Article

Open Doors: Report on International Educational Exchange

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Abstract

This report is a comprehensive information resource on the more than 514,000 international students in the United States and the more than 129,000 U.S. students who studied abroad in 1999. The Institute of International Education has conducted an annual statistical survey of the internationally mobile student population in the United States since 1948. The number of international students studying in the United States increased sharply during the 1999-2000 academic year. This year's total of 514,723 represents an increase of 4.8% over last year's figure. More than two-thirds of these students receive most of their funding for U.S. study from personal and family sources, and three-quarters receive most of their funding from sources outside the United States. The most significant source of U.S. funding is the institution the student attends. This year's enrollment increase reflects substantial increases from China and India, with enrollments growing at more than twice the overall rate. Asian students constitute more than half of the international enrollments. As the overall foreign student total has increased, community college international enrollments have grown by more than 40%. Business and management continue to be the most popular fields of study among international students in the United States. The past 3 years have also seen double digit enrollment increases in the number of U.S. students participating in study abroad programs for academic credit. Of these students, 45.9% study abroad in short duration programs. Information is also presented about the intensive study of English and the 74,571 foreign scholars who teach and conduct research in the United States. (Contains 19 figures and 38 tables.) (SLD)

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... A study stated that in 1999, the United States Institute of International Education (IIE) reported that 514,000 foreign students were enrolled in 50 different states [5]. This figure decreased after the September 11 incident but the past five years have shown that the population increased again [6]. ...
... This figure decreased after the September 11 incident but the past five years have shown that the population increased again [6]. More than fifty percent of exchange students came to the United States using their personal funds [5] thus contributing to the local economy. Almost fifty percent of the students took either a Master's or PhD degrees thus enhancing the United States quality of education [5]. ...
... More than fifty percent of exchange students came to the United States using their personal funds [5] thus contributing to the local economy. Almost fifty percent of the students took either a Master's or PhD degrees thus enhancing the United States quality of education [5]. Many believe that international students will continue to be a major component of American education. ...
Article
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Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) is a considerable tenet in the development of students. Learning institutions as an educative agency has its vital obligation to develop learners having distinct identity, encompassing diverse cultures. This study investigated the social lived experiences and coping mechanisms of foreign students in three phases-pre-sojourn, sojourn and post-sojourn. Using the qualitative method, it primarily utilized focused-group discussion (FGD), semi-formatted interview and questionnaire. Validation was made through cross-investigation in social media through questions and clarifications including informal chats. The respondents are Indians, Ghanaians, Zimbabwean, Nepalese, Nigerians and Malaysian. To facilitate the coding process, their answers were transcribed into Q and A format. Words were color-coded while respondents' responses and author's notes were uploaded to NVivo 10. To establish validity, multiple sources were used to review previous responses ensuring conformity to the ordinary expectations. Life. With these concerns, specific interventions, functional foreign students' affairs office and factors that cater to the needs of a particular foreign student were recommended.
... A study stated that in 1999, the United States Institute of International Education (IIE) reported that 514,000 foreign students were enrolled in 50 different states [5]. This figure decreased after the September 11 incident but the past five years have shown that the population increased again [6]. ...
... This figure decreased after the September 11 incident but the past five years have shown that the population increased again [6]. More than fifty percent of exchange students came to the United States using their personal funds [5] thus contributing to the local economy. Almost fifty percent of the students took either a Master's or PhD degrees thus enhancing the United States quality of education [5]. ...
... More than fifty percent of exchange students came to the United States using their personal funds [5] thus contributing to the local economy. Almost fifty percent of the students took either a Master's or PhD degrees thus enhancing the United States quality of education [5]. Many believe that international students will continue to be a major component of American education. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) is a considerable tenet in the development of students. Learning institutions as an educative agency has its vital obligation to develop learners having distinct identity, encompassing diverse cultures. This study investigated the social lived experiences and coping mechanisms of foreign students in three phases-pre-sojourn, sojourn and post-sojourn. Using the qualitative method, it primarily utilized focused-group discussion (FGD), semi-formatted interview and questionnaire. Validation was made through cross-investigation in social media through questions and clarifications including informal chats. The respondents are Indians, Ghanaians, Zimbabwean, Nepalese, Nigerians and Malaysian. To facilitate the coding process, their answers were transcribed into Q and A format. Words were color-coded while respondents' responses and author's notes were uploaded to NVivo 10. To establish validity, multiple sources were used to review previous responses ensuring conformity to the ordinary expectations. Life. With these concerns, specific interventions, functional foreign students' affairs office and factors that cater to the needs of a particular foreign student were recommended.
... This represents a 23% growth from the previous decade (open Doors, 2010). American higher education institutions have increasingly relied on international graduate students to enhance enrollment in doctoral programs in certain disciplines (Davis, 1999). Jia Ren, linda Serra Hagedorn, Michael T. McGill Enrollment of international students has enriched American higher education economically while adding a necessary dose of cultural diversity. ...
... The total economic contribution of international students in the united States was nearly $20 billion in 2009(open Doors, 2010. In addition, international graduate students often provide qualified research and teaching assistants (Davis, 1999). Researchers found that international graduate students are important contributors to u.S. innovation (Chellaraj, Maskus, & Mattoo, 2005). ...
... International students make significant contributions to institutions' diversity, revenue, investment, research and teaching (Davis, 1999). Research, however, has indicated that existing campus services are designed primarily for domestic students and may not appropriately serve international students (Davis, 1999). ...
... International students make significant contributions to institutions' diversity, revenue, investment, research and teaching (Davis, 1999). Research, however, has indicated that existing campus services are designed primarily for domestic students and may not appropriately serve international students (Davis, 1999). Shen and Herr (2004) suggested that educators and administrators should provide necessary services for the population taking into account their geographic and cultural needs. ...
Conference Paper
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United States is one of the major host countries to international students. International graduate students often play important roles as teaching and research assistants. In addition to teaching courses, they provide office hours to assist students in labs and to assist students outside of class. Despite of their ubiquity, international graduate students on American campuses have been understudied. Little is studied about International graduate students from African countries who are involved in teaching in U.S. universities Hence the purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of International graduate teaching assistants from African countries (IGTAAs) in U.S. universities. This study examined the classroom teaching and study experiences of international graduate teaching assistants from African countries in the school of education in a private University in northeastern United States during spring 2014 semester. The following research questions guided the study: 1. What are the teaching experiences of International graduate teaching assistants from African countries (IGTAAs) in U.S universities? 2. What are the study experiences of IGTAAs in U.S universities? Data was collected through interviews and observations. Data was analyzed by grounded theory. The findings from the study were that; All the IGTAAs interviewed had experienced the challenge of communication barrier during their lessons in the U.S. University classroom; and the IGTAAs expressed the challenge of accent and lack of contextual knowledge to explain the concepts to students when conducting their classroom teaching. However the IGTAAs had a good relationship with the students and professors outside the classroom. The study recommended that, there is need to design some courses for IGTAAs about the American culture to allow them to have contextual issues to use during their TA classes. It is also necessary to mix the American TAs and the IGTAAs in classrooms to allow the smooth transition by the IGTAAs.
... International students are the fastest growing student group in the United States (Davis, 2001). Colleges and universities attended by international students become places that offer much more than a degree to the students. ...
Article
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... Allaineh (1989) stated that the difference in time taken to enter college after high school between the American students and the international students occurred because the documented students had to complete the college application process before entering the U.S. to study. This may be exacerbated because in some countries it is difficult to obtain a student visa (Davis, 1998-99 ). Students may have to apply several times before receiving the visa. ...
Article
Researchers on international students focus on Fls, or documented students. These students are characterized as high achievers with excellent academic skills. One group of international students, the undocumented, may not be faring as well academically. To determine if this is true, the college records of 246 undocumented and 294 documented community college students were compared. The undocumented students did better on reading and writing placement tests but poorer on a mathematics placement test. Nevertheless, comparison of grade point averages and acadmic probations and dismissals showed the documented outperforming the undocumented students. Implications for programming for both groups are discussed.
... Today, Chinese students who are studying in the United States are still among the largest student populations on almost all U.S. university campuses. Davis (2000) has stated: ...
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Leadership is important and occurs in all trades and professions and in all the aspects of our lives in societies and in the world. However, leadership as a field of study is still unsatisfactory to scholars. This dissertation attempts to explore the issues in leadership and leadership studies related to both leadership theories and practice from the philosophical perspective of wholeness as an ecological idea. With philosophical approaches as a research method by introducing Confucian and Daoist ideas and wisdom and Huai Nan Zi’s insights related to moral and ethical leadership, it is in a general sense to balance between Eastern and Western conceptions of leadership and to improve or refine leadership theories and practice. That is because one of the key problems remaining in leadership studies is related to refining epistemology. Thus, this dissertation also discusses the philosophical issues which have mainly been based on scholars from both the West and the East and on their thoughts and theories from the ancient to the present. Through discussing them, this dissertation clarifies some of the misunderstanding and illusion, and attempts to apply philosophy to improve or refine leadership theories. Moreover, in particular, this dissertation discusses leadership in the context of internationalization of higher education and strongly emphasizes the important role of education as a whole to solve many practical problems both on the local and global scale. This dissertation has integrated leadership theories by answering the two key questions in leadership studies: What is leadership? What is good leadership?
... This figure has remained relatively steady since the Institute of International Education (IIE) began collecting this information in 1985-86. Similarly, since data collection in the area began in 1993-94, participation by Caucasian students has generally been just over four-fifths (Davis, 1996(Davis, , 2002. a great job of convincing ourselves that the American higher education system is the best in the world, that, as a result, we cannot imagine how our students could possibly learn anything valuable abroad. ...
... Therefore, they may not understand the complexities that international students face. Research shows that existing campus services are designed primarily for domestic students, and many of the needs of foreign students are not met by these services (Davis, 1999). From our research, policymakers and administrators should take note that the language abilities and English language learning experiences of international students differ from person to person and despite the fact that they may have earned high scores on admissions and proficiency examinations, support services and mentoring programs should be implemented and monitored so that this student population is supported in the United States higher education system. ...
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Fall 2007 Volume 1, Issue 1 Studying in a second language is probably one of the greatest challenges for international students. In this study, the relationship between language preparation and the first year graduate study among East Asian international graduate students in the United States was investigated in order to provide implications and suggestions for university administrators and policymakers. Language preparation before arriving in the United States and their first year experiences were explored in order to understand the challenges that East Asian international students face. The findings from 12 interviews reveal the first year academic experience of East Asian international graduate students and the needs of this population regarding university language support. In addition, the findings allow policymakers and higher education administrators to better understand the difficulties this population faces as well as the importance of support services and mentoring programs in ensuring their academic success in the United States.
... He is also representative of the ever-increasing presence of international multilinguals in US higher education at the graduate level. In 2013/14 there were about 329, 584 international graduate students, up 6.0% from 311,204 in 2012/13 (Davis 2016). International multilinguals represent an especially high percentage of students in STEM fields: over forty percent at the MA level and over fifty at the doctoral level (DeSilver 2015). ...
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... In the 1980s and 1990s, the number of PRC students enrolled at U.S. universities ranked first or second among all foreign students. The enrollment of PRC students, excluding visiting scholars and postdoctoral researchers, was around 40,000 in the early 1990s, over 50,000 in the late 1990s, and reached 64,757 in 2002-2003(Davis and Chin 2005. ...
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... In constructing our study, we made two fundamental design decisions. First, we chose to focus on Mandarin Chinese-accented English because a large number of ITAs at our university, as at many others, are from Mandarin-speaking places in China (Davis, 1988;Rubin 1992). Second, we chose to test how well listeners could understand Mandarin Chinese-accented words under conditions that did not allow listeners to use sentence-level context to guess the words. ...
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... This trend is evidenced by the increasing numbers of American students choosing China as a study abroad destination (McMurtrie, 2007). During the 1995-96 academic year, 1,396 Americans studied in China and 10 years later this number increased to 8,830, a 533% increase (Davis, 1997;Bhandari & Chow, 2007). Indeed, Chinaʼs open door policy in the early 1980s and fast-growing economy has attracted unprecedented attention in recent years. ...
... Notably, in some parts of the world, for over 20 years the types of writing tasks given to students have been examined in EAP context, especially in Science, Engineering and Business (Braine 1995;Davis 1998;Luzon 2005). But, as far as the authors of this study are concerned, there is no research similar to this one that has been conducted in Botswana. ...
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... These East Asian jurisdictions were chosen because of their importance as a source of graduate students across North America. International students from these jurisdictions represented almost one-fi fth of the graduate-level international enrollment in Canada for the three academic years 1997 -2000 ( Bartlett and Kane, 2002 ), and international graduate students from these jurisdictions represented 41 percent of the total international graduate student enrollment in the United States ( Davis, 2000 ). Prior to 1994, Hong Kong and Japan were leading countries sending students to Canada; however, after 1994, Korea and China became the leading countries sending students to Canada ( Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2003 ). ...
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... Migration of skilled talent from developing countries to advanced countries during the late twentieth century has mainly involved migration from India and China to the USA. For instance, in 1998 to 1999, 10.4% of international students enrolled in American universities were from mainland China (51,000 not including Hong Kong), and 7.6% were from India (37,482) (Todd, 2000). Furthermore, between 1990 and1996, 16,749 Chinese students and 8211 Indian students received their doctoral degrees in Science and Engineering from American universities (Johnson, 1998). ...
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Travel, long recognised as a rite of passage, is often also touted as a transformative experience which facilitates cross-cultural understanding, fosters an embrace of diversity and promotes global awareness. This process is aligned with youth development and has a rich history in the tourism literature. The importance of transformational travel, however, has now spread to programmes across the higher education landscape, with the recognition that travel has the potential to nurture a global citizenry. Additionally, for many young people, the motivation for studying abroad is to assist in the transition to adulthood. In this way, educational travel is similar to an ‘overseas experience’ or a ‘gap year’. It is often taken at an important time of transition in emerging adulthood, for example, from school to work. We argue that this period of identity formation for youth can be likened to a rite of passage much like the Grand Tour of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was for young European men and women. Our paper examines the role of the study abroad experience in promoting youth transformation and global citizenry.
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This qualitative study investigates the career placement concerns of international graduate students returning to their home countries, heading to other countries, or remaining in the United States after their education. Using a phenomenological framework, structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants (i.e., 18 international students, 1 naturalized status student, 3 faculty members, and 2 career counselors). Assertions that emerged suggested that the students possess diverse career plans influenced by numerous unique factors. Major, gender, and geography were not salient factors affecting the students' career placement needs. Students used contacts in their academic fields far more than they used campus career services, due to negative perceptions of or limited services that the center could provide. Based on these findings, more outreach to the international student community and collaboration between the career counseling and placement center and other campus departments are recommended.
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This study aims at designing an appropriate syllabus for Morphology and Syntax course. The syllabus was designed based on the objectives of the English Education Department at Institut Agama Islam Negeri Palopo - Indonesia. The components of the syllabus consisted of course identity, course description, competency standards, basic competency, competency achievement indicators, teaching materials, and references. To develop a good quality of syllabus, the researchers involved experts who provided some corrective feedbacks dealing with the weaknesses of the syllabus. The researcher had revised three time of this syllabus due to some errors and weaknesses found by the experts. In addition, the try-out findings indicated that the syllabus had met with the standard that categorized as excellent by the participants of the try-out. Since there are some forms of a syllabus, this study only dealt with an example of syllabus since that meet with the need of the department. In this case, the department who has the same characteristics of IAIN Palopo can adapt or adopt this developed syllabus.
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First Language Component-Bridging Program (FLC-BP) showed that students learn more effectively when they have developed proficiency in their first language. If students are literate in their first language (L1), they know how language works. First language proficiency provides an excellent foundation for learning a second language (L2). If students are proficient in their cognitive ability through their first language, this ability will carry them to gain the same in a second language. Hence, this study was undertaken to find out the effects of the First Language Component-Bridging Program on the Performance of Junior High School Learners in their Reading and Writing Skills. The study adopted the quasi experimental design, specifically the Pre-test Post-test Control Group Factorial Design. Three sections of Junior High School students were utilized as respondents and assigned to Tagalog-English, Iloko-English, and English-English teaching approaches. After four months of study, the researcher found out that students exposed to the English-English approach indicated a moderate performance in reading and low in writing skill. The Tagalog-English indicated a high level of performance in reading and moderate in writing. The Iloko-English students were moderate in reading and writing skills. Furthermore, English-only used as a medium of instruction was not the best solution to learn reading and writing. Hence, the researcher recommended the use of first language to improve the performance of students in learning.
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The implementation of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in primary education classrooms context in Indonesia is rarely investigated. This is due to only a few primary schools in Indonesia, especially those which adapt the international class program (ICP) implement CLIL in their teaching and learning process. Language assessment in CLIL is crucial because of its 'wash-back' effect on learning. In the Indonesian context, EFL assessment practices employed by CLIL teachers were varied one and another. This study aimed at investigating the current practices of CLIL assessment pattern applied by the teachers. This study, then, will lead to the new synthesis of language assessment pattern used in CLIL classroom context. This study employed a multiple case study design in order to get a comprehensive result dealing with the objective of the study since the research site was in three different places. This study involved CLIL teachers of Mathematics and Science in the international class program (ICP) of Islamic Primary Schools in three different regencies in East Java, Indonesia. The data were collected through observation, interview, questionnaire, and documents review, syllabus and lesson plan. The yielded data were analyzed descriptively following the steps of Creswell's (2012) qualitative data analysis. The findings show that the traditional methods of assessment such as oral exams following 'IRF' (initiation-response-follow-up) pattern (Dalton-Puffer, 2005), and questions (teacher-led instruction) were implemented during the implementation of CLIL. The components of the assessment include in-class participation, oral exams, presentations, and written exams. However, those traditional methods of assessment do not do CLIL students' achievement justice. These findings might have implication to the development of alternative instruments that can be used to assess EFL in the CLIL classroom context of primary education more comprehensively.
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This case study proposes a comprehensive conceptual framework for exploring student learning outcomes of short-term study abroad programs. It uses the Social, Legal, Economic, Political, and Technological framework to assess understanding of the host country before departing and after returning. Participation fostered global literacy and critical analysis of global issues.
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This study examined faculty views on academic writing and writing instruction. Data reported in this article came from ten qualitative interviews with business and engineering faculty members. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed inductively and recursively, and two views on academic writing and writing instruction were identified. One view held that academic writing largely involved transferring general writing skills, and writing instruction would be most effectively provided by writing/language teachers. The other view recognized the unique thought and communication processes entailed in academic writing and the role of both content course faculty and writing instructors in academic writing instruction. However, content course faculty and writing instructors each assumed a different set of responsibilities. Implications of the findings for academic writing research and instruction are discussed.
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In the 2010-2011 academic year, Black university students comprised only 4.8% of all study abroad students in the United States, despite being 14.5% of all university students. In an attempt to better foster the experiences of these students, this thesis seeks to understand the evolution of Black women’s self-concept from studying abroad. This qualitative empirical research focuses on the individual experiences of five U.S. Black university women who studied outside of the United States for one term or academic year during 2011-2012. These case studies gathered data through interviews and field texts, including oral history interviews prior to the participants’ departure, field texts collected while the students were on their abroad experiences, and a follow-up interview after their repatriation back to the United States. Too often, academics seek refuge of analysis in conventional theorists to look for new connections and understandings. Using these frameworks with marginalised communities does a disservice to these individuals. We cannot hope to understand the experience of alternative ways of being if we presume that all people fall into mainstream cultural theory. Therefore this study uses African American psychologists (instead of White psychologists) to examine the participants’ understanding of their identity. Specifically I utilise intersectionality and Africentric theory to understand how these women regard themselves in relation to their family structure, nationality, and religion. Black feminist thought is also employed to analyse the participants’ understanding of their gender with regards to sexualised imaging, physical appearance, and hair. I examine academic achievement (including personal and professional advancement, as well as racial contribution) through a Black psychological lens. This research found that study abroad does indeed have a powerful impact on Black women’s identities. All five women expressed higher self-confidence and shifts in how they understood the various aspects of their identities. Yet the shifts that occurred varied for the individual woman, which I attribute not only to the different destinations where these women studied abroad, but also to the complex and unique identities (and individual understanding of those identities) that each woman carried with her into her study abroad experience. These differences indicate that study abroad practitioners should be attentive in offering custom support to every student to allow him or her to reap the most growth from their time abroad.
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Background: University students who complete study abroad experiences are potentially exposed to behaviors, in particular alcohol and drug use, that place their health at risk. There is a need to identify risk and protective factors and highlight knowledge gaps. Methods: A systematic review adopting the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology. Relevant bibliographic databases and online repositories were systematically searched for both qualitative and quantitative peer-reviewed studies. Results: Eighteen articles were eligible for inclusion. Degree mobility students (DMSs-students pursuing a full bachelor or master degree in a foreign country) and Credit Mobility Students (CMSs-students participating in short term or semester study abroad programmes) show different patterns of at-risk behaviors compared to pre-departure, and to domestic or non-study abroad students. DMSs mostly consumed less alcohol and illicit substances compared to domestic students, but little information on pre-travel behavior and predictors of at-risk behaviors while abroad was available on DMSs. Most studies indicated that CMSs increased their alcohol use while abroad and reduced it when they returned home. However, there is no evidence of an increase in the negative consequences associated with alcohol misuse while abroad. Different pre-departure and abroad factors (e.g., perceptions of peer drinking norms, psychological and sociocultural adjustment abroad) were related to at-risk behaviors in the host country. Conclusions: University students who study abroad are understudied and potentially at risk from alcohol and drug use. Knowledge gaps are discussed in relation to possible future qualitative, mixed methods and longitudinal research.
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Since the term twice-exceptional has been entered to the field of gifted education, many studies have investigated the population of students who possess both giftedness and disabilities. It has been shown that there are some challenges to recognizing twice-exceptional children due to current screening and identification process. For this reason, the exact picture of what this population looks like has not yet been drawn, and further studies will be necessary to determine the precise racial/ethnic configuration. This has been a barrier to investigating how to approach twice-exceptional children from culturally diverse backgrounds. This article reviewed the previous research on twice-exceptional children with cultural considerations for the students from Asian American families. Several suggestions are provided: more understanding of Asian parenting styles and parenting stress; parents as advocates for their twice-exceptional children; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Directions for future research are suggested.
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The purpose of this study was to describe and explain Asian international doctoral students’ sojourn experiences into Adapted Physical Education (APE) programs at two universities. The participants were six doctoral students from Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. This case study was conceptualized within sojourner theory (Siu, 1952). The data sources were a demographic questionnaire and face-to-face interviews conducted during the participants’ doctoral studies. The emergent themes were (a) research challenges; (b) academic, social, and hierarchical relationships with doctoral advisors; (c) burnout; and (d) situation-specific anxiety. To better support international doctoral students, this study encourages academic departments, administrators, faculty, and all doctoral students to learn to view themselves as playing various roles including academic advisors, teachers, and graduate students.
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The rise in Study Abroad (SA) participation among college students has increased interest among educationalists wondering about the impact of SA on students, particularly when students return home without evidence of deep engagement and understanding of other cultures and people. The purpose of this case study was to locate one potential source of the meanings ascribed to the SA experience, through analysis of multimodal representations on the institutional website of a popular SA program provider. In this study, Kress’ model of multimodal social semiotic (MSS) communication was employed in the analysis of the ensemble of modes of communication (e.g. written language, layout, visual language) on the website, and their role in the production and dissemination of discourses of SA. Findings indicate that discourses of tourism prevail over discourses of education, and the representations enacted on the institutional website are mirrored in the discursive practices of students.
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The purpose of this article was to explore the main reasons influencing international students to study abroad. Main study abroad destinations are the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Canada. China is the leading sending country with 14% of the total market. This study explored the factors influencing international students to study abroad at particular higher education institutions in the United States. Data were collected through surveys in two higher education institutions in South Texas. Sequential explanatory mixed method design was used to collect and analyze the data. Their main motivation in selecting their current institution was mostly because of family and friend recommendations.
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The starting salary of a fresh graduate is considered a potential indicator of career advancement. Yet few studies have examined the determinants of starting salaries of information technology (IT) graduates. Further, existing studies have focused on how demographics affect either the salary or the kind of job the graduate enters into, but rarely both. In this paper, we explore both and examine if entry into an IT job mediates the effects of demographics on the starting salaries of fresh IT graduates. Our model is tested using data from annual surveys of undergraduate students majoring in IT at a large public university in Singapore over a 5-year period. We find that gender and foreigner status influence both starting salary and fresh graduates' entry into an IT vs. non IT job. Further, the effect of gender on the starting salaries of IT graduates is partially mediated by their entry into an IT job. In other words, part of the reason for a gender difference in starting salary could be attributed to female IT majors being less likely to enter IT jobs upon graduation than their male counterparts. On the other hand, foreign IT graduates are more likely to enter IT jobs, yet their starting salaries are found to be lower than local graduates. The implications of the results for research and practice are discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if UNCG study abroad students were being prepared for and participating in sustainable tourism practices.The literature review includes an examination of the current trends in study abroad and international education, and a brief history of sustainable tourism. Additionally, an overview of the theoretical base of the study is provided along with an assessment of the efficacy of code of ethics and visitor education programs. The researchers reviewed current pre-departure study abroad handbooks and programs designed to prepare students for their trip abroad and compared these tools to the current mission statements of higher education and international program centers.This research is a catalyst for creating support for educational programming of sustainable tourism practices for study abroad students by identifying the lack of current studies in this research area and identifying the need for there to be more research. This study also emphasizes the need for the development of programming and establishes the theoretical foundation and framework for the development of educational programming tool that can be used to prepare study abroad students to participate in sustainable tourism practices.
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This article describes stress that many Asian international students experience during their adjustment to U.S. universities. Reflecting on personal experiences that contributed to deeper self-understanding, I explain cultural incompatibilities that cause this stress, the negative impact that the stress has on mental health, and the lack of support systems that exacerbate mental health complications. In highlighting the prioritization of the mental health in Asian international students and initiating community outreach programs, I demonstrate that when Asian international students participate in creating an interconnected community, they have the potential to thrive despite the stressful adjustment period.
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For decades, international organizations have sponsored (prospective) employees in pre-university and university programmes. This sponsorship through preparatory programmes and then universities abroad adds questionable value to the investment by these organizations when students do not finish their programmes. Unless changes are made to sponsorship programmes, high attrition trends are likely to continue. Based on a recent case study at the College Preparatory Programme of Saudi Aramco, this paper outlines three suggestions for organizations which sponsor employees in pre-university and university programmes. The first addresses specific areas in the sponsorship programme. The second suggests the use of a systems approach in the sponsorship programme, and, borrowing from the work of Billson and Terry (1987), offers a model of training for sponsoring organizations. The last recommendation mentions alternatives to sponsorship programmes. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications to sponsoring organizations, and calls for further research.
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