Comparison of Peripheral and Central Effects of Single and Repeated Oral Dose Administrations of Bilastine, a New H-1 Antihistamine A Dose-Range Study in Healthy Volunteers With Hydroxyzine and Placebo as Control Treatments

Centre d'Investigació de Medicaments, Institut de Recerca, Servei de Farmacologia Clínica, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.
Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.24). 12/2008; 28(6):675-85. DOI: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e31818b2091
Source: PubMed


Peripheral anti-H1 and central nervous system (CNS) activities after single (day 1) and repeated (day 7) administrations of increasing doses of bilastine (BIL) were assessed in 20 healthy volunteers throughout a crossover, randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled study. Repeated doses of BIL 20, 40, or 80 mg and hydroxyzine 25 mg (HYD) as positive standard were administered on 7 consecutive days. Before and at several time points after drug intake, skin reactivity to the intradermal injection of histamine, objective tests of psychomotor performance, and subjective mood scales were evaluated. All active treatments led to a significant and similar reduction in the wheal reaction in relation to PLA after both the single (P < 0.001) and repeated administrations (P < 0.001). No delay was observed in the onset of its peripheral activity after the first dose of BIL as compared with HYD. No tolerance or sensitization was seen when comparing acute and repetitive assessments. Central nervous system effects showed that HYD induced the greatest psychomotor impairment (P < 0.05). Repeated HYD intake showed a lower number of significant alterations in comparison to acute administration. Bilastine 80 mg also showed some impairment (P < 0.05). Subjectively, the only active treatment that could not be differentiated from PLA was BIL 20 mg. Hydroxyzine 25 mg showed the greatest differentiation (P < 0.01). A clear dissociation between peripheral anti-H1 and CNS activity was found after BIL treatment. Significant and sustained peripheral H1-blocking effects were observed after both single and repeated administrations of the therapeutic dose of 20 mg BIL. The 40-mg dose of BIL produced subjective report of sedation, whereas unwanted objective CNS side effects were observed only with the 80-mg dose.

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    • "No sedative or psychomotor effects were detected at doses up to 40 mg of bilastine. No significant anticholinergic effect was found at any bilastine dose tested [13, 14]. Clinical studies, including a 12-month long-term safety study with more than 500 (adult and adolescent) patients, have shown bilastine to be well-tolerated with no related serious adverse events (AEs) and no differences with respect to placebo up to doses twice the therapeutic dose [15–19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bilastine is a novel second-generation H1 antihistamine, which has not shown sedative or cardiotoxic effects in clinical trials and in post-marketing experience so far, developed for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It has recently been granted marketing authorization for these therapeutic indications in adults and adolescents at a once-daily oral dose of 20 mg in several European countries. This study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics of bilastine at a single oral dose of 20 mg in renally impaired subjects. The need for a dose adjustment in patients with renal insufficiency was assessed by comparing the exposure to bilastine in these subjects with the estimated exposure of a dose corresponding to the safety margin. The study was an open-label, single-dose, parallel-group study of the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of bilastine. The study was conducted as an in-patient setting at a clinical pharmacology facility. A total of 24 male or female subjects aged 18-80 years were to be enrolled in four groups of six subjects each. The groups were as follows: (1) healthy [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >80 mL/min/1.73 m(2)]; (2) mild renal insufficiency (GFR 50-80 mL/min/1.73 m(2)); (3) moderate renal insufficiency (GFR 30-50 mL/min/1.73 m(2)); and (4) severe renal insufficiency (GFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). A single 20 mg bilastine tablet was administered in a fasted state. Blood and urine samples were collected from pre-dose up to 72 h post-dose for bilastine pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacokinetic results were summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. There was a clear trend of increasing area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) through the groups 1-4. The mean AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC ∞ ) ranged from 737.4 to 1708.5 ng·h/mL in healthy subjects and severely impaired subjects, respectively. No significant differences among groups in median time to reach Cmax (tmax) or in the mean terminal disposition rate constants for bilastine were found. Renal and plasma clearance paralleled GFR. In all groups of renally impaired subjects the corresponding 90 % confidence interval of both AUC ∞ and AUC from time zero to time of last measurable plasma concentration (AUClast) were not within the 0.8-1.25 interval, indicating that bioequivalence between groups could not be demonstrated. The majority of bilastine was excreted within the first 12 h, and elimination was essentially complete by 72 h. An oral dose of bilastine (20 mg) was well-tolerated in renal insufficiency, despite the increase in exposure. The oral plasma clearance to renal clearance ratio [(CLP/F)/CLR] was approximately equal in the different groups, suggesting that renal excretion was the main elimination route for bilastine, and no alternative elimination routes were used even in severe renal insufficiency. Although exposure to bilastine was higher in renally impaired subjects, it remained well within the safety margins, thus allowing the conclusion that a 20-mg daily dose can be safely administered to subjects with different degrees of renal insufficiency without the need for dose adjustments.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Clinical Drug Investigation
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    • "Non-sedating antihistamines do not generally have the effect, although this has been reported by few patients [23, 24]. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study assessed the influence of bilastine 20, 40, and 80 mg and the sedating anti-histamine hydroxyzine hydrochloride 25 mg on psychomotor functions, when the drugs were taken by healthy subjects with standardized alcohol consumption [25]. Psychomotor functions were measured with objective tests and subjective assessment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bilastine is a new, well-tolerated, nonsedating H1 receptor antihistamine. In the fasting state bilastine is quickly absorbed, but the absorption is slowed when it is taken with food or fruit juice. Therefore, it is recommended that bilastine is taken at least one hour before and no sooner than two hours after a meal. Clinical studies sponsored by the manufacturer have shown that bilastine 20 mg once daily is as efficacious as other nonsedating antihistamines in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and chronic urticaria in individuals from 12 and 18 years of age, respectively. Bilastine is efficacious in all nasal symptoms including obstruction and in eye symptoms. The observations indicate that non-sedating antihistamines, as opposed to what has been thought previously, may be helpful in patients with allergic rhinitis in whom nasal obstruction is a major concern. Current international guidelines need to be revised in the light of the recent evidence. Research into aspects of pharmacokinetics and efficacy and adverse effect profiles of bilastine in children under 12 years of age is needed as are dose-response assessments and studies planned rigorously with the aim of assessing quality of life effects.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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    • "With the 20 and 40 mg doses of bilastine, no changes were observed in the parameters evaluated, although changes were observed with the highest dose (80 mg) when evaluating objective parameters. Subjectively, only the 20 mg dose was distinguishable from the placebo.3 "
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    ABSTRACT: Bilastine is a second generation antihistamine indicated for the treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and chronic urticaria with a daily dose of 20 mg, in adults and children over 12 years of age. The efficacy of bilastine has been shown to be similar to that of the comparator drugs for the control of the nasal and nonnasal symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, while also showing a subjective improvement in the quality of life and in overall clinical impression. For chronic urticaria the symptoms (itching and the development of papules) lessens from the second day of treatment onwards, in a similar way to other antihistamines used as comparators. Bilastine should not be administered at meal times to avoid interference with the absorption process. It is not distributed to the central nervous system, is scarcely metabolized, and elimination is through the kidneys and feces, with a 14-hour elimination half-life. It has no effect on cytochrome P450. During clinical development, bilastine was shown to be a drug that is adequately tolerated, with a similar effect to placebo with regard to drowsiness and changes in heart rate. In relation to its use, headaches were the most frequent adverse effect to be reported. No cardiotoxic effects have been observed, and the therapeutic dose does not alter the state of alertness.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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