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A Novel Approach: Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers and Promote Literacy

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Abstract

Adding graphic novels to a school's library collection is an effective way to foster students' love reading. Graphic novels can also help improve language and literacy development, including second language learners, the illustrations provide valuable contextual clues to the meaning of the written narrative.

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... Outside academe, elementary and secondary educators, as well as public and school librarians, credit graphic novels with motivating so-called 'reluctant' readers (e.g. Crawford, 2004;Simmons, 2003;Snowball, 2005) and supporting students who struggle with literacy as it is traditionally conceived (e.g. Bitz, 2004;Frey and Fisher, 2004). ...
... Graphic novels are alternatively said to motivate so-called 'reluctant' readers (e.g. Crawford, 2004;Simmons, 2003;Snowball, 2005), support English language learners (e.g. Chun, 2009), and support students who struggle with literacy as it is traditionally conceived (e.g. ...
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Despite the interest that literacy educators in the United States have expressed in graphic novels as a pedagogical tool, few empirical studies have asked how readers interact with their multimodal design to interpret them. To account for a gap in the literature, this case study asked how six high school students read and talked about four graphic novels in the context of a voluntary after-school reading group. In doing so, it sought to identify semiotic resources the students drew on as readers, and understand how they used them to construct literary meaning. Contrary to arguments that have traditionally characterized works written in the medium of comics as rendering readers passive, the findings indicate that the participants actively drew on an available visual and linguistic design to construct meaning and interpret the graphic novels they read.
... Graphica has been shown to appeal to both genders and to students from diverse backgrounds and cultures (Thompson 2008). Although many individuals have written about how graphic novels engage and motivate reluctant readers (Crawford 2004;Foster 2004;Lyga 2006;Schwarz 2006), both Brenner (2006) and Carter (2009) emphasise that graphic novels are for readers of all ability levels and ages. Christensen (2006) and Lyga assert that graphic novels have the potential to aid readers with visualisation and assist those readers who may have limited language proficiency. ...
... Seyfried (2008, 47), who also worked with middle grades students, noted how the students participating in a 'Graphic Novel Book Group' learned that 'rereading and slow reading support close observation, a necessary skill of visual literacy'. According to some researchers and practitioners, graphic novels develop critical thinking and comprehension skills (Carter 2007;Edwards 2009;Jacobs 2007;Lyga 2006;Schwarz 2006); teach readers about literary techniques, terms and elements (Baird and Jackson 2007;Bucher and Manning 2004;Carter 2007;Esquivel 2006;Foster 2004;Schwarz 2002); foster the development of multiple literacy skills (Bucher and Manning 2004;Crawford 2004;Hassett and Schieble 2007;Jacobs 2007;Lyga 2006;Schwarz 2002Schwarz , 2006Schwartz and Rubinstein-Avila Education 3-13 3 2006); and provide opportunities for media literacy education (Carter 2007;Schwarz 2007). Further, the diverse range of topics and issues explored in graphic novels make them appropriate for teaching topics in various curricular areas (Christensen 2006;Schwarz 2002) and for interdisciplinary use across the curriculum (Esquivel 2006). ...
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This article focuses on the graphic novel produced by a 12-year-old student who participated in a multifaceted study that provided her with opportunities to engage with multimodal texts. An ecological perspective on teaching and learning framed the classroom-based research that explored how developing students' knowledge of literary and illustrative elements affects their understanding, interpretation and analysis of picturebooks and graphic novels, and the subsequent creation of their own print multimodal texts. During a 10-week period, 25 Grade 7 students participated in interdependent reading, writing and oral activities that offered them opportunities to learn about metafictive devices, some art elements and a few compositional principles of graphic novels. For the culminating activity of the study, the students created their own multimodal print texts. The in-depth analysis of one student's graphic novel reveals how her participation and engagement in a particular classroom community of practice affected her learning of the content and concepts under study.
... For many struggling readers, "the limited amount of text [allows] students to read and respond to complex messages with text that better matched their reading levels" (Frey and Fisher, 2004, p.20). Also, the pictures provide contextual clues to help young readers and providing students with a diversity of reading materials helps to engage them into lifelong reading (Crawford, 2004). The graphic novel format scaffolds writing instruction into writing techniques such as dialogue and mood while providing a medium for students to be "more knowledgeable consumers of ideas and information" (Frey and Fisher, 2004, p.24) through using the graphic novel format to present content. ...
... The change in the comic/graphic novel industry from sales of comics to school libraries and libraries to increase from $1million in 2001 to $30 million in 2007 (Hudson, 2008) is a result of the mainstream acceptance of comics to be a representative of the different literacies people have. Various studies (Boatright, 2010;Crawford, 2004;Lavin, 1998;Norton, 2003;Schwartz, 2002;G. L.Yang, 2008) have demonstrated the impact of using comic books in the classroom to engage reluctant readers, struggling readers, ESL readers, and young readers. ...
... Today, graphic novels are credited with motivating so-called "reluctant" 8 readers (e.g. Crawford, 2004;Snowball, 2005); scaffolding second language learners (Cimermanová, 2014;Yildirim, 2013); supporting students who struggle with reading and writing (e.g. Frey & Fisher, 2004); and challenging readers of varying ability levels (e.g. ...
... Some evidence suggests that reluctant readers are attracted to alternative formats with visuals and audiobooks (Lesesne, 2009;Jones, 2007). Snowball (2005) and Crawford (2004) found that graphic novels are very appealing to reluctant readers and may motivate readers who struggle with other texts. In a middle school classroom, Beers (1998) observed that audiobooks engage adolescent readers when they can read along. ...
Article
By examining a sample of books chosen by participants in Brooklyn Public Library's Young Adult Pre-GED program, this article will explore characteristics of reading materials that appeal to out-of-school youth. Authors will share the selection process behind the creation of a special collection targeted to low-literacy young adults (16–24 years old). Using youth participants' independent reading logs, we will compare what we expected students to enjoy reading with what youth chose to read. A discussion will include lessons learned about collection development for out-of-school youth and how libraries can improve access for struggling adolescent readers.
... Based on its humble beginnings as comic books, graphic novels are considered "an emerging new literature of our times" (Campbell, 2007, p. 13). Graphic novels are a firmly entrenched part of popular culture as reflected in allotted shelf space in chain bookstores (Weiner, 2003), increased sales (Lamanno, 2007;Pawuk, 2007), inclusion in school and public libraries leading to a correlated increase in circulation statistics (Crawford, 2004;McPherson, 2006), major films based on graphic novels or featuring comic book heroes, reviews of graphic novels in major publications, and attention by the news media (Dotinga, 2006;Horgan, 2007;McGrath, 2004;Schjeldahl, 2005). Most of this rise in popularity has occurred near the turn of the 21 st century. ...
Article
Meshing print literacy and visual literacy, graphic novels exemplify a type of multimodal text demanding multimodal literacy skills. The comics format of graphic novels requires the reader to know the conventions that constitute the unique language of the medium. These visual conventions are comparable to genre conventions of traditional print texts. This article discusses these conventions and relates literary theory to graphic novels. It also presents a reader response study conducted with American high school students using Gene Yang’s American Born Chinese.
... Àquele tipo de literatura que as escolas fingem que não existe e que algumas crianças, por motivos económicos ou razões ideológicas, não têm acesso. Suspeito que a leitura light foi a forma como a maioria de nós adquiriu hábitos de leitura» [7]. Não concordando com a bibliotecária quando apresenta a banda desenhada no seu todo como literatura ligeira, não deixamos de concordar com o facto de a banda desenhada efectivamente ligeira poder desempenhar também um papel importante na promoção da leitura. ...
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RESUMO Tradicionalmente o público juvenil (13-18 anos), sobretudo do sexo masculino, é aquele que mais dificilmente participa nas actividades de leitura promovidas pelas bibliotecas públicas. Por outro lado, e segundo um inquérito realizado pela Bedeteca de Lisboa em 2005, a maioria das bibliotecas portuguesas não tem e não adquire o estilo de literatura gráfica mais apreciada pelos adolescentes, designadamente a banda desenhada de origem norte-americana e japonesa. Ao contrário do que muitos pensam é possível encontrar materiais em banda desenhada (dentro destes estilos) de inegável qualidade destinados aos adolescentes, embora a banda desenhada ligeira (de menor qualidade) também possa ter um lugar na biblioteca. A presente comunicação pretende, assim, sensibilizar as bibliotecas para a utilização destes materiais como ferramenta poderosa e de subestimada importância para a promoção de hábitos de leitura entre os adolescentes. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Banda desenhada, Bibliotecas públicas, Promoção da leitura, Adolescentes INTRODUÇÃO Preocupados em conquistar novos públicos e também com a conquista de potenciais clientes que ainda não se atreveram a entrar na biblioteca, muitos profissionais começaram a alargar as suas colecções para áreas que tradicionalmente não eram contempladas. É normal, ao vaguearmos pelas bibliotecas da rede de leitura pública, depararmo-nos com os mais diversos materiais dedicados à jardinagem, bricolage, culinária ou ponto cruz. É normal e é positivo. Contudo, o que não nos parece tão positivo é o facto de ainda não encontrarmos oferta documental apelativa a uma franja etária da população que foge por natureza, ou mesmo por instinto, à leitura tradicional. Os adolescentes. Na verdade, não fogem das bibliotecas. Utilizam-na em larga escala como espaço para aceder à Internet, aos jogos de vídeo, aos filmes e até como espaço para fazer trabalhos escolares, mas não a utilizam (ou utilizam com menor frequência) para a leitura. E sobretudo não a utilizam para a leitura lúdica. A leitura que muitas vezes permite adquirir e consolidar os hábitos que nos deverão acompanhar ao longo da vida no estudo, no trabalho e no lazer. Apesar da sua imensa popularidade, algumas pessoas consideram que a BD não é mais do que um género de histórias. No caso de histórias de aventuras. Contudo, apesar de ser uma opinião corrente, é uma opinião infundada uma vez que a banda desenhada ficcional comporta uma série de géneros e até sub géneros, incluindo histórias realistas, contemporâneas, humorísticas, História, contos e lendas de super heróis e mangá. Por outro lado, embora a ficção seja muito popular, também existe oferta de banda desenhada não ficcional desde biografias, autobiografias e reportagens.
... Given the increasing popularity of graphic novels, a growing number of literacy educators have identified graphic novels as an engaging literacy resource in the classroom for helping reluctant readers (Crawford, 2004). In defense of graphic novels in literacy classrooms, Schwarz (2002) acknowledged that, "In an increasingly visual culture, literacy educators can profit from the use of graphic novels in the classroom, especially for young adults" (p. ...
Article
This article explores how immigrant experiences are represented in the narratives of three graphic novels published in the last decade: Tan's (2007) The Arrival, Kiyama's (1931/1999) The Four Immigrants Manga: A Japanese Experience in San Francisco, 1904–1924, and Yang's (2006) American Born Chinese. Through a theoretical lens informed by work in critical literacy, the author examines how images and words in graphic novels privilege certain perspectives and merit critique in their representations of immigrant experiences. This article takes a look at how graphic novels representing immigrant experiences can assist English language arts teachers interested in studying immigration issues in their classrooms by offering inquiries into how three specific immigrant experiences are constructed through graphic novels. It also invites English language arts teachers to engage in dialogue with their students about immigrant experiences as inroads to understanding the vastly complex issues surrounding immigration.
... The categories she includes for graphic novels are: Superhero, Fantasy/Science Fiction, Adventure, Horror, Issues/True Life Stories, and Humor. Next, Crawford (2004, p. 26) states that graphic novels can help to improve language and literary development, including second language development. Also, the illustrations provide valuable contextual clues to the meaning of the written narrative. ...
Article
Purpose – Provides a comprehensive review of the significance attributed to the usefulness, practicality and appropriateness of graphic novels in the school library media center with specific implications for collection development. Design/methodology/approach – A careful review of recent literature provides the school media specialist with an overview of graphic novels including definitions, challenges, benefits, helpful resources, curricular connections and collection development issues. The sources reflect the recent trends in the increasing popularity of graphic novels and their use and benefit in school media centers. Findings – Presents information on the definitions of graphic novels and the challenges and benefits specific to the school media center. Notes that while challenges exist, the benefits of including graphic novels in the school library media center are many, including engaging reluctant readers. Offers practical information for collection development and provides useful sources that serve many purposes. Practical implications – Offers background information for the school library media specialist about graphic novels. Includes advice and practical strategies for building a graphic novel collection in the school media center. Originality/value – This paper reflects recent trends toward increased interest in graphic novels and offers the school media specialist practical advice on how to best meet that growing interest by including graphic novels in the school media center.
... Graphic novels are said to motivate so-called "reluctant" readers (e.g. Crawford, 2004;Snowball, 2005); support students who struggle with reading and writing (e.g. Frey and Fisher, 2004); scaffold language learners (Cimermanová, 2014;Yildirim, 2013); and challenge readers of varying ability levels (e.g. ...
... Research on literacy and learning through graphic novels as part of the multimodal landscape is scant, at best; literacy research focused on the use of graphic novels in education offers descriptions of graphic novels with recommendations for their use across the curriculum (Schwartz, 2004) and as paired texts for teaching the English canon (Carter, 2007). Graphic novels have been positioned as a format that may engage struggling and/or reluctant readers (Crawford, 2004), as a tool for fostering language and literacy development with English Language Learners (Carey, 2004;Chun, 2009) and as a format that offers a differentiated reading experience for Deaf students (Smetana, Odelson, Burns & Grisham, 2009). Picture books and graphic novels have been explored with regard to text/image relations and as sites that offer multiple cues for reading (Hassett & Schieble, 2007). ...
... A main goal of using comics in the classroom has been the improvement of literacy. By presenting a pictorial expression of verbal content, comics may help readers interpret words and sentences and notice important aspects of a story's setting, tone, and other contextual properties (e.g., Crawford, 2004;Frey & Fisher, 2004;Schwarz, 2007;Williams, 2008). Although literacy education is an important goal, our primary interest in this article involves learning of science. ...
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Increasing people's interest and involvement in science is a growing concern in education. Although many researchers and educators seek innovations for classroom instruction, much could be gained by harnessing the activities that people perform at their leisure. Although new media are constantly emerging, comic book reading remains a popular activity for children and adults. Recently, there has been an explosive increase in the creation of educational comic books, including many about science. This rapid increase in science comics far outstrips our understanding of how comics impact people's beliefs and interests in science. In this theoretical article, we draw on research from cognitive science and education to discuss heretofore unexplored cognitive impacts of science comics. We propose several ways in which learning could be enhanced or impaired through reading science comics and discuss several broader issues related to the use of comic books in education, including individual differences and informal learning.
... The form's visual/verbal nature, the radical fragmentation of the page and the nonstandard use of language were often adduced as evidence of its preliterate quality. This Among the more commonly cited reasons for using graphic novels in academic circles is their popularity with adolescents (Hughes-Hassell & Rodge, 2007), their ability to motivate "reluctant" readers (Crawford, 2004;Snowball, 2005), and their value as a tool for supporting students who struggle with reading and writing (Bitz, 2004;Frey & Fisher, 2004). Others regard them as a bridge to more traditional forms of literature (Weiner, 2004), while still others advocate using graphic novels to teach visual literacy (Frey & Fisher, 2008;Gillenwater, 2009). ...
... While two decades ago graphic novels were virtually unknown to librarians and educators, their popularity exploded during the last decade (Williams & Peterson, 2009). Along with reports that come from librarians (e.g., Crawford, 2004;Schwarz, 2006), research about increased student engagement with graphic novels has also begun to accumulate (Albright & Gavigan, 2014;Gavigan, 2011). ...
Article
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This study examined the effects of an intervention in writing with digital interactive books. To improve the writing skills of seventh- and eighth-grade students with a learning disability in reading, we conducted a quasi-experimental study in which the students read interactive digital books (i-books), took notes, wrote summaries, and acted as reviewers of a set of i-books. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the intervention group of students significantly outperformed the control group on the following measures of writing: the holistic text quality and the summarization text quality, with large effect sizes.
... • scaffold students for whom reading and writing are difficult (Bitz, 2004;Frey & Fisher, 2004;Morrison, Bryan, & Chilcoat, 2002); • foster visual literacy (Frey & Fisher, 2008); • support English language learners (Ranker, 2007); • motivate "reluctant" readers (Crawford, 2004;Dorrell, 1987); • and provide a stepping stone that leads students to transact with more traditional (and presumably more valuable) forms of literature. ...
... Institutions that historically criticized comic books for having a deleterious effect on developing readers, most notably schools and libraries, are just as likely to celebrate the pedagogical value of graphic novels today. Literacy educators, for example, advocate teaching graphic novels to motivate so-called reluctant readers (Crawford, 2004; Snowball, 2005); support struggling readers (Bitz, 2004; Frey & Fisher, 2004); scaffold English language learners (Chun, 2009); and promote the development of skills associated with visual literacy (Frey & Fisher, 2008; Gillenwater, 2009). Others regard graphic novels as a complex form of literature capable of withstanding close scrutiny and challenging readers of varying ability levels (Carter, 2007; Connors, 2010 Connors, , 2013 Versaci, 2001 Versaci, , 2007). ...
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No study of speculative fiction would be complete without acknowledging the comic book, a staple of American popular culture since its inception in the twentieth century. Since Superman first appeared on the cover of Action Comics #1 in 1938, the comic book, as a form of storytelling, has been virtually synonymous with speculative fiction, encompassing an array of genres, including (but not limited to) crime, horror, fantasy and—perhaps most famously—science fiction (SF).
... A significant amount of the research already attested to the literary and pedagogical value of graphic novels. Among others, graphic novels provide motivation for reluctant and struggling readers to read (Brozo, Moorman & Meyer 2013, Snowball 2005, Crawford 2004), improve comprehension and critical thinking skill (Sabbah et al. 2013, Maderazo 2010 and assist in the teaching of vocabulary (Basal et al 2016, Connors 2011. To date, however, little research has examined the manner in which teachers responded to these texts especially in the ESL context. ...
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Students in the ²¹st century are exposed to multimodal texts, which are texts with the combinations of the modes of prints, images, gestures and movements. Graphic novel is one of the examples of a multimodal text and this genre is introduced in the Language Arts module as part of the English language subject in the new Curriculum for Primary Schools in Malaysia. Hence, it is important that teachers should first be aware of how to make the most of multimodal texts before introducing their pupils to the strategies necessary for comprehending the text. However, without proper training on how to approach the genre, the teaching of graphic novels may pose difficulties for teachers in general and especially so for teacher trainees. This paper reports the findings of a survey conducted on teacher trainees to explore the challenges they faced in teaching graphic novels to primary schoolers. Results show that although the graphics succeeded to entice the pupils into reading the text, the teacher trainee felt that the graphics did not help their pupils in understanding the storyline. The pupils' eagerness to go through the graphics has caused them to ignore the words in the speech balloons. Consequently this has led to incomprehensible input and misinterpretation of the content. Results from these preliminary findings can be used to further investigate the strategies good readers use to read and comprehend graphic novels, so that teacher trainee would be better prepared to utilise graphic novels in their English classes. © 2017 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All rights reserved.
... Moreover with whatCary (2004) pointed out, it contributes to the four perspectives of intrinsic motivation which are competence, curiosity, autonomy, and internalized motivation. And asJohnson (2016) inferred, struggling readers would blossom if they have materials that is so interesting that they can't resist reading it or compels them to forget they are actually reading.For this reason,Crawford (2004) suggested that graphic novels is an invaluable tool for motivating reluctant readers. Moreover, as highlighted, visual presentation -graphics, may be incorporated in the teaching of literature to extensively enhance literary text comprehensionPart V. Comparison of Posttest Reading Comprehension Results ...
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It is a challenge for practicing language teachers to search for or to create a contextualized reading intervention material that can motivate students to read as they develop their English reading comprehension skill. Thus, conception, development and application of the contextualized graphic novel, “The Orphans, the Dog and the Enchanted Pot” were proposed. Within the framework of this quasi- experimental research, effectiveness of novel was examined and established. Thirty (30) respondents from grade 7 Anthurium students of Lamao Nation High School in S.Y. 2016-2017 formed the experimental and comparison groups. Sample size was carefully matched and paired in terms of sex, age and General Weighted Average (GWA). Pretest was conducted to measure the respondents’ initial reading comprehension level, then, the novel was distributed to experimental group. They were instructed to read it for four (4) weeks or twenty- eight (28) days on their own free time whether in school during weekdays or at the comfort of their homes. On the other hand, the comparison group was not exposed to contextualized graphic novel but on other materials of their choice. After the experimental period expired, posttest was directed. Outcomes provided statistical evidences that contextualized graphic novel supported development of English reading comprehension: First, it was marked that the experimental group marked with higher posttest result than comparison group after the experimental period. Second, experimental group’s posttest reading comprehension result confirmed that there was a gradual increase on the basis of their pretest result while comparison group’s posttest result decreased in reference to their pretest result. Lastly, it was determined through the comparison of pretest and posttest results, gradual development was manifested through experimental group’s initial comprehension level as frustrated readers to instructional readers after the exposure. The study concluded that the effectiveness of contextualized graphic novel as a reading intervention was partially upheld.
... Для многих исследователей очевидны преимущества использования комиксов в классе, независимо от учебной дисциплины. Наиболее важными считаются: повышение мотивации учащихся (Crawford, 2004), более высокая доступность к пониманию материала (Hosler & Boomer, 2011), развитие воображения учащихся (Rozkosz & Wiorogórska, 2016), активное вовлечение учащихся в учебный процесс (Dalacosta, Kamariotaki-Paparrigopoulou, Palyvos, & Spyrellis, 2009), игровой компонент (Assad, 2017), развитие навыков чтения, письма, говорения, аудирования (Ranker, 2008;Short& Reeves, 2009;Vassilikopoulou, Retalis, Nezi, & Boloudakis, 2011) и другие. ...
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The paper claims comics to be efficient multimodal tools in teaching students of English not only grammar and vocabulary but also some communication skills, social and language norms of conducting a conversation. Being entertaining and having the multimodal potential that results in a strong effect on the recipients’ responsiveness, comics highly motivate students to integrate in education process and make learning fun for teachers and children alike.The authors aim at presenting an algorithm of teaching English and conversation skills by means of comics design teaching passing through the following stages: introducing the communicative situation, learning cultural data (linguistic and extralinguistic) and a conversation pattern (social rules for opening, developing and closing a conversation), imitating the conversation, working with grammar patterns and speech clichés, reproducing the conversation following the pictures, and, finally, acting it out. Comics vividly demonstrate facial expressions and gestures of the characters that are crucial in communicating certain ideas in a multisemiotic way either accompanying speech or performing on their own.The authors present the results of the experimental teaching to nine/ ten-year old children in a secondary school in Russia which prove comics to be functional, well-structured tools for acquiring grammar, lexis and communication skills by young learners of English.
... Graphic novels have helped motivate 'reluctant' readers (e.g. Crawford, 2004;Simmons, 2003;Snowball, 2005), support English language learners (e.g. Chun, 2009), and aid students who struggle with literacy as it is traditionally conceived (e.g. ...
... Graphic novels have helped motivate 'reluctant' readers (e.g. Crawford, 2004;Simmons, 2003;Snowball, 2005), support English language learners (e.g. Chun, 2009), and aid students who struggle with literacy as it is traditionally conceived (e.g. ...
... Carter (2007) reported that graphic novels transform the classroom by allowing students to navigate complex social issues. Graphic novels motivate and engage reluctant readers (Brenna, 2013;Crawford, 2004;Schwarz, 2007). For emerging bilingual students, graphic novels connect to their experiences and background (Danzak, 2011;Norton, 2003) and help them visualize text (Lyga, 2006). ...
Article
This article examines students’ identities in teacher–student interactions during an eight-week comic unit within a fourth-grade literacy classroom. Though researchers have increasingly studied how teachers incorporated graphic novels and comics into the school literacy curriculum, few have documented the social interactions that students’ multimodal composing is embedded in. Using microethnographic discourse analysis, we traced the identity work of two case studies at different reading levels during whole-class discussions and writing conferences and how their teacher supported their positive identity development through discourse moves. In this article, we show that the teacher’s dialogic approach to teaching provided both students with opportunities to position themselves and be positioned as expert and comic author. We encourage educators to use multimodal literacy to create a supportive learning environment that transforms verbocentric school literacy and students’ identities.
... Reading graphic novels has a significant impact on language learners (Crawford, 2004). James (2016) claimed that if teachers considered 2comics as a worthless teaching aid, they could not reach their expected effectiveness. ...
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Saudi EFL learners struggle to read English and encounter obstacles that prevent improvement. Recently, graphic novels were introduced as alternative teaching and learning materials in academic settings. Nevertheless, research in this area remains limited. Therefore, this study examines the effect of reading a graphic novel on reading comprehension and investigates the perceptions of EFL teachers and students regarding the deployment of graphic novels in their classrooms. Sixty-six intermediate school students were divided into experimental and control groups. After the reading sessions, both groups completed reading comprehension tests. Results revealed that reading graphic novels positively affects reading comprehension as the experimental group achieved superior results to the control group. Both EFL teachers and students believe that graphic novels help in improving reading skills. The study concludes by discussing related implications.
... 3 Graphic novels are particularly suitable for struggling readers because much of the decoding of the story occurs in the pictures helping to put the words into context. 4 Conversely, writing graphic novels opens a universe of expression when dealing with reluctant writers and readers. Graphic novels are a meeting place for words and images. ...
... Building on these intuitions, many teachers and educators have experimented with comics in their classroom, mostly to support students with low literacy skills [Aleixo and Norris, 2010;Crawford, 2004;Frey and Fisher, 2008;Schwarz, 2006]. However, comics adoption on a larger scale has been hindered by the 'perennial disorganisation' of educational comics [Rifas, 1991], which makes them extremely difficult to find, and the lack of clear models for how comics may be integrated in classroom practice [Lapp et al., 2011]. ...
Article
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Visual narratives, such as comics and animations, are becoming increasingly popular as a tool for science education and communication. Combining the benefits of visualization with powerful metaphors and character-driven narratives, comics have the potential to make scientific subjects more accessible and engaging for a wider audience. While many authors have experimented with this medium, empirical research on the effects of visual narratives in science communication remains scarce. This review summarizes the available evidence across disciplines, highlighting the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the effects of visual narratives.
... Indeed, as it became clear to me, stereotypes about comics still exist as to their being unsuited for advanced readers desiring to investigate complicated topics (Hoover, 2012;Richardson, 2017), while other readers prefer "traditional" print novels to graphic novels, since they enjoy formulating the plot in their mind while relying on the author's language for the backdrop (see Frey & Fisher, 2013). Yet, having an established literary merit and cultural significance, graphic novels as a genre can play a lifelong role in students' reading practices (Crawford, 2004), providing concepts and patterns that readers might not encounter otherwise and promoting transitions to more print-oriented texts (Gallo & Weiner, 2004;Gravett, 2005;Schwarz, 2002a). Likewise, when teachers bar comics from the classroom, or readers overlook their worth, they send the message that they do not value those "who think, read, and decode differently from the narrowest notion of reading and literacy" (Cater, 2008). ...
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In the writing classroom, presenting a curriculum in which students read and create comic strips in order to explore their identity, via the course design, represents a strategy that has grown in popularity. Yet, for teachers and writing program administrators, what are the benefits and drawbacks in asking students to interact with graphic novels and comic books and to fashion autobiographical, digital, comic-strip narratives as a rhetorical construction of their identity? How does implementing multimodal assignments and digital storytelling practices by generating narrative comic strips affect students’ reading, writing, critical thinking, research, collaborative, and other related processes as writing course outcomes? This article discusses a case study at a rural, Southwestern university of an experimental unit assignment involving 60 students, including many rural students and Native Americans. Students engaged with graphic novels and comic books in an upper-division, Written and Visual Media class. This article includes a description of the first assignment, a comic strip and corresponding reflective essay, as well as the comic’s assessment criteria, with raters measuring students’ writing outcomes. To compose their comics, students utilized the Pixton company’s digital, comic-generating program. Overall, employing digital storytelling practices in creating autobiographical comic strips provided students with a cohesive, relevant approach to the course’s overarching multimodal writing curriculum by assisting them in developing and formatting their comics together; contemplating and composing about diverse spaces, people, and histories related to their backgrounds, majors, and futures; and communicating their work to a greater audience. The study’s results have implications for reading and generating digital comic strips in multimodal writing classes in enacting a critical multimodal literacy.
... Furthermore, the artist created a teenage character for this teenage-aimed comic, and this could be seen as intended to influence the minds of teenage readers, since the readers could use the character designs to reflect upon themselves. Research has shown that compared to conventional books, teenagers are more attracted to graphic novels and comics (Crawford, 2004;Snowball, 2005Snowball, , 2007. Chances are that Wang had this in mind and was using his story to convey perceptions of appropriately gendered behaviour to teenagers. ...
... Furthermore, the artist created a teenage character for this teenage-aimed comic, and this could be seen as intended to influence the minds of teenage readers, since the readers could use the character designs to reflect upon themselves. Research has shown that compared to conventional books, teenagers are more attracted to graphic novels and comics (Crawford, 2004;Snowball, 2005Snowball, , 2007. Chances are that Wang had this in mind and was using his story to convey perceptions of appropriately gendered behaviour to teenagers. ...
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Ethnic diversity has become an important part of Chinese culture. Since the finishing of the ethnic minority classification project, artworks representing minority people have appeared in many different forms. Among the studies of ethnic minority representation, hardly has any discussed minority women in comics. This study will investigate the depiction of female ethnic minority characters in Chinese comics. I have chosen two comics that are representative for two different categories. The first work is Ling-Long, an original story that uses southern ethnic minority culture as context, which falls under the ‘ethnic minority themed original stories’ category. The second one is Gada Meilin, an adaptation of a famous Mongolian folktale, which falls under the ‘adaptation of existing stories’ category. The main female characters will be analysed from two aspects: the visual design and the role they play in the story. The former aspect will investigate their appearance, dress, facial expressions and body languages, while the latter will investigate their occupation, position and action in the story. After the analysis, I will discuss my thoughts from the perspective of an art practitioner and suggest some of my own possible ways of improving the character designs.
... Whereas in the past, teachers and librarians tended to regard comic books as having a deleterious effect on students' reading practices and literary tastes (Hajdu, 2008), today, a growing number of educators are cognizant of the benefits associated with making space in the school curriculum for graphic novels. As a sampling, graphic novels are credited with motivating reluctant readers (Crawford, 2004;Snowball, 2005); supporting students who struggle with reading and writing (Frey & Fisher, 2004); scaffolding second-language learners (Cimermanová, 2014;Yildirim, 2013); and challenging readers of all ability levels (Connors, 2013;Jacobs, 2007). Other educators have argued that teachers can use graphic novels to support students' developing practices associated with visual literacy (Connors, 2012;Frey & Fisher, 2008;Gillenwater, 2009) and critical visual literacy (Schieble, 2014). ...
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This chapter argues that when educators position students to attend closely to the presence of cultural models in Marjane Satrapi's graphic novel "Persepolis," they can support their examining how the graphic novel engages in problematic discourses about Iranians and Muslims. At the same time, however, part of the genius of Satrapi’s text is that it does not simply reinforce a humanist model of essential sameness. Western readers may recognize themselves in Marji, but the text nevertheless invites them to also consider the formative role that culture plays in shaping a person’s belief system.
... However, some hold the view that graphic novels have the potential to enhance reading performance of children with limited language proficiency (Christensen 2006;Lyga 2006). Many have reported the effectiveness of graphic novels in engaging reluctant readers (Crawford 2004;Foster 2004;Lyga 2006;Schwarz 2006). Further research to examine the facilitative effect of multimedia presentation in children with lower L2 language proficiency and motivation to read, as well as the influence of L2 ability and reading motivation on the facilitative effect, is required for a more comprehensive investigation of the effect of multimedia presentation on reading outcomes . ...
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