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Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies

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Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies

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Abstract

Hiring and retaining more women provides numerous important advantages to law enforcement agencies. Research conducted in the United States and internationally has clearly documented that following facts: (1) female officers are as competent as their male counterparts and even excel in certain areas of police performance; (2) female officers are less likely to use excessive force; (3) female officers are more likely to implement "community-oriented policing"; (4) more female officers will improve law enforcement's response to violence against women; (5) increasing the presence of female officers reduces problems of sex discrimination and harassment within a law enforcement agency; and (6) the presence of women can bring about beneficial changers in policy for all officers. Although a number of studies document police officers' and community members' concern that women are not strong enough or aggressive enough for police work, physical strength has not been shown to predict general police effectiveness or ability to handle dangerous situations successfully. Research and practical experience alike provide every reason to believe that hiring and retaining more women in law enforcement will yield benefits not only to women within the police profession but also to their male counterparts, the larger police organization, and the communities in which they serve. (86 endnotes) (MN)

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... Within the literature there has been an increase in the interest of how women affect the level of officer-involved violence (Lonsway et al., 2003). Garcia (2003) discussed how female officers experience occupational gender segregation, and their positions in the field were shaped by their gender. ...
... It was not until legislation passed the enactment of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Opportunity Act of 1972 that women were able to challenge these stereotypical positions (Belknap & Shelley, 1993). Over the years research has determined that female and male officers exhibit different styles of policing (Lonsway et al., 2003;Martin, 1997;Paoline & Terrill, 2004). ...
... To improve the recruitment of women the National Center for Women and Policing has highlighted the communication skills that female officers tend to utilize, which is more in line with a service-oriented style of policing when compared to male officers. Females, it is hypothesized, are more likely to thrive in service-oriented policing because they are less likely to use physical force due to their skills of defusing and de-escalating potentially violent encounters (Belknap & Shelley, 1993;Garcia, 2003;Lonsway et al., 2003;Smith, 2003). Female officers also make fewer arrests (Bloch & Anderson, 1974;Sherman, 1975;Sichel, Freedman, Quint, & Smith, 1978;Smith, 2003) and are less likely to deploy their firearm (McElvain & Kposowa, 2008). ...
Article
We test the hypothesis that law enforcement agencies that have a larger share of female officers should experience lower rates of police use of deadly force. We use the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics 2013 survey of police and sheriff departments (N = 1,983). We measure police-involved violence as the number of civilians killed by law enforcement officers from 2013 through 2015 as reported by the website Mapping Police Violence. Using a variety of empirical estimators to take into consideration the structure of the distribution of police-caused deaths, we find consistent results that a higher share of female officers is associated with a higher likelihood of police-caused deaths. These results are consistent with prior findings within the literature and implies that in order to “fit in” with their male counterparts female officers will use coercive tactics to the same extent.
... Despite these gains, a more representative growth in the number of females in policing has lagged and women remain largely underrepresented in this male-dominated occupation. Nonetheless, the contemporary female police force has been recognized as reinforcing the positive aspects of community policing (Kimberly, 2000;Todak, 2017;Waugh, Ede, & Alley, 1998). ...
... Prior studies document the benefits of women in policing. Generally, female officers are found to improve the quality of responses to violence against women, reduce sex discrimination and harassment issues within organizations, and catalyze positive policy recalibrations in police culture (Kimberly, 2000). In terms of police performance, female officers are less likely to use force or excessive force (Hoffman & Hickey, 2005;Rabe-Hemp, 2008;Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2005Waugh et al., 1998), are more successful in deescalating violent and aggressive situations (Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2005), and are less likely to receive complaints or be involved in lawsuits (Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2016;Waugh et al., 1998). ...
... In other research, it has been argued that in the development of job models (see Feldberg & Glenn, 1979) for the socialization and professionalization of employees within the police organization, male and female officers' behaviors demonstrate no significant differences in job performance and, in fact, are very similar. For instance, female officers are seen as equally competent as their male counterparts (Kimberly, 2000), and both male and female officers utilize similar levels of force (Paoline & Terrill, 2004) and unarmed physical force (Hoffman & Hickey, 2005). Furthermore, from a feminist perspective, when women adopt and associate with more traditional male roles and statuses in an androcentric field, they would experience a masculinizing of their behaviors, and perhaps, in turn, would show a similar level of deviance as men and even commit more crime (Alder, 1981;Simon, 1975). ...
Article
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Given the recent attention focusing on “bad apples” in police departments across the country, police behaviors have been the subject of considerable controversy and protest. Still, research indicates that rates of officially reported police crime are relatively low. In addition, crimes committed by female officers are largely understudied in this male-dominated workplace. Therefore, the current study explores the attributes associated with police crime committed by female officers using national arrest data. Results obtained from a multilevel model demonstrate the influences of individual- and agency-level variables in explaining female officers’ criminality. Findings reveal that while on-duty female officers are more likely to commit economically motivated and drug-related crimes, off-duty officers are more likely to engage in violent and alcohol-related crimes. Moreover, contextual factors such as types of agency and numbers of sworn officers predicted female officers’ criminality. Current findings highlight the importance of policies that would directly address female criminality in law enforcement.
... While conceding that women officers do not stay as long as men on the job, the reason is not due to a difference in career disposition or professional commitment of the sexes but a reflection of the dissatisfaction of women with their depl;oyment experiences. This view is shared by Martin, 1990Martin, , 1996Lonsway, 2000;Alemika & Agugua 2001;Boni, 2004;Maguire, 2004;Beichler & Gaines, 2005;Vesa 2013;and MSW 2014. With reference to the NPF, Maliki (2007) found that many policewomen have imbibed the view that police work is not for women. ...
... They are better at helping to implement community policing (Vastola, 1977;Worden, 1993;Young 2012;Crooke, 2013;NCWP 2013;Manitoba, 2014;and TCC 2015) and effective in improving law enforcement"s response to violence (Balkin 1988, NCWP, 2003Young 2012;Becker et al 2012, MSW 2014and CJSI 2016). Increasing the number of policewomen have also been shown to be very effective in reducing problems of sex discrimination and sexual harassment in the police agency (Kanter, 1977;Horne, 1980;and Lonsway, 2000;Lockwood and Prohaska, 2015;CJSI 2016) and engendering beneficial changes in policing for all officers (Sherman 1973;NCWP, 2003 andLinh Do et al, 2005;Young 2012;MSW 2014). The literature also yields some suggestions on policy measures to eliminate or reduce gender discrimination at the work place. ...
... Resistance continued into the 1970s, when performance research in the United States showed that female officers were as effective as their male counterparts, tended to be better in areas such as service and the diffusion of conflict, and had public support (Bloch and Anderson, 1974;Sichel et al., 1978). Subsequent research has shown that women attract fewer complaints, are less likely to resort to force and are less likely to engage in the use of excessive force (Bazley et al., 2007;Lonsway et al., 2003;Porter and Prenzler, 2015;Schuck and Rabe-Hemp, 2007). In sufficient numbers, women can have a transformative effect in the areas of integrity and service through incremental cultural change (Dick et al., 2014). ...
... The available research suggests that an equal access policy which entails removing discriminatory barriers can lead to dramatic increases in female numbers across police organizations (Lonsway et al., 2003;Prenzler, 2015). Common barriers include small quotas for women, inappropriate physical entry tests (such as obstacle course tests), all-male selection panels and full-time employment requirements. ...
Article
Research shows that increasing the number of female officers is beneficial to policing. However, women remain a minority in police departments throughout the world, and the better performing departments have, on the whole, achieved female representation at only 25%, with senior women at 10%. There is also very little research on effective strategies for making large improvements. Consequently, this study aimed to identify and explain above average achievements in the status of women in policing. Following a worldwide search, five cases were identified: one involved female recruits (North Wales), two involved officer numbers (Cumbria and Surrey), and two involved women in senior ranks (Hertfordshire and South Africa). Efforts to identify possible influences were limited by a lack of information about strategies, including in response to requests for information. However, there were indicators that outcomes were related to senior management commitment, explicit targets, monitoring, flexible employment and a range of support mechanisms such as mentoring and leadership programmes. The findings emphasize the need for more research on what works in optimizing women?s participation in police work.
... They appeared to have generated some improvements in overall female sworn numbers. However, the conflict with meritbased appointment principles, and allegations of 'tokenism' against female officers, led to a preference for more passive forms of affirmative action including more advanced parental leave benefits, targeted advertising and pre-application orientation classes for women, and mentoring and leadership programs (Hilal, Densley, & Squier Jones, 2017;Lonsway et al., 2002;Lonsway, Moore, Harrington, Smeal, & Spiller, 2003;Martin & Jurik, 2007;Ward & Prenzler, 2016). In the main, these environments appear to have improved female representation across the ranks of police organisations but still at rates well below parity, with recruit application rates limited to one-third and overall sworn officer numbers limited to around one-quarter in many cases (Cordner & Cordner, 2011;Ward & Prenzler, 2016). ...
... Consequently, there is a compelling case for the development of a stronger evidence base about what works in increasing and sustaining women's contributions to police work, including the role of recruitment targets and targeted recruitment campaigns. The case is strengthened by evidence indicating that female officers have a stronger service orientation and are much less reliant on force than male officers, at a time when police violence remains a headline problem (Lonsway et al., 2003;Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2007). In addition, employing women in policing in both developed and developing countries provides women with significantly enhanced economic independence, including into retirement (Bastick, 2014;United Nations Development Program, 2007). ...
Article
This paper reviews developments in gender equity-oriented recruitment policies in Australian policing between 2015 and 2019. Findings cover the six state, one federal and one territory police departments. The study was prompted by media reports on affirmative action initiatives, especially the introduction of recruitment targets. The primary aim was to identify successful or promising strategies to increase the number of female officers, with possible transferable lessons. A secondary aim was to assess the level of accountability in terms of public reporting by police about methods and outcomes. The main finding was that four of the eight departments had introduced explicit 50:50 male-female recruitment targets, and five departments had been operating female targeted recruitment campaigns. The majority of departments with targeted campaigns recorded large increases in female recruit numbers, although within the study time frame only one showed a clear flow-through to substantially increased officer numbers. Overall, there was a lack of adequate data, including male-female application numbers; and information about selection criteria was inadequate. The personal commitment and discretion of police commissioners appeared to be a key factor in the adoption of affirmative action initiatives. These findings provide valuable lessons for improved police performance and accountability in gender equity across the world.
... With broader civil rights changes in the 1960s and 1970s, women fought their way into patrol; lawsuits and consent decrees facilitated sharp increases of women in the 1980s and 1990s (Archbold & Schulz, 2012;Lonsway et al., 2002). After consent decrees expired, efforts crumbled and the proportion of women entering policing dropped (Lonsway et al., 2002(Lonsway et al., , 2003. Today, about 12.6% of sworn officers employed in U.S. agencies are women; the percentage of women is greater in large departments and typically less in rural and small departments (Hyland & Davis, 2019). ...
... The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015) argued agencies should prioritize diversity (race, gender, language, etc.) in the workforce to facilitate understanding, trust, and effectiveness in serving communities. Indeed, some research indicates women are less likely to be involved in use-of-force incidents, agencies with more women experience fewer citizen complaints, and surges in women often initiates organizational change, such as increased focus on community policing, reductions in sexual harassment, and a more highly educated police force (Brandl & Stroshine, 2013;Lonsway et al., 2003;Schuck, 2014Schuck, , 2017Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2016). Data from the United kingdom indicate an association between an increase in officers of color and reductions in police misconduct and citizen complaints (Hong, 2017). ...
... With broader civil rights changes in the 1960s and 1970s, women fought their way into patrol; lawsuits and consent decrees facilitated sharp increases of women in the 1980s and 1990s (Archbold & Schulz, 2012;Lonsway et al., 2002). After consent decrees expired, efforts crumbled and the proportion of women entering policing dropped (Lonsway et al., 2002(Lonsway et al., , 2003. Today, about 12.6% of sworn officers employed in U.S. agencies are women; the percentage of women is greater in large departments and typically less in rural and small departments (Hyland & Davis, 2019). ...
... The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015) argued agencies should prioritize diversity (race, gender, language, etc.) in the workforce to facilitate understanding, trust, and effectiveness in serving communities. Indeed, some research indicates women are less likely to be involved in use-of-force incidents, agencies with more women experience fewer citizen complaints, and surges in women often initiates organizational change, such as increased focus on community policing, reductions in sexual harassment, and a more highly educated police force (Brandl & Stroshine, 2013;Lonsway et al., 2003;Schuck, 2014Schuck, , 2017Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2016). Data from the United kingdom indicate an association between an increase in officers of color and reductions in police misconduct and citizen complaints (Hong, 2017). ...
Article
As police agencies in the United States suffer declining applications and struggle to recruit women, the National Institute of Justice has identified workforce development as a priority research area. To recruit more effectively, we must understand what attracts people to policing and what deters them. We surveyed officers in two Midwestern police departments ( n = 832) about entry motivations and concerns and examined gender differences. Serve/protect motivations were most important for men and women, though women rated the category significantly higher. Women and non-White officers rated legacy motives higher than did males and White officers. Women reported more concerns overall and scored higher on job demands and acceptance concerns; officers of color also reported more acceptance concerns than White officers. The largest gender differences were associated with gender-related obstacles and stereotypes (e.g., discrimination; being taken seriously; physical demands), indicating recruitment reform necessarily includes improving systemic issues.
... Women police are often considered better communicators compared to male colleagues, exhibiting better interpersonal skills. According to studies conducted in the US, women police officers are preferred by community members to respond and defuse potentially dangerous situations [42]. ...
... Better communication and interpersonal skills are thus in greater demand, which are often more associated with women police. Moreover, research studies show that women have more respect for citizens and generally are more supportive of community policing principles [42]. Similarly, women police have proven to be more effective in handling complaints of domestic violence. ...
Article
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Community-oriented policing (COP) as a model has found widespread acceptance throughout the world both in developed and developing countries. Similarly, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been embraced by many developed countries to augment COP initiatives. However, very little is known about the application of ICTs in COP in developing countries, particularly South Asia. In this article, we review the current ICT-based COP initiatives by focusing on some of the selected projects from developed countries and South Asia. The paper has used COP in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan as a case. While meaningful insights can be derived through learning from the experiences of developed countries, we highlight some major issues and challenges that are likely to be faced while implementing ICT based COP in South Asia. Moreover, we provide an overview of some exciting opportunities that arise as a result of embracing ICTs to enhance COP efforts for building trusting community-police relations and hence improving human security in the region.
... These figures show that the extent of women's inclusion in policing is globally disparate, but why is this so and does it matter? Policing is traditionally held up as a male occupation due to perceived necessity of physical strength, though many studies have rejected the view that effective policing requires the bodily authority associated with masculinity (Lonsway, 2000;Silvestri, 2003). Police agencies are under increasing pressure to be 'professional' and accountable to the whole community, including having a workforce which reflects the diversity of people they serve. ...
... Looking at a specific policehealth nexus, women's participation in policing has shown benefits associated with responsiveness to-and reduction of-gender-based violence (Miller & Segal, 2016). Women officers are also less likely to use excessive force (Lonsway, 2000;Porter & Prenzler, 2017;Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2007). Thus, the presence of police women can have dual effects on public health: firstly, as protectors who prevent violence in the community, and secondly, as less inclined to be perpetrators of violence in their official capacity. ...
... Although the proportion of female law enforcement officers tripled between the late 1970s and the early 1990s (United States Department of Justice, 2009), law enforcement remains a male-dominated occupation. A small body of research suggests that "gender matters" when it comes to police responses to DV, and it has been suggested that female officers are more effective than male officers at interacting with DV victims (Lonsway et al., 2003). ...
... Gender and the field of law enforcement Research examining gender effects on police officer DV attitudes is limited. DV advocates point to female police officers being especially effective at interacting with female assault victims, and especially DV victims (Lonsway et al., 2003). This may be because of female officers being more empathetic toward and holding less stereotypical views of DV victims when compared to male officers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Comparative research provides a mechanism to understand how justice systems throughout the world operate. McPhedran et al. (2017) conducted a comparative examination of police officer attitudes about domestic violence (DV) in the USA and Australia and reported fairly high levels of agreement among male and female officers within each country. The current study builds on these findings by examining officer attitudes toward DV among male and female officers cross-nationally. This was accomplished by examining whether American and Australian male and female officers agree with one another on a number of DV issues. Design/methodology/approach Two-way ANOVA was used to examine the effect of two factors (gender and country) on law enforcement officer attitudes about DV. Findings The results suggest that male and female officers from the USA and Australia significantly differ on 14 of 24 attitudes about DV with the greatest number of attitudinal differences found between American and Australian male officers. Research limitations/implications Scholars who conduct future research examining police officer attitudes about DV should use the instrument from this study as a springboard to develop an updated survey in terms of content and one that would be applicable to cross-national analyses. Methodological study limitations are described in depth in McPhedran et al. (2017). Originality/value While gender differences in attitudes have received scholarly attention, questions remain regarding the degree to which attitudes align among male and female officers across different countries. The current study seeks to fill these gaps in knowledge by examining attitudes about DV between American and Australian law enforcement officers.
... Though the idea of women serving as police officers was met with hostility and disapproval in the past (Martin, 1980), more recent research demonstrates stronger support and a greater acceptance of women in policing by male police officers as well as citizens (Austin & Hummer, 2000;Leger, 1997;Rabe-Hemp, 2008). This acceptance is likely due to evidence that indicates women are just as effective at their job while also showing lower levels of aggression and use of force incidents compared to their male counterparts (Archbold & Schulz, 2012;Lonsway, 2000). ...
Article
While research has identified four main police supervisory styles, it is unclear whether the framework accurately represents the supervisory styles of women. We explored the benefits of promoting women in policing and examined their supervisory styles, drawing on interviews with 38 ranking women. Participants attributed three benefits to promoting women – diversity, people-orientation, and conscientiousness. All 34 who described their supervisory style fell into one of the four previously identified categories. Most common was innovative (50%), then supportive (32%), traditional (12%), and active (6%). We link findings to calls for gender diversity up the ranks of law enforcement.
... While females continue to make up a relatively small percentage of the law enforcement community, they represent a vital contribution to its culture and effectiveness. According to Lonsway, Moore, Harrington, Smeal, and Spillar (2003), "in 2001, women accounted for only 12.7% of all sworn law enforcement positions in large agencies, 8.1% in small and rural agencies, and 14.4% in federal agencies" (p. 2). ...
Article
School resource officers (SROs) play a critical role in establishing a safe learning environment for students across the nation. Although there are several studies related to SROs’ perceptions regarding their roles and responsibilities, a thorough literature review found no studies that looked specifically at the relationship of SROs’ gender to their perceptions. This study involved 53 SROs across three municipalities along the East Coast. Among several findings, one is that while the officers seem satisfied overall with their duties, gender does seem to have a relationship with the amount of time that they spend participating in these duties and in their satisfaction related to them. Recommendations to school superintendents and principals include recognizing the potential advantage of selecting female SROs to serve on their campuses and establishing districtwide policies to annually assess the level of job satisfaction among SROs assigned to schools.
... Yet women's participation is not limited to "private" roles, and their inclusion in political and community activities is crucial in preventing violent extremism and radicalization (OSCE 2013;UN and World Bank 2018). Notably, female law enforcement officers tend to be better at building trust with community-oriented policing, which is an essential element of preventing and countering violent extremism (Lonsway et al. 2003). Evidence also shows that female United Nations peacekeepers help to improve situational awareness of the mission by, for instance, strengthening the understanding of female victims or young girls and boys (Dharmapuri 2013). ...
Research
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Gender equality lies at the heart of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which asserts gender equality as both a fundamental human right and a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. The evidence collected in this discussion paper shows that gender equality is critical to achieving a wide range of objectives pertaining to sustainable development. These include promoting economic growth and labour productivity, reducing poverty, enhancing human capital through health and education, attaining food security, addressing climate change impacts and strengthening resilience to disasters, and ensuring more peaceful and inclusive communities. It therefore argues that accelerating gender equality in all spheres of society leads to a more rapid increase in progress towards achieving the 2030 Agenda.
... Proponents of police departments hiring more females argue that female officer abilities to defuse and de-escalate situations make them better able to handle violent encounters (Lonsway, 2000). Use of force research is mixed with respect to whether officer gender is related to propensity to use force. ...
Article
This first step cultivation analysis examines the quantity, temporal dynamics, and stance of municipal police officer use of force depictions based on the gender of the officer. The 112 theatrically released films that comprise the core cop film genre were systematically identified. Subsequently, a population of 468 police use of force scenes was identified to serve as the units of analysis for this study. Findings revealed male officer use of force scenes appeared across all 40 years of films. Female officer use of force scenes, however, were highly restricted to specific films, years, and often dwarfed by male scenes within films. Lone female officer use of force scenes saw their highest representation in the 1980s but declined in the 1990s and 2000s, becoming increasingly dependent on a male officer’s presence. Implications of such patterns are discussed as well as potential second step cultivation studies.
... Cameras can deter officers from misconduct as well as protecting them against false allegations. Other factors can feed into better behaviour and reduced public complaints, including reducing crime rates, better educated officers and more female officers (Lonsway, Moore, Harrington, Smeal, & Spiller, 2003;McDowall et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Across fifteen years to 2015–2016 the rate of public complaints against police in the Australian Capital Territory fell by an extraordinary 79%. This was a much larger and longer-term reduction in complaints than occurred anywhere else in Australia, and it is very unusual in the international policing literature. The paper attempts to examine the nature of this change in greater detail, and possible factors that may have influenced the change. Unlike some other studies, however, there was limited evidence of specific point-in-time innovations that may have affected the trend. Nonetheless, it is likely that a range of reforms in policing influenced the change, with possible lessons for other departments struggling with significant complaint problems. The main reforms included improved custody procedures, greater attention to ethics in recruitment and training, a complaints system focused on managing officer behaviour, enlarged external oversight, and more attention to de-escalation skills in use-of-force training.
... 8 According to qualitative evidence from the United States, female police officers are more likely to be engaged in domestic violence cases (Bureau of Justice, 2000). For example, a study done in Washington, D.C., found that female officers were less likely than male officers to dismiss or ignore victims who had made repeated calls to the police (Lonsway, 2000). Women are also known to be less corrupt and less violent, and they are proven to have more pro-social traits and better interpersonal skills (Brollo and Troiano, 2016;Schacht, Rauch and Mulder, 2014;Eckel and Grossman, 2008;Nowell and Tinkler, 1994), which may predispose them to better handle gender-based violence once in office. ...
Article
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In many developing countries, access to justice remains unequal, especially for women. What are the implications of this inequality for gender-based violence and investment in children? This paper provides evidence from Peru’s women’s justice centers (WJCs), which are specialized institutions that provide police, medical, and legal services to reduce gender-based violence. Examining the gradual rollout of WJCs across districts and villages, the study finds that the opening of a center reduces the incidence of gender-based violence, as measured by domestic violence, female deaths due to aggression, and hospitalizations due to mental health, by about 10 percent. This decrease in women’s exposure to violence has intergenerational effects: WJCs substantially increase human capital investments in children, raising enrollment, attendance, and test scores. The evidence suggests that these results are driven by an increase in enforcement against gender violence. After a WJC opens, there is an increase in reporting and prosecutions of gender-specific crimes.
... Male officer and citizen perceptions of female officers have also greatly improved (Austin & Hummer, 2000;Leger, 1997;Rabe-Hemp, 2011), especially compared to the hostility and resistance women battled in earlier decades (Martin, 1980). Moreover, a body of research demonstrates that women are as competent as men on the job, use less force, use less aggressive tactics, and receive fewer citizen complaints (Archbold & Schulz, 2012;Lonsway, 2000). ...
Article
This study examines how individuals make the decision to become police officers in the context of a police legitimacy crisis and how men and women’s decision-making processes may be different. In-depth interviews were conducted with 42 criminal justice college students who want to become police officers. Prospective police officers anticipated facing challenges as a direct result of the current climate surrounding American policing, which is characterized by decreased police legitimacy. On top of this, women anticipated facing more challenges than male officers due to their gender and underrepresentation in police work. However, women were uniquely motivated to enter policing to overcome gender-specific challenges and felt that they offered special skills that would provide solutions to the police legitimacy crisis. The paper draws implications for how agencies can identify more quality candidates and increase their representation of women.
... lice departments can and, we argue, should recruit more women to apply for police officer positions, create work practices and experiences that are attractive to and supportive of women (Hassell & Brandl, 2009), and make efforts to retain female officers because of the evidence that female officers use less force when policing (Bolger, 2015). Additionally, police organizations and I-O psychologists should also work together to discover why women are less likely to use force and, subsequently, determine whether these characteristics can be selected or trained for in either sex. 1 We aren't the first people to call for an increase in women in policing to reduce police brutality (Lonsway, Moore, Harrington, Smeal, & Spillar, 2003;Spillar, 2015). The purpose of this commentary is to bring the I-O psychology perspective to bear on the role of women in policing and how we can leverage the evidence that women police are less likely to engage in extreme use of force than are male officers. ...
Article
Ruggs et al. (2016) describe paths through which industrial–organizational (I-O) psychology can make a dent in the ongoing policing problems in the United States. These paths include traditional I-O areas such as improved selection models, increased training, and changed organizational climates. However, there might be one fairly straightforward way in which police organizations can quickly reduce use-of-force problems: women. Because Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prevents selection based on sex, police departments obviously cannot hire women just because they are women. But police departments can and, we argue, should recruit more women to apply for police officer positions, create work practices and experiences that are attractive to and supportive of women (Hassell & Brandl, 2009), and make efforts to retain female officers because of the evidence that female officers use less force when policing (Bolger, 2015). Additionally, police organizations and I-O psychologists should also work together to discover why women are less likely to use force and, subsequently, determine whether these characteristics can be selected or trained for in either sex.
... To our knowledge, there is no existing research examining the impact of gender diversity, or diversity in general, on the behaviors and effectiveness of elite police specialty units. However, given the burgeoning body of evidence highlighting the positive impact of women in policing (e.g., Barnes et al., 2018;Black & Kari, 2010;Bolger, 2015;Lonsway, 2000;Lonsway et al., 2002;Meier & Nicholson-Crotty, 2006;Rabe-Hemp, 2008a;Schuck, 2018;Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2005), the possibility that women officers improve outcomes for citizens and communities served by elite units is certainly a worthwhile topic of study. ...
... While the temporal chain is critical to a causal argument, researchers and policy makers should hesitate before ignoring a potentially spurious relationship between levels of females in police work and COP commitment on a departmental level. While several policing scholars argued women may be particularly well suited to COP-style policing (Lonsway, 2002;Miller, 1998;Rabe-Hemp, 2009), direct tests of this relationship on the microlevel are limited (see Schuck, 2014b). Notwithstanding this caveat, departments should strongly consider revisiting their online recruitment materials and determine to what extent they reflect the purported values of the department and their mission going forward. ...
Article
This article tests the temporal relationship between the representation of females in policing and organizational change toward community-oriented policing. This mixed methods study involves secondary data analysis of the 2013 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics survey, open-source data collection of online recruitment materials for 493 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics agencies, quantitative content analysis of a random sample of 131 departments, and Leximancer semantic mapping of the 493 departments’ materials. The two forms of content analysis focus on the particular emphases of “legalistic,” “watchman,” and “service” styles. The quantitative content analysis results largely support the temporal model, with the percent female sworn in a given department in 2013 significantly predicting whether that department’s 2018 recruitment materials focus on service or community-oriented policing content. The Leximancer semantic mapping results provide a more ambiguous picture, including legalistic through-line language around police work.
... . Since that time, research has expanded to questions of gender differences in attitudes towards citizens, officer decision-making, support of community policing, use of force, citizen complaints, use of compassion, and communication skills, among others (DeJong, 2004;Rabe-Hemp, 2008;Schuck, 2017;Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2005). Though the presence of gender differences depends on the outcomes in question, there is some evidence that having more women on the force can lead to positive changes at the organizational-level (e.g., reductions in sexual harassment for departments with more women; Lonsway et al., 2003). Despite the continued rarity of women in policing, the research on gender differences in policing does not indicate that practices between men and women are clearly distinct from each other. ...
Article
National Institute of Justice’s Policing Research Plan (2017–2022) highlights the need to understand factors that attract diverse candidates. We explored whether college students had ever considered policing and found men were significantly more likely than women to contemplate policing careers. Further, we found higher levels of masculinity were associated with greater odds of policing aspirations; the relationship between gender and aspirations was fully mediated by masculine self-concept. Although men typically reported higher masculinity scores, within-gender analyses indicated that masculinity was important for both men and women. Our findings suggest the continued association of masculinity with policing may undercut efforts to recruit a representative workforce.
... Police may also enjoy increased public trust through both visible diverse representation and tangible improvements in the delivery of police services. These arguments are grounded in representative bureaucracy theory (i.e., active representation; Shjarback & Todak, 2019), and in evidence documenting the benefits of diversity in organizational leadership (see, e.g., Choi et al., 2018;Hoogendoorn et al., 2013;Moreno-Gómez et al., 2018;Ruiz-Jiménez et al., 2016) and of women police officers specifically (Black & Kari, 2010;Bolger, 2015;Krimmel & Gormley, 2003;Lonsway, 2000;Lonsway et al., 2002;Meier & Nicholson-Crotty, 2006;Rabe-Hemp, 2008a;Schuck, 2014Schuck, , 2018Schuck & Rabe-Hemp, 2007). ...
Article
Using national survey and interview data from women patrol officers in the United States, we assess whether women are underrepresented in the upper ranks of policing because they are self-selecting out of promotions. With only 42% of the survey sample reporting a desire to promote, we indeed find evidence that many policewomen are either delaying or forgoing promotions. The most common reason given for waiting to promote was the desire to gain more experience. Based on our findings, we offer recommendations for reducing gendered barriers to promotion and increasing gender diversity in the upper ranks of law enforcement.
... What seems to be demonstrated, continues Kakar, is that precisely "those soft, " devalued competences "are an advantage in certain situations, since women, are more difficult to anger, tend to take more time, have more patience, tend to delay more in the use of force, are proactive negotiators to try to reduce the contextual tension, which is sometimes considered a weakness according to other currents, since they can lower the guard trying to be empathic and are easier to attack" (2002, p.241). Lonsway et al. (2003) state that women engage in less conduct associated with police brutality, disciplinary infractions and, above all, they engage in less sexual harassment or mobbing conduct, so the advantages that the presence of women bring to police organizations, as well as the specific skills they possess, must be taken into account. ...
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The impediments and barriers that women face in entering and developing a police career have received relatively little attention from researchers. As of today in Europe, despite the slow progress, the 25% barrier to female representation has already been overcome in several countries. However, many areas remain closed to women within police organizations. In this context, research was conducted based on a content analysis of the perceptions of 56 police officers, 28 men and 28 women with considerable police experience, occupying executive leadership positions from a total of 26 European countries. Data was collected through a questionnaire composed of 23 open questions. The results show a considerable gap between the perceptions of male and female police executive leaders with regard to access, career development and workplace conditions faced by policepersons. According to the results, the mirage of equality, dominant in the view of male police officers, is a major barrier to achieving real equality, both horizontally and vertically. What implications these results have on the strategies that police organizations should follow to achieve the challenge of inclusion are discussed, and new ways of analysis are proposed.
... Valcore, and Klinger 2010;Silvestri 2003). These requirements continue to exist despite the fact that studies have shown that physical strength is not predictive of police effectiveness (Lonsway et al. 2003). ...
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This article works to understand what happens to women working in the public sector, especially women in traditionally male occupations, such as the police. Moreover, in Latin America and in most developing countries, it is crucial to examine the interaction between precarious jobs and gender discrimination. The article finds that gender discrimination is accentuated in organizations with precarious labor conditions. To illustrate this problem, it examines the police force in Mexico. This is a crucial case study for understanding the phenomena: Mexico is an extremely violent country, but conditions in the police force are highly precarious for workers. Moreover, this labor precariousness has an even greater impact on female police officers. In addition to working in a profession characterized by instability, they also face structural barriers to the performance of their duties and greater obstacles to entry and promotion within the organization. Furthermore, women face the glass ceiling as well as a hostile work culture that expresses itself through discrimination.
... They are probable to use their influence and networks in security engagements to expand the reach, effectiveness and influence of the organization's objectives. Most importantly, the influx of women within security institutions is presumed to impact institutional gender awareness and prompt reportage and investigation of crimes especially GBV (Lonsway et al, 2003). Thus, women should partner with security bodies especially the police on a range of security and crime-related issues and build sustainable engagement roles on CVE. ...
Research
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Exploring Financing of Terrorism in African Context
... Research has shown that community policing can enhance police legitimacy, improve citizen satisfaction, and potentially reduce certain types of crime (Gill et al., 2014). Women officers, who may view citizens with more empathy and can engender more cooperation, may be critical assets to departments looking to implement community policing strategies (Lonsway, 2000). Though this does not mean male officers cannot or do not utilize community policing, an analysis from Aiello (2020) found that agencies with higher female representation have increased use of community policing tactics, including recruitment strategies focused on service and engagement. ...
Research
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Research indicates women are strong assets to police departments, but they may encounter barriers when attempting to enter the male-dominated field of policing. This study examined the experiences of six female police leaders in Illinois to learn about the challenges they faced and to discover how police departments can recruit, support, and retain women officers, particularly those interested in promotion. The interviews suggested that mentorship and close relationships with other officers can provide guidance and help cope with the stress that comes with being a female officer. Enforced policies against harassment and discrimination can help retain women in the profession and encourage them to safely pursue promotion. Finally, targeted recruitment strategies that highlight the service aspects of policing may inspire others to join, as well as be an early step in assisting departments with being reflective of the communities they serve.
... suggested that male officers look to sexualize and protect female prison officers, suggesting that they are perceived to be less naturally capable than men of performing the prison officer role. However, female officers bring unique qualities to the role of prison officer and can diffuse tension between aggressive male officers and prisoners, which is supported in policing also (Lonsway, 2000). Female officers employ verbal de-escalation skills during heightened violent and aggressive incidents, which can have a calming effect on the prisoner being dealt with (Zimmer, 1986). ...
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Female correctional staff face multiple challenges when working in a male prison environment. Perceptions of competence and gendered divisions of labor are prevalent in the negotiated order of a prison. Sexuality is a dynamic that is irrelevant to the demands of a correctional officer yet a significant identity to be managed and negotiated in interactions with both colleagues and prisoners. This study adopts an auto ethnographic approach to highlight discrimination in prison officer occupational culture. Drawing upon personal narratives whilst working in an adult male prison in England, lived experiences of homophobia and sexism are presented to identify the challenges faced as a gay female prison officer. Themes of sexual objectification, homophobia and workplace incivility identify failings within the English prison service in supporting workplace diversity and inclusivity.
... It has been suggested that female officers may have a less coercive operational style than their male counterparts because they are more likely to attempt to defuse a situation by the use of mediation than to resort to force (Sherman 1975;Lonsway 2000;Langworthy and Travis 2003). ...
... They are probable to use their influence and networks in security engagements to expand the reach, effectiveness and influence of the organization's objectives. Most importantly, the influx of women within security institutions is presumed to impact institutional gender awareness and prompt reportage and investigation of crimes especially GBV (Lonsway et al, 2003). Thus, women should partner with security bodies especially the police on a range of security and crime-related issues and build sustainable engagement roles on CVE. ...
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The phenomenon of terrorism has gained currency in the contemporary period, nonetheless, ongoing discussions have not significantly addressed some critical issues of this canker.This paper draws on interviews and documentary analysis to unravel the dynamics and options for curbing the emerging threat of terrorism in Ghana. This paper submits that a web of domestic and regional dynamics such as the proliferation of illicit trade in small arms, youth unemployment, endemic corruption, unequal provision of socio-economic resources, and role of Ghana on the international scene could lead the country into an emerging threat of terrorists’ attacks. Following the above, the paper recommends some steps to address the emerging threat of terrorism in Ghana including; effective implementation of anti-terrorism programmes, public education and sensitisation on terrorism and security consciousness, and provision of adequate logistics, and equipment to equip the police and military to provide effective border control to fight the threat of terrorism in Ghana
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Globally, punitive drug law enforcement drives human rights violations. Drug control tactics, such as syringe confiscation and drug-related arrests, also cascade into health harms among people who use drugs. The role of police officer characteristics in shaping such enforcement and measures to reform police practices remains underexamined. We evaluated gender differences in syringe confiscation and syringe-related arrest behaviors among municipal police officers in Tijuana, Mexico, where syringe possession is legal. In the context of the SHIELD Study focusing on aligning policing with harm reduction measures, our baseline sample covered municipal police officers who reported having occupational contact with syringes. We used multivariable logistic regression with robust variance estimation via a generalized estimating equation to identify correlates of syringe-related policing behaviors. Among respondent officers (n=1,555), 12% were female. After considering possible confounding variables, such as district of service and work experience, female officers were significantly less likely to report confiscating syringes or arresting individuals for syringe possession. Consideration of officer gender is important in the design of interventions to improve the health and human rights of people who inject drugs and other highly policed groups, as well as measures to safeguard officer occupational safety. The feminization of law enforcement deserves special consideration as an imperative in reducing the public health harms of policing.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and dynamics of crowd disorder from the perspective of the police in a Canadian context, as well as to extend this perspective to include the opinions of female police officers. Design/methodology/approach A total of 460 Vancouver police officers participated in this study. Following the 2011 Stanley Cup riot, police officers received mail-based questionnaires focussed on gathering information concerning police perceptions of the crowd and the police response in riot situations. A total of 15 response items were analysed using descriptive approaches and confirmatory factor analyses. Findings The study findings revealed that, in addition to being multidimensional, the police perspective of crowd disorder may be contingent upon certain officer characteristics. Although, the police perspective can generally be categorized by four overarching constructs: dichotomous crowd, homogeneous threat, strict policing and tactical response; it becomes more complex once the officers’ gender is taken into consideration. The results suggest that the male and female police officers may have some differing views about the nature of crowds and the type of police response required to manage disorderly crowd situations. Originality/value In addition to being the first study to analyse police perceptions of crowd disorder in a Canadian context, this research is the first to include the points of view of female officers.
Article
This senior project suggests that media depictions of law enforcement encourage viewers to adopt certain viewpoints towards police officers. In addition, the more realistic and humanizing that these presentations become, the more positive that the general public’s perceptions of police officers become. By utilizing a genealogical criticism of eight different law enforcement movies, and with support from public opinion polls and the communication theory of Cultivation, this paper will exemplify how the above statement is true.
Chapter
Police integrity matters.1 If law enforcement officers break or bend the rules to their own advantage, there are numerous negative ramifications. One is a series of security-related aspects — for the state, for society, and for the international community. A prime example of how police misconduct can constitute a security issue is that officers sometimes collude with organized crime groups in drug, arms, and human trafficking, which can be either domestic or transnational. There have also been claims that police (and border guard) collusion with terrorists was an aspect of the 2004 Beslan siege in southern Russia. A second negative effect is on crime solving rates. As David Bayley (1994: 7–8) says, the critical ingredient in solving crimes is whether the public — victims and witnesses — provide information that helps police identify the suspect … On their own, police are relatively helpless, regardless of the resources they devote to criminal investigation. Corruption among police officers can reduce public trust and confidence in law enforcement, increasing the distance between the police and the public and hence the willingness of citizens to assist the police, with negative knockon effects for crime rates. Leading on from this, police misconduct can undermine the legitimacy of law enforcement, and even of the state. In many transition countries, where relatively
Article
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Contemporary ethnographers (Cockcroft 2013; O'Neill, Marks & Singh 2007; Sklansky 2005) argue that new developments in policing have changed the police, and that traditional understanding of police culture, as a consequence, is no longer relevant. More specifically, these researchers imply that the South African Police Service (SAPS) has changed many of the traits of police culture with regards to cynicism of and isolation from the public. The research paper attempts to contribute to this narrative by determining whether indicators evincing attitudes of police culture themes of solidarity, isolation and cynicism amongst South African Police Service (SAPS) officials are gender neutral as well as showing a change over a ten (10) year period (January 2005 - June 2014). By making use of the 30-item police culture themes questionnaire, designed by Steyn (2005), the study established that South African Police Service (SAPS) cadets who commenced their basic training at the six (6) basic training institutes in South Africa (Pretoria, Chatsworth, Oudtshoorn, Graaff-Reinet, Phillippi and Bisho) in January 2005, entered the organisation with predispositions in furtherance of police culture themes of solidarity, isolation and cynicism. The period of "college/academy training" (January 2005 - June 2006) did not significantly counteract these tendencies, neither did the subsequent "field training" (July 2005 - December 2005). Nine (9) years on, and these attitudes intensified to an overall average of seventy percent (69.85%). The study further found that for the duration of the project (10 years), female trainees and their ensuing conversion to fully-fledged police officials had mostly stronger values exhibiting police culture solidarity, police culture isolation and police culture cynicism, compared to their male counterparts.
Article
Women entered police forces through women-only special corps in many democratic states in the early twentieth century. In Italy this reform occurred after World War II, first under the occupying Allied military government in Trieste and, after 1959, on a national basis. Women served separately from men from 1961 until 1983. This article examines the debate triggered by the campaign of the so-called Merlin Law from 1948–1958, a law which deregulated prostitution, closed state-run brothels, and abolished the vice squad in favour of a women’s squad dedicated particularly to working with prostitutes and juveniles. This complex and shifting debate regarding the constitution of what would become the Polizia femminile (P.F.) is reconstructed through sources documenting the legislative campaigns by Italy’s first generation of women members of parliament, the scramble in the Ministry of the Interior and the upper administration of the police to control and define the terms of women’s entry, and media reactions. Ultimately P.F. officers did secure professional status with uniforms, service weapons, and power to arrest; yet they were enjoined to use these powers to surveille and discipline the sexuality of other women. Women police are thus a historical window into understanding the complicated bargain women made to achieve new professional opportunities while enforcing normative gender roles. Yet the very work of policing often subverted those same roles of gender and sexual respectability, making women police officers a crucial site for conflict over who could enforce, challenge, or subvert the claim to social control in post-war Italian society.
Chapter
For many western societies, Sir Robert Peel’s principles have served as the framework for modern policing, beginning with the establishment of the London Metropolitan Police in 1829. Considered as relevant today as they were at their origin nearly two hundred years ago, Peel’s principles stipulate that the basic mission of the police is to prevent crime and disorder. The ability of the police to fulfill this mission is dependent on the cooperation and consent of the public, and the ability of the police to secure and maintain public trust and confidence. These principles require that the police provide service to all members of society without regard to race or social standing. Despite the many positive changes that have enhanced the professionalism of the police and introduced more modern management practices, attempts to reform the police may have inadvertently caused the police to move away from the spirit of Peel’s principles through bureaucratic structures, rigid performance management regimes and internal control mechanisms that reinforce the divide between the ranks and an “us against the world” mentality.
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The aim of the paper is to present the results of the research in which we examined the professional integration and advancement of women employed in the Police Directorate for the City of Belgrade. The problem of integration and advancement of women in the Serbian police was investigated at the Police Directorate of the City of Belgrade, Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Serbia, in the period from 2016 to 2017, by using a qualitative and quantitative methodology. The results showed that there are objective circumstances that stop women at a certain stage of career promotion, which have origins and a multi-level stronghold, emphasized at the social level influenced by patriarchal relationships. The results suggest that circumstances of a formal and informal nature are aggravating and that they fundamentally confirm theories of gender inequality in the masculine professions, such as the police profession. In police services, in Serbia, women still constitute a minority that is covertly discriminated against and publicly segregated on the sidelines of the profession.
Article
Demands for police reforms to address racial injustice and excessive force have increased since the release of a video showing George Floyd dying as a result of police brutality. A promising recommendation to reduce conflict and violent encounters between the police and the public that has the support of academics, expert panels on policing, and community leaders is police deescalation training. Currently, some law enforcement agencies require deescalation training for their offices and some do not. The training that is provided in deescalation varies in content, by style of instruction, and dosage. The lack of standardization is due, in part, to a lack published research on police deescalation. For this article, agency practices supportive of deescalation are reviewed. Communication techniques that officers use to defuse hostility, avoid physical aggression, and calm people in crisis to increase the likelihood of voluntary compliance are reviewed. Methods involving (a) agency surveys, (b) patrol officer surveys, (c) use of force and incident reports, (d) citizen complaints, (e) interviews, (f) focus groups, and (g) police ride alongs are examined for how they may be applied to the study of deescalation and use of force.
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the temporal relationship between gender diversity and the adoption of community policing. The results from three separate structural equation models suggest that gender diversity is the stronger temporal predictor. The findings highlight the potential importance of gender diversity in organizational change. In theory, increasing the number of female officers may increase organizational agility through the creation of an alternative cultural ethos. More research is needed to understand how gender diversity affects police agencies, as well as how calls to reform the institution of policing affect women in law enforcement.
Chapter
The chapter reviews the history of women in policing, including discriminatory practices that have resulted in low numbers of women being recruited and retained by law enforcement agencies.
Article
Census data indicate that women are grossly underrepresented in federal law enforcement. As all agencies must compete to attract quality candidates to reflect the diversity of the communities they serve, recruiting and hiring more women should be a priority for all agency leaders. This descriptive and exploratory analysis seeks to understand the recruitment process in federal law enforcement using both qualitative and quantitative data generated from surveys collected from 201 new federal law enforcement officers working in 32 federal law enforcement agencies. The study finds that although recruitment usually precedes hiring, federal law enforcement agencies do not appear to actively recruit their officers. The study further highlights proactive efforts to recruit more women into federal law enforcement.
Article
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In regard to the United Nations’ (UN) framework for promoting gender equality in policing, including women in national police forces remains a global challenge. Even countries possessing a stable history of women’s involvement reveal that women are significantly under-represented in policing when compared to other professions—even though prior research has strongly suggested that women are important actors in establishing post-conflict democratic order. This article outlines the political, social and institutional challenges that are faced to achieve significant gender representation in national police forces. It also recommends countering these challenges by using a ‘women-oriented’ approach. Such an approach does not merely fulfil the aspirational UN goals of achieving greater gender balance, it also yields many practical advantages for improving policing, including 1) leveraging the unique skills that women offer in policing, 2) making better use of force decisions, 3) combatting police corruption and 4) increasing the gender responsiveness of police. Finally, several operational strategies for promoting more women into policing are suggested.
Article
Rape victims can benefit from trauma-informed approaches when reporting rape to police. Police interviewing skill can prevent survivor re-victimization while eliciting useful crime statements. However, rape myth acceptance and police culture may pose obstacles to a trauma-informed approach. Client empowerment, demystification, trigger reduction, and expressed concern for victim safety can be implemented by police agencies. Interdisciplinary collaboration, combating sexual harassment, gender balancing, emotional debriefing of officers, accountability to victims, new reporting methods, and advanced training protocols are elements of a trauma-informed approach.
Article
Now more than ever, criminal justice agencies are looking to fill their ranks with a diverse workforce that reflects the populations they serve. Criminal justice is a field where diversity matters, is encouraged, and is sought after in recruitment efforts. Also, research shows that females are highly effective in this discipline due to their unique communication skills. Therefore, it is important for females and minorities to feel they are welcomed and belong in those agencies. This article explores how perceptions affect the employability of women and people of color. Exploring their level of confidence or anxiety about their future ability to adapt to their work environment could offer insights on how to better support criminal justice students and on how to help agencies to better integrate and maintain diversity in their organizations. This study examines criminal justice students’ sensitivity to status-based rejection. Specifically, college students in the field of criminal justice were surveyed regarding their anxieties and beliefs about how others’ perceptions of their status (gender, race, and/or ethnicity) might affect their professional careers. Results suggest that while females of all races and African American students of any gender are significantly more likely to be concerned about the potential for status-based rejection when employed, or trying to become employed, in the field of criminal justice, female Hispanic students are concerned about the combined effects of their race and gender on their future careers. Policy implications are discussed.
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Gender-responsive talent management assumes attracting, developing and retaining a required talented workforce in a way that promotes gender equality. Ensuring the balanced representation of female and male personnel is essential for police services to be able to prevent, detect and investigate crimes against women and men effectively. However, in a number of countries police organisations continue to be predominantly male with poor representation of women in high-ranking positions, and owing to the underutilization of their skills and discriminatory attitudes and policies, sexual harassment and difficulties combining police work with family responsibilities. Therefore, in this paper we seek to explore and propose a strategic HRM instrument for promoting a gender-responsive talent management in policing through measuring.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the gendered effects of marriage and parenthood on income inequality among police officers. Design/methodology/approach This study uses survey data collected by the Current Population Survey (CPS) from 1976 to 2018. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is employed to analyze the effect of gender, marriage and parenthood on the yearly income of police officers, controlling for other demographic variables. Findings The analyses reveal that there is a large income difference among men and women police officers and the compensation processes appear strongly gendered based on family composition. Police women experience a large motherhood income penalty, while police men with traditional family structures have significant income advantages. Research limitations/implications While the CPS dataset allows us to track national level trends of within-occupational income inequality, these data are unable to provide detailed information on the specifics of each police job, such as rank of police officers or work experience. Despite these limitations, this study uncovers important patterns in how family structure shapes police income. Originality/value The present study fills the knowledge gap about marriage and motherhood penalty among police. This study represents one of the first attempts to explore the gendered compensation processes that are shaped by marriage and parenthood status among police officers at a national level.
Article
There is a growing area of research today focusing on how the demographics of law enforcement officers and criminals are depicted. This research has concentrated on portrayals by the media, popular culture, criminal justice textbooks, training manuals, and other literature surrounding criminal justice. There is little known, however, about the way the race and gender of police and criminals are represented on social media. This study attempts to fill this void by examining police Facebook pages in the 171 largest cities in the United States. Specifically, 20,152 images of police and criminals on these police Facebook pages are examined to determine whether there are disparities in representation based on race, gender, and other variables. We found that female and minority officers are appropriately represented in the images of police on Facebook pages in relation to their actual representation in the field. In contrast, images of criminals tend to be disproportionately composed of Black males. Implications for the recruitment of minority officers and other relevant issues are discussed.
Technical Report
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From 1990 to 2000, 62 local police departments served cities with a population of 250,000 or more. During this time, the number of residents served by these agencies increased by 10%, from 45 million to 49.4 million; their number of full-time employees by 20%, from 166,823 to 199,627; and their number of full-time sworn personnel by 17%, from 130,242 to 152,858. In contrast to the increases noted above, the volume of serious crime reported in these cities was substantially lower in 2000 than in 1990. According to the FBI Uniform Crime Reports program, the number of violent Crime Index offenses declined by 34%, and the number of property Crime Index offenses by 31%. In addition to employment and crime trends, this report presents other data comparisons based on the 1990 and 2000 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) surveys. Topics include staffing levels, race and ethnicity of officers, officer education and training requirements, operating budgets, officer salaries and special pay, types of special units operated, drug enforcement activities, sidearm and armor policies, types of vehicles operated, and computerization. • The number of residents served increased by 10%, accompanied by a 7% increase, from 289 to 310, in the number of full-time sworn personnel per 100,000 residents. The percentage of full-time sworn personnel who were members of a racial or ethnic minority increased from 30% to 38%. Hispanic representation among officers increased from 9% to 14%, blacks from 18% to 20%, and women from 12% to 16%. The percent of departments requiring new officers to have at least some college rose from 19% to 37%, and the percent requiring a 2-year or 4-year degree grew from 6% to 14%. Annual operating costs per resident rose 10%, from $242 to $266, but annual per officer costs increased by just 2%, from $83,814 to $85,786. The percent of departments using bicycles rose from 39% to 98%. The average number of bicycles in use went from 8 to 95. The percent of departments using in-field computers increased from 73% to 92%, the percent using automated fingerprint ID systems from 60% to 97%, and the percent with enhanced 9-1-1 from 76% to 97%. The percent of departments with full-time domestic violence units rose from 50% to 81%; with full-time victim assistance units, from 32% to 47%. From 1990 to 2000, in cities with 250,000 or more residents, the number of UCR violent crimes decreased 34%, the number of UCR property crimes decreased 31%, and the number of full-time local police officers increased 17%
Article
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Written in the early 1980s, this publication helped me get fired from a criminal justice department at Kent State. Now, with police shooting scandals, it seems more relevant than it did then. I saw it as satire to reverse the question that was asked then, if women were suited to go on patrol, a question that has long been answered.
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A questionnaire was administered by telephone to a sample of respondents from a medium-sized Midwestern community. The purpose was to assess citizen attitudes regarding the competence of female police officers in specific areas of police work and to assess citizen preferences for having either male or female officers handle specific police duties. Results indicated that the majority of the persons in the community in this study are willing to accept women in more expanded police roles.
Article
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This work explores the depth and dimensions of gender-based discrimination as perceived by female police officers. Using snowball sampling, 27 currently employed female law-enforcement officers in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest were interviewed. Qualitative data analysis techniques were used to analyze the findings and to extract the themes that emerged from the women's perceptions of discrimination coming from their male peers, from male supervisors or administrators, and from citizens of both sexes. Most of thepolicewomen interviewed reported experiencing discrimination from one or all of these sources. However, almost without exception, they saw their situation today as improved over that of the past policewomen. No consistent differences in perceptions emerged related toage, race-ethnicity, rank, employer, or length of service.
Article
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A review of the first major sociological analysis of the phenomenon of policewomen on patrol, and one of the few (as of 1984) available case studies of the occupational lives of women who earn a wage in nontraditional blue-collar jobs. Like the women who are here portrayed “breaking and entering” into the police world, Susan Ehrlich Martin’s book, “Breaking and Entering: Policewomen on Patrol” is a pioneering effort, contributing to our understanding of the changing organization of police work. It is also a detailed depiction of the cultural and organizational contexts that pressure female officers, in the words of one of the respondents in the study, “to think like men, work like dogs, and act like ladies.” The contradictions between occupational and gender roles are especially sharp in policing. As tokens in an organization, they cope with the dilemmas of their status along a continuum of options between two polar patterns: defeminization or deprofessionalization. But the presence of women alone cannot alter the conditions that give rise to police arrangements in the first place. Having broken and entered, having added to the reform of the accouterments of police work, the core of the police role will remain, and the state will remain ever in need of its street-corner corps of men, and now of women, to whom a monopoly over the use of force is entrusted to ensure the coercive regulation of urban life.
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Mildred Daley Pagelow draws from the largest existing sample of women victims and records their experiences and perceptions of those experiences. She integrates this material into a larger theoretical framework, challenging current myths about woman-battering.
Article
The influence of the "occupational culture" of police work on police behavior has been well established. However, past studies have dealt with male officers only, inasmuch as the entry of women into this profession in large numbers is a relatively recent occurrence. Given the difference between the socialization of males and females, there has been speculation that women police officers may not become a part of police occupational culture to the same degree as their male counterparts. This article suggests that this may indeed be the case.
Article
Preface Abbreviations Introduction Forerunners: The Matrons (1820-1899) The Early Policewomen (1900-1928) The International Association of Policewomen (1915-1932) Women's Bureaus (1918-1928) Depression Losses (1929-1941) World War II and the 1940s Paving the Way for Patrol (1950-1967) Women Become Crimefighters (1968-1990s) Notes Selected Bibliography Index
Article
Despite a growing body of research addressing the ability of women and racial minorities to successfully perform the policing function, there have been virtually no studies dealing with the work experiences of non-white female officers. In this study we present evidence showing that under certain conditions the experiences of minority women within the Los Angeles Police Department resembles that of white women and that at other times it is similar to that of non-white men, but that in general the non-white women encounter a combination of both race and sex discrimination.
Article
This paper examines the effects of race and gender on patterns of interpersonal interaction in a police patrol bureau, and the organizational structural devices and cultural underpinnings that work together to obstruct the integration of women and blacks into the bureau. Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data gathered during field research in one midwestern police department are used to develop the subject. Gender and racial integration failed despite various organizational structural devices to “level the playing field” and carry out integration. No one single structural, political, or individual characteristic or condition appeared to be a decisive cause of the lack of integration. Instead, races and genders were divided by features of organizational life such as tensions, conflicts, and intraorganizational feuding about affirmative action, dual promotion lists, the decision-making process related to job assignments, police leagues in the department, and the presence of women in patrol.
Article
olice Foundation research on women in policing in the early 1970s, along with changes in federal civil rights legislation and emerging case law, made a pivotal contribution to policing. The research found that women could effectively perform patrol duties from which they had been excluded because of their gender; changes in the law were designed to eliminate such discrimination. How much actual progress has been made since then? According to our latest research, which follows a similar study in 1978, a variety of strategies, not the least of which is affirmative action, in combination with the evolving body of law, has fostered substantial growth in the ranks of women in policing. The police and the public have gained by this opening of opportunity. It has given us a broader range of qualified applicants for police jobs and thus enhanced our ability to protect and provide services to the community. Moreover, our police forces have come to reflect more broadly both the composition and the values of our society. And yet, with all this, there are compelling reasons not to become complacent. Our research shows that while the percentage of women in policing has risen considerably, the overall picture is less than sanguine. Despite the barriers we have overcome, women still comprise under ten percent of all police officers. Their representation in the supervisory and managerial ranks is even lower. There is considerable evidence that affirmative action programs, both voluntary and court-ordered, have had a positive impact on recruiting women into the field. In order to extend the gains we have made thus far, the profession must continue to make special efforts to recruit women. We must also be certain that our policies and procedures, e.g., those on parental leave, do not encourage women to leave the field at a greater rate than men—which seems to be the case at present. The research findings presented in this report are part of a larger study being conducted by the Police Foundation with funding support of The Ford Foundation. We are confident that the results will add not only to our knowledge about the numbers of women in policing, but to our understanding of what those numbers mean and to our strategies for correcting the imbalances that still exist. Abstract In the years following the passage of the 1972
Article
The lack of roles for African-American female police officers has not stopped black women from gaining momentum in law enforcement. Women still comprise less than 10 percent of all police officers, but growing numbers of black women are finding meaningful work in law enforcement. (SLD)
Article
Prior research suggests that males and individuals with lower levels of education are less supportive of female police officers. This research found support for the education hypothesis. In regard to the various calls respondents were asked to consider, those who had attended college were more likely to support the equal effectiveness of males and females. Respondents with a high school degree or less were more likely to contend that males were more effective. This study suggests that the public may be more readily accepting of females as officers when questioned in a nonspecific context. However, when faced with specific situations officers respond to, some revert to stereotypical expectations of male and female characteristics. The challenge for police agencies is to devise strategies for changing the perceptions of those who have difficulty accepting females as fully functioning patrol officers. One strategy for changing inappropriate attitudes is the placement of more females in community policing situations where there is increased contact with the public. In this type of an environment, female officers can dispel the stereotypes associated with the traditional female gender role and demonstrate to the public that officer effectiveness is not determined by gender.
Article
Measured leadership traits of both sexes at all ranks in 3 municipal police departments. The Dynamic Personality Inventory was administered to 26 women and 227 men at the rank of sergeant or above. Of 11 subscales directly associated with leadership, maturity, and self confidence, 6 showed sex differences, all but one in favor of women. It is concluded that women police executives showed more leadership potential than their male counterparts. Interdepartmental and intercity analyses of the data were not conducted due to sample size restrictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Male and female employees of a county police department completed the Police Stress Survey and were questioned regarding their experience with stress-related diseases and other stress consequences to investigate stress of women in police work. Ss included 352 male and 31 female sworn officers, 17 male and 20 female police technicians, and 6 male and 32 female civilian employees. Results indicate that employee status, sex, minority status, response bias, and age were all competing explanations for stress symptoms in all Ss. Ratings of job stress were lower for civilian females than sworn female employees; however, reports of stress consequences were high for civilian females. It is suggested that other work factors not tapped by the present stress measures may have had consequences for Ss. A hypothesis is offered regarding the impact of nontraditional employment in women: It is hypothesized that improvements in status and income associated with entry into male-dominated police employment could ameliorate stress consequences for policewomen in comparison to other women. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted an evaluation of policewomen on patrol in a suburban St. Louis county, using field observations, citizen interviews, attitude surveys, performance ratings, objective records, and personal interviews. It is concluded that women performed as well as men, or better, on all phases of sector patrol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studied the proportion of female/female, male/female, and male/male patrol teams to determine whether a difference occurred with respect to violent confrontations with citizens. Ss were the population of all patrol teams in the New York City Police Department. Data were compiled from 3,701 incidents reported on the Firearms Discharge/Assault on Officer Report forms for the year 1983. Three hypotheses were tested and analyzed by Chi Square and Regression procedures. The major finding shows that when males and females work together in a team, there is no difference in the number of male or female officers injured during violent confrontations. The data indicate that a female officer will react to a violent confrontation in the same manner as will a male officer. A concentrated effort should be made by administrators to continue hiring female officers without further prejudice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
1,887 male and 520 female 19–37 yr olds applying for the job of correction officer completed the MMPI, the Inwald Personality Inventory, and a personal history questionnaire as part of the employment application process to examine sex differences in Ss' personality and performance. 748 male and 157 female Ss from the initial population, who were subsequently hired and stayed on the job for 1 yr, were also followed up to examine these Ss' personality and performance on the job. Results indicate that males endorsed test items measuring acting-out behavior and undue suspiciousness of others with greater frequency than females. Females tended to admit more often to items measuring anxiety and internal conflicts than males. It was found that male Ss who were hired and later terminated were identifiable by their endorsement of items measuring acting-out behaviors and suspiciousness, combined with rigid, stereotyped attitudes. For females, scales measuring lack of timidity, or assertiveness and extraversion, helped to identify those who were terminated. Findings are discussed in terms of sex differences with respect to performance and effectiveness on the job and areas of possible intervention to increase productivity of male and female officers. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studied posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 53 police officers attending a sensitive crime seminar who work with victims and the impact of their own possible victimization on their empathy toward victims. Ss were asked to complete a questionnaire documenting age, sex, and number of years on the police force, and then were given a checklist of possible stresses and a checklist of the symptoms of PTSD. In addition, they were asked if their personal experience enhanced their empathy. 26% of the respondents met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria for PTSD. One of the most frequently reported symptoms was recurrent and intrusive recollections of the event with no way of avoidance of activities that arouse recollections. The data show that female officers more openly attempt to deal with the psychological stress; differences in response to stress may be related to the degree of identification with the victim. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the history of women in policing, contemporary developments, and relevant research. It is concluded that many of the publicized changes regarding policewomen and women in policing were basically cosmetic in nature. Women have achieved the official titles and ranks traditionally held by men, but their duties have remained on the lower end of the task or position classification scale. Research has suggested an interlinked association between actual duty assignment and the attitudes held by the public. These attitudes are derived from the accepted or actual roles that women fulfill in organized society. Paradoxically, the assigned roles are a function of these same attitudes. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the use of police services by 300 battered women residing in a shelter. Victim–abuser characteristics, variables that correlate with the victim's contacting the police, and general patterns of police service use were explored. Suggestions for prevention and/or early intervention by police, social workers, and other professionals are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
257 women police officers were asked to rank the following according to their importance in deciding to remain employed as police officers: (1) salary and/or benefits, (2) challenge and excitement, (3) career advancement, (4) enjoyment of working with people, (5) relationships with fellow officers, (6) job security, (7) job satisfaction, and (8) need for employment. Results indicate that salary/benefits of the job and challenge/excitement were viewed as the most important factors affecting Ss' decisions to remain in police work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although women constitute more than 50% of the United States’ population, their percentage among police officers is approximately 9%. Despite being relatively new to policing as fully accepted officers, their growth in numbers should be higher. Nevertheless, such growth may be stagnant. The reasons for this phenomenon are still under examination, and any research that can shed light on this quandary is useful. This article examines job satisfaction among police officers and whether there is a difference by gender. The belief is that if job satisfaction among women police officers is low, this could reflect why more women are not entering law enforcement. However, the data analyzed from a purposive sample of 2,309 male and 309 female officers suggest that there is little difference in job satisfaction solely by gender.
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--American University, 1977. American University, Dept. of Sociology. Dissertation advisor: Muriel Cantor. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 292-306). Diss. Abstracts: 38:3742A, Dec. 1977. University Microfilms, Inc. order no. 77-27442.
Article
This study compared the Police Officer's Physical Abilities Test (POPAT) with selected field and laboratory tests of physical fitness. Ninety-eight volunteer police officers (73 men, 25 women) completed all aspects of the testing. Fifty-five (55)% of the total group passed the POPAT by bettering the 4 min 15 sec "cut" point. Only 16% of the women and 68% of the men passed the overall test. Laboratory tests revealed a rather unfit sample of subjects (mean VO2 max = 42.6 ml.kg.min-1; % body fat = 22.9). Stepwise multiple regression indicated that 55% of the variance on the run component of the test was accounted for by maximal aerobic power and anaerobic capacity. The fight component of POPAT did not correlate highly with standard field tests of strength. Pass/fail aspects of the test were not clearly delineated by selected lab and field tests. It was concluded that POPAT, being a valid, task-specific, job related test, consists of motor abilities and technique as much as generalized fitness parameters.
Women represent approximately 11-19% police officers in Australia and 13% in the United KingdomEducational and professional development experiences of female and male police employees" (Australasian Centre for
Internationally, the numbers are about the same as in the U.S. Women represent approximately 11-19% police officers in Australia and 13% in the United Kingdom. See: Nadia Boni, Kim Adams and Michelle Circelli, "Educational and professional development experiences of female and male police employees" (Australasian Centre for Policing Research, 2001). Available at www.acpr.gov.au. 5 National Center for Women & Policing, 2000 (see note 2).
Results of a Survey Conducted by the Metropolitan Police Department of Victims who Reported Violence Against Women
  • Caroline G Cassidy
  • Carmen R Nicholl
  • Ross
Cassidy, Caroline G. Nicholl and Carmen R. Ross. "Results of a Survey Conducted by the Metropolitan Police Department of Victims who Reported Violence Against Women" (Executive Summary published by the DC Metropolitan Police Department, 2001).
10 For a review of international research, see Joseph BalkinWhy Policemen Don't Like Policewomen
10 For a review of international research, see Joseph Balkin, "Why Policemen Don't Like Policewomen," Journal of Police Science and Administration, 16, no. 1 (1988): 29-38.
Patrol Activities of Male and Female Officers as a Function of Work Experience
  • R John
  • John C Snortum
  • Beyers
John R. Snortum and John C. Beyers, "Patrol Activities of Male and Female Officers as a Function of Work Experience," Police Studies 6 (1983): 63-42.
Physical Abilities Test: Follow-Up Validation Study" (Sacramento, California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training
  • John Weiner
John Weiner, "Physical Abilities Test: Follow-Up Validation Study" (Sacramento, California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, 1994).
Women in Senior Police Management
  • Kim Adams
Kim Adams, "Women in Senior Police Management" (Australasian Centre for Policing Research, 2001). Available at www.acpr.gov.au.