Partial Nephrectomy Versus Radical Nephrectomy in Patients With Small Renal Tumors—Is There a Difference in Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes?

Department of Urology, New York University Medical Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 11/2008; 181(1):55-61; discussion 61-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.09.017
Source: PubMed


Compared with partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy increases the risk of chronic kidney disease, which is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events and death. Given equivalent oncological efficacy in patients with small renal tumors, radical nephrectomy may result in overtreatment. We analyzed a population based cohort of patients to determine whether radical nephrectomy is associated with an increase in cardiovascular events and mortality compared with partial nephrectomy.
Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry data linked with Medicare claims we identified 2,991 patients older than 66 years who were treated with radical or partial nephrectomy for renal tumors 4 cm or less between 1995 and 2002. The primary end points of cardiovascular events and overall survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimation, Cox proportional hazards regression and negative binomial regression.
A total of 2,547 patients (81%) underwent radical nephrectomy and 556 (19%) underwent partial nephrectomy. During a median followup of 4 years 609 patients experienced a cardiovascular event and 892 died. When adjusting for preoperative demographic and comorbid variables, radical nephrectomy was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality (HR 1.38, p <0.01) and a 1.4 times greater number of cardiovascular events after surgery (p <0.05). However, radical nephrectomy was not significantly associated with time to first cardiovascular event (HR 1.21, p = 0.10) or with cardiovascular death (HR 0.95, p = 0.84).
Radical nephrectomy, which is currently the most common treatment for small renal tumors, may be associated with significant, adverse treatment effects compared with partial nephrectomy. Partial nephrectomy should be considered in most patients with small renal tumors.

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Available from: Thomas L Jang
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    • "According to Zini et al., RN is inferior to PN in terms of OS rate, and it increases the risk of non-cancerrelated mortality [3]. Similarly, Huang et al. reported that the risk of overall mortality and the occurrence rate of postoperative cardiovascular events are 1.38 and 1.21 times higher, respectively, after RN than after PN [8]. Sun et al. insisted that PN should be performed if technically possible because of the lower risk of postoperative other-cause mortality [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the overall survival (OS) rate and renal function after radical nephrectomy (RN) and partial nephrectomy (PN) in patients aged ⩾65years. Patients who underwent RN (n=622) or PN (n=622) for renal cell carcinoma (pT1N0M0) between 1999 and 2011 were propensity-score matched in our multicentre database. To investigate the relative effect of PN on OS according to age, we divided the patients into two age subgroups (<65 and ⩾65years). The 5-year OS rates and probabilities of freedom from chronic kidney disease (CKD III or IV) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and separate Cox proportional hazards models. The 5-year OS rates after surgery were 94.7% for PN and 91.9% for RN in the older patients (P=0.698). The corresponding rates in the younger patients were 99.7% for PN and 96.3% for RN (P=0.015). In separate Cox hazards models for OS, the older patients who underwent PN were not significantly different from their RN-treated counterparts (hazard ratio (HR): 0.960; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.277-2.321, P=0.797). Kidney function was significantly better preserved after PN than after RN at all ages. However, stage IV CKD in the older patients did not occur more frequently in the RN arm than in the PN arm. Although PN was associated with improved renal function compared with RN, it did not confer a benefit of higher survival rate in elderly patients (⩾65yearsold). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
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    • "A potential disadvantage of partial nephrectomy is the risk of local recurrence estimated to be 3-6% [2] and its technical demand [17]. Similarly as in the US, we found that men had a higher probability undergoing partial nephrectomy than women [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Representative statistics of surgical care among patients with kidney cancer are scant. With the introduction of the diagnosis related group system in Germany, it is now possible to provide nationwide statistics on surgical care. We studied in-hospital mortality risk in relation to comorbidity and complications, length of hospital stay in relation to surgical approach and comorbidity, and risk of complications in relation to surgical approach among kidney cancer patients undergoing nephrectomy. Methods We analyzed the nationwide hospitalization file of the years 2005 and 2006 including 23,753 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of renal cancer and partial or complete nephrectomy and classified comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index) and complications. Length of stay, risk of in-hospital complications and in-hospital death were analyzed by linear regression and log-linear regression (relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)). Results The overall in-hospital mortality was 1.4%. Per one unit increase of the Charlson comorbidity index, the adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality increased by 53% (95% CI 47-59%). The risks of bleeding or acute posthaemorrhagic anemia, respiratory, urological and gastrointestinal complications and infections ranged between 1.1% and 2.7% with the exception of bleeding or acute posthaemorrhagic anemia with 18.4%. Complications were associated with an increased adjusted in-hospital mortality risk. Highest adjusted mortality risk ratios were observed for gastrointestinal (RR = 3.61, 95% CI 2.32-5.63) and urological complications (RR = 3.62, 95% CI 2.62-5.00). The risk of haemorrhage or acute posthaemorrhagic anemia was lower for total laparoscopic nephrectomies than total open nephrectomies. The adjusted risk of gastrointestinal complications was lower for partial open compared to total open nephrectomy (adjusted RR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.97). Total laparoscopic nephrectomy was associated with shorter length of stay (−3.3 days; 95% CI 2.9-3.7 days) compared to total open nephrectomy. The estimated age-adjusted increase of length of stay per one unit increase of the Charlson comorbidity index was 1.3 days (95% CI 1.2-1.4 days). Conclusions In this representative population-based analysis, we found that the surgical approach is associated with the risk of complications and length of hospital stay. Furthermore, in the era of ageing populations, renal cancer patients with comorbidities should be counseled about their increased in-hospital mortality risk.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Urology
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    • "In the last decade, PN has been more widely adopted and surgical techniques have been modified to reduce the risk of complications, ease convalescence, and better preserve the functions of the remnant kidney [21,22,23]. Others have noted the underutilization of PN in older patients and have reported age as an independent predictor of radical surgery over PN in large populations, despite control for comorbidities [17]. This indicates that absolute age remains an inappropriately important factor in the decision-making process. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare the outcomes of nephron-sparing options (e.g., partial nephrectomy [PN]) and low-surgical-morbidity options (e.g., radical nephrectomy [RN]) in elderly patients with limited life expectancy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 135 patients aged 70 years or older who underwent RN (n=82) or PN (n=53) for clinical T1 stage renal masses between January 2000 and December 2012. Clinicopathologic data were thoroughly analyzed and compared between the RN and PN groups. The modification of diet in renal disease equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration. Overall survival and cardiac events were assessed by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling. Results Over a median follow-up period of 59.72 months, 17 patients (20.7%) in the RN group and 3 patients (5.7%) in the PN group died. Chronic kidney disease (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) developed more frequently in RN patients than in PN patients (75.6% vs. 41.5%, p<0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate did not differ significantly between the RN and PN groups (90.7% vs. 93.8%; p=0.158). According to the multivariate analysis, the Charlson comorbidity index score was an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.679, p=0.037). Type of nephrectomy was not significantly associated with overall survival (HR, 2.447; p=0.167) or cardiac events (HR, 1.147; p=0.718). Conclusions Although chronic kidney disease was lower after PN, overall survival and cardiac events were similar regardless of type of nephrectomy.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Korean journal of urology
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