to a great extent the textbook defines the content of the mathematics that is taught in U.S. schools.
Article
Five questions about the academic, psychological and socialization effects on gifted and talented learners of grouping for enrichment, cooperative grouping for regular instruction, and grouping for acceleration are addressed. The conclusions drawn from 13 research syntheses on these practices, conducted in the past nine years are described. In general, these conclusions support sustained periods of instruction in like‐ability groups for students who are gifted and talented.
Article
Meta-analytic reviews have focused on five distinct instructional programs that separate students by ability: multilevel dasses, cross-grade programs, within-class grouping, enriched classes for the gifted and talented, and accelerated classes. The reviews show that effects are a function of program type. Multilevel classes, which entail only minor adjustment of course content for ability groups, usually have little or no effect on student achievement. Programs that entail more substantial adjustment of curriculum to ability, such as cross-grade and within-class programs, produce clear positive effects. Programs of enrichment and acceleration, which usually involve the greatest amount of curricular adjustment, have the largest effects on student learning. These results doe not support recent claims that no one benefits from grouping or that students in the lower groups are harmed academically and emotionally by grouping. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67315/2/10.1177_001698629203600204.pdf